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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2001 year, number 7

1.
FOREWORD


																				  																		



2.
Estimates of the Devices and Systems of Power Electronics in Russian Federation

Fedor A. Kuznetsov1, Mikhail F. Reznichenko1, Eugenie B. Preobrazhensky2 and Sergey A. Kharitonov2
1Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2Novosibirsk State Technical University,Pr. K. Marxa 20, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russia), E-mail: fk@che.nsk.su

Abstract >>
A structural analysis of energy consumption over the branches of industry and separate types of consumers is presented. It is demonstrated, on the basis of the development of the power-manufacturing capacities of Russia and global trends in the development of power electronics, that the introduction of energy-saving technologies involving the means of power electronics allows achieving substantial saving of electric power and reducing its deficit. Taking account of the structure of consumers over the branches of industry and specific features of the necessary means of power electronics, the limiting volume of the Russian market is estimated from the financial viewpoint, both with respect to the power electronic units and systems, and with respect to semiconductor devices used in them.
																				  																		



3.
Silicon Structures for Power Electronics

Kira L. Enisherlova and Mikhail M. Krymko
GUP NPP "Pulsar", Okruzhnoy pr. 27, Moscow 105187 (Russia)
E-mail: pulsar@dol.ru

Abstract >>
In the present communication we consider the major requirements to the properties of low-doped working layers of multiplayer structures used in manufacturing power high-voltage transistors, thyristors and IGBT devices, which are the most widespread types of high-power high-voltage discrete devices. It is demonstrated experimentally how the non-uniformity of thickness and resistivity of the low-doped working layer can affect the parameters of high-power MDS transistors. We analyse the reasonability of using two- and three-layered structures formed by direct bonding, involving neutron-doped silicon grown by floating zone melting (FZ-Si) for the working low-doped layer, in manufacturing power electronic devices with Ubreak > 800 V. It is demonstrated that an alternative for FZ-Si can be silicon, grown according to Czochralski technique under an applied magnetic field (CZM), with oxygen content < (4-5)*1017 cm-3.
																				  																		



4.
Mechanical Stability of Power Device Materials High Temperature Hardness of SiC, AlN and GaN

Ichiro YONENAGA
Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)
E-mail: yonenaga@imr.edu

Abstract >>
The hardness of bulk single crystal 6H-SiC, GaN and AlN was measured by the Vickers indentation method under an applied load of 0.5-5 N in the temperature range 20-1400
																				  																		



5.
Silicon Carbonitride Films as a Promising Material Synthesized from New Sources

Tamara P. Smirnova1, Aram M. Badalyan1, Lyubov V. Yakovkina1, Natalia H. Sysoeva1, Igor P. Asanov1, Vasily V. Kaichev2, Valery I. Bukhtiarov2, Alexander N. Shmakov 1Institute of Inorganic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2G. K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
3A. A. Favorsky Institute of Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Favorskogo 1, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia),
E-mail: smirn@che.nsk.su

Abstract >>
Silicon carbonitride films were synthesized by means of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process in the scheme with remote plasma. Initial compounds were the silyl derivatives of 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine: dimethyl(2,2-dimethylhydrazino)-silane and dimethyl-bis-(2,2-dimethylhydrazino)silane. The molecules of the monomers contain the bonds Si-N, Si-C and C-N which are necessary for the formation of silicon carbonitride.
																				  																		



6.
Functional Nanocrystalline Films of Silicon Carbonitride

Nadezhda I. Fainer, Yuri M. Rumyantsev and Marina L. Kosinova
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch
of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3,
Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia),E-mail: nadezhda@che.nsk.su

Abstract >>
The films of a new ternary compound, silicon carbonitride, were synthesized by means of plasma enhanced deposition (PECVD) using hexamethyldisilazane Si2NH(CH3)6 as the precursor. Different investigation methods, namely, IR and Raman spectroscopy, XPS, ellipsometry, electron microscopy, including high-resolution me-thods (HRTEM, SAED) were applied to study physico-chemical properties of the films. Much attention was paid to the development of the X-ray phase analysis methods involving synchrotron radiation to determine the structure and phase composition of thin films. It was established that the silicon carbonitride films contain nanocrystals 2-5 nm in size distributed over the amorphous matrix.
																				  																		



7.
Physical and Chemical Transformations in Thin Films of Silicon Carbonitride during Thermal Annealing

Nadezhda I. Fainer, Yuri M. Rumyantsev and Marina L. Kosinova
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: nadezhda@che.nsk.su

Abstract >>
Physicochemical transformations that take place in thin nanocrystalline layers of silicon carbonitride as a result of thermal annealing in vacuum at a temperature of 1173 K are investigated. IR, Raman spectroscopy, XPES, ellipsometry and X-ray analysis are applied to study these physicochemical transformations. It is stated that high-temperature annealing of the silicon carbonitride films helps decreasing the amorphous constituent of the film, increasing the density and size of nanocrystals incorporated in the film.
																				  																		



8.
About the Lifetime of Auxiliary Charge Carriers in Neutron-Doped Silicon

Rystam I. Guchetl1, Anatoly A. Kravtsov1 and Aleksey A. Stuk2
1KEPP Corporation, pos. Turayevo, Lytkarino, Moscow Region 140080 (Russia)
2L. Ya. Karpov NIFKhI, Kaluzhskaya obl., Obninsk 249033 (Russia)
E-mail: keep@online.ru

Abstract >>
The results of works aimed at mastering the technology of obtaining NTD silicon, carried out at the KEPP Corporation in collaboration with L. Ya. Karpov NIFKhI, are reported. The results include optimization of the annealing mode, for the purpose of increasing the minimal lifetime of charge carriers from the values observed (100-200 s) to 200-400 s, the specific resistance being about 50 Om.cm. The regimes developed as a result of the investigations allowed us to decrease the time of thermal treatment necessary for the annealing of radiation defects and, as a consequence, to increase the lifetime of auxiliary charge carriers. The analysis of the results on obtaining NTD silicon grown from the initial polycrystalline silicon of different manufacturers allows us to conclude that further routes to increase the lifetime in NTD silicon are connected mainly with mastering the technology of obtaining the initial material.
																				  																		



9.
Electrical Characterization of the Interface in Unitype Silicon Structures Obtained by Means of Solid-State Bonding

Alexander K. Fedotov1, Alexander A. Mazanik1 and Kira L. Enisherlova2
1Byelarusian State University,
Pr. F. Skoriny 4, Minsk 220050 (Byelarus)
2GUP NPP "Pulsar", Okruzhnoy Pr. 27, Moscow 105187 (Russia)
E-mail: fedotov@bsu.by

Abstract >>
The properties of the interface in isotype structures formed by solid-state bonding (SSB) of silicon wafers with the same type of conductivity are investigated depending on the technology of bonding. In order to reveal the role of oxygen in the electric properties of the interface, bonding was carried out both using the wafers coated with the natural oxide (not thicker than 1-2 nm) and using specially oxidized ones (with silicon oxide layer up to 20 nm). The investigation of bicrystals bonded after bringing together in air or deionized water, demonstrated that in this case the electric activity of the interface is determined mainly by the degree of its enrichment with oxygen and contamination of the surfaces of wafers to be bonded with acceptor impurities (presumably aluminium). Electric activity of oxygen-free interface in the structures obtained by combining wafers ion etching and annealing in vacuum depends mainly on mismatching of the lattices of wafers to be spliced. The properties of SSB structures with the buried oxide layer obtained by bonding of the silicon wafers of n-type conductivity are determined by the contamination of the bonding interface with an acceptor impurity.
																				  																		



10.
Static Induction Thyristors as a Fast High-Power Switch for Pulsed Power Applications

Shozo Ishii1, Jun-ichi Nishizawa2, Naohiro Shimizu3 and Yuichiro Imanishi3
1Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering,
Tokyo Institute of Technology,2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku,Tokyo 152-8552, (Japan)
2Semiconductor Research Institute, Semiconductor Research Foundation,
Kawauchi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0862 (Japan)
3NGK Insulators Ltd., 2-56 Suda-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8530, (Japan)
E-mail: nisizawa@hanken-sri.or.jp

Abstract >>
Semiconductor power devices are employed widely in pulsed power applications. A first goal of device development for the applications is to establish high di/dt characteristics similar to that of spark gap switches, namely, 1012A/s. We examined turn-on characteristics of SI-thyristors for fast high-voltage pulse generators. The SI-thyristors have a buried gate structure in which the gate electrodes are placed in n-base region. Since they are normally on-state, gate electrodes must be negatively biased to hold off-state. The SI-thyristors at on-state behave similar to pin diodes. We characterized three kinds of SI-thyristors, two of which were for power electronics use with a rated voltage of 4000 V. The device named RT201 was designed for pulsed power applications. The difference among them is device structures at the vicinity of anode. The punch-through and anode shorted structures are commonly used to improve turn-off characteristics for power electronics. The RT201 device with a rated voltage of 5500 V has the punch-through structure and is not an anode-shorted device. The turn-on speed is mainly determined by carrier injection rate to the n-base region. Therefore performance of the gate driving circuit influences fast turn-on characteristics. When the newly developed high current gate driver was used, the fastest turn-on operation with Tf = 35 ns and di/dt = 9.5*1010A/s was obtained in the RT201 device. We made a stacked SI-thyristor switching unit to characterize repetitive and higher voltage operation. The stacked unit comprised three SI-thyristors, and each of them had the gate driver. The switching unit was successfully operated with the repetition rate of 2 kHz at 10 kV.
																				  																		



11.
Development and Production of Modern Devices of Power Electronics at the Elektrovypryamitel' JSC

Vladimir V. Chibirkin, Vyacheslav V. Eliseyev, Eugenie M. Geifman and Andrey N. Epishkin
Elektrovypryamitel' JSC, Ul. Proletarskaya 126, Saransk 430001 (Russia)
E-mail: ovbp@mail.ru

Abstract >>
Information is presented on the modern status and outlooks of the production of power electronic devices (PED) at the Elektrovypryamitel' JSC. It is demonstrated that the development and introduction into large-scale manufacturing process of all the modern PED classes earlier manufactured in the USSR, as well as qualitatively new types of devices, i.e. high-power high-voltage semiconductor devices developed on the basis of broad introduction of the achievements of science and technology, allowed achieving the outstanding industrial results and solving the most important problem of the national economy aimed at the provision of all the branches of industry of the Russian Federation with modern classes of reliable and high-efficiency home-manufactured semiconductor devices, including those for energy- and resource-saving technologies, modern armament systems, electrified transport, municipal services, excluding the dependence on import, which makes an important constituent of the conservation of national safety and economic independence of Russia.
																				  																		



12.
Dynamic and Static Characteristics of MOS Thyristors Irradiated with Electrons

Eugenie V. Chernyavsky1, VladiMIr P. Popov1, Yuri S. Pakhmutov2, Yuri S. Krasnikov1 and Leonid N. Safronov1
1Institute of Semiconductor Physics,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2Angstrem Co., Yuzhnaya promzona, Zelenograd, Moscow 103460 (Russia)
E-mail: evgen@isp.nsc.ru

Abstract >>
The results of development and manufacture of MOS controlled thyristors (MCT) are presented. Static and dynamic characteristics are studied. The effect of the irradiation with electrons on the static and dynamic characteristics is investigated. It is found that the irradiation with electrons provides a substantial decrease of the MCT turn-off time. Also an increase of the density of controllable current was observed.
																				  																		



13.
A Project of Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor (IGBT) 50 A 1800 V Manufactured on the Plates of High-Resistance Crucible-Free Silicon with the Orientation (100)

Eugenie V. Chernyavsky1, VladiMir P. Popov1, Yuri S. Pakhmutov2,Yuri N. Mirgorodsky3 and Leonid N. Safronov1
1Institute of Semiconductor Physics,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2Angstrem Co., Yuzhnaya promzona, Zelenograd, Moscow 103460 (Russia)
3Technological Center, MIET, Zelenograd, Moscow 103460 (Russia)
E-mail: evgen@isp.nsc.ru

Abstract >>
A design of high-voltage IGBT transistor is proposed. The transistor is manufactured on a high-resistance substrate using the NPT technology. Numerical modeling of the manufacture and of the static voltage-current characteristics is carried out. The possibility to increase the working voltage to 1800 V is demonstrated.
																				  																		



14.
Power Au-TiBx-n-n+-GaAs Schottky Barrier Diodes

Nikolay S. Boltovets1, Raisa V. Konakova2, Victor V. Milenin2, Evgeniy F. Venger2 and Dmitriy I. Voitsikhovskiy2
1GosNII "Orion", Ul. Eugene Pottier 8a, Kiev 03057 (Ukraine)
2Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Pr. Nauki 45, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)
e-mail: konakova@isp.kiev.ua

Abstract >>
A technology is developed for obtaining power Au-TiBx-n-n+-GaAs Schottky diodes of planar and mesa structures and with integrated heat sink. The effect of thermal annealing (at T = 500
																				  																		



15.
Opto-Capacitive Transducer

Valery A. Vasiliev
Penza State University, Ul. Krasnaya 40, Penza 400017 (Russia)
E-mail: paspen73@hotmail.com

Abstract >>
An opto-capacitive transducer is proposed which is able to transform optical energy into electric signal through the changes of the capacitance of a solid structure. The transducer involves the semiconductor's feature to change surface resistance under the action of optical radiation. The capacitance of the solid structu-re is changed due to the change of the surface resistance of gallium arsenide (GaAs). Opto-capacitive transducer allows detecting optical radiation, measuring the changes of capacitance depending on the changes of the width of light spot, radiation power, radiation frequency. Along with the possibility to control, re-cord and transform optical radiation into electric signal, it allows recording metal bodies and measuring distance from them. On the basis of the opto-capacitive transducer, it is possible to develop various devices to detect and record the light signal, to measure the optical radiation power; it is also possible to develop transformers of optical energy into electric signal, various sensors for shift, force, pressure, etc.
																				  																		



16.
Some Trends in the Development of Devices and Systems of Power Electronics

Georgy V. Grabovetsky1, Sergey A. Kharitonov1, Eugenie B. Preobrazhensky1, Fedor A. Kuznetsov2, Mikhail F. Reznichenko2, VladiMIr P. Popov3, Yuri I. Krasnikov3 and Vyach
1Novosibirsk State Technical University,
Pr. K. Marxa 20, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russia)
2Institute of Inorganic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia),
3Institute of Semiconductor Physics,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
4ERASIB Co., Pr. Marxa 3, Novosibirsk 630087 (Russia)
E-mail: phys@che.nsk.su

Abstract >>
On the basis of the analysis of global trends, the parameters of power electronic devices and systems are compared; the outlooks and tendencies of the application of different types of devices in power electronic systems are estimated. Application areas are outlined both for the systems and for the devices incorporated in them. The perspectives of structural and electronic circuit developments of power electronic systems are presented, taking account of the properties of devices involved, and specific features of potential consumers of the electric power.