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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2010 year, number 2

Photosynthetic apacity of Wood Plants as an Indicator of Total Pollution of the Atmosphere of Urban Environment

O. A. Neverova, O. L. Tsandekova
Keywords: photosynthesis intensity, reduced assimilates, Tilia cordata, Sorbus sibirica, atmospheric pollution, vegetation
Pages: 193-196

Abstract >>
The photosynthetic capacity of wood plants under urban conditions was evaluated on the basis of the level of reduced assimilates. Noticeable deceleration of the synthesis of carbohydrates was observed in Sorbus sibirica and Tilia cordata during vegetation, which correlated negatively with the overall technogenic load on the atmosphere in different districts of the city. It was concluded that this index of photosynthetic capacity may be used as an indicator of overall pollution of urban air, and Tilia cordata may be accepted as the indicator species.

Deformation Model of the Radial Growth of Wood Plants and its Analytical Possibilities

A. A. Konovalov, S. P. Arefyev
Keywords: deformation, wood plants, radial growth, seasonl cycles, annual rings, biological longevity
Pages: 197-207

Abstract >>
Possibility to describe the regularities of the radial growth of wood plants and their properties using the deformation model is demonstrated. Examples of such a description for the subarctic and temperate zones in the perennial and annual climatic cycles are given.

Development and Compilation of the Geographical Database for Mapping and Modeling Land-Based Ecosystems by Means of GIS and DZ with the Chuya Steppe in Mountainous Altay as Example

I. D. Zol'nikov, A. Y. Korolyuk, E. N. Smolentseva, V. A. Lyamina, N. N. Dobretsov, U. V. Martysevich
Keywords: geographical databases, remote sensing data, geoinformation modeling, land-based ecosystems
Pages: 209-220

Abstract >>
A system of integrated multiarametric descrition of landscapes of micro- and meso-hierarchic levels is developed. On the basis of field descriptions made according to this system in the Chuya steppe, a geographical database was compiled; it contains qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the land-based ecosystems of the Chuya steppe and their major components (relief, rocks, soil, vegetation). The technology for automated calculation of the ratio of abiotic to biotic components of micro-landscape on the basis of digital photographs of the reference grounds was tested. Using the triangular diagrams, the component composition of meso-landscapes was analyzed. The results may be used to decipher and interpret the data of remote probing sensing of the Earth, and also for mapping and modeling geosystems at the local and regionl levels.

Post-Fire Functioning of Forest Ecosystems in the Eastern Pribaikalia

Y. N. Krasnoshchekov, M. D. Evdokimenko, Y. S. Cherednikova, M. V. Boloneva
Keywords: Eastern Pribaikalia, ground fire of forest floor-humus type, pyrogenic succession of vegetation, soil morphology, resource and fraction composition of forest floor, organogenic pyrogenic horizons of soil, ash constituents, physicochemical properties of so
Pages: 221-230

Abstract >>
Data on the impact of ground fire events on forest ecosystems in the Eastern Pribaikalia are anlyzed. The negative impact of ground fires on the growth and productivity of tree stands is demonstrated. The characteristics of lower vegetation layers are presented, variations of soil parameters under the impact of fire events of different intensity and remoteness are demonstrated.

Ecogeographical Features of Seed-Bearing Capacity and Natural Reforestation of Pine on Fire-Sites in the Pine Forests of Transbaikalia

N. S. Sannikova, S. N. Sannikov, A. P. Gritsenyuk, E. V. Egorov, .. P. I
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris, fire, seed crop, self-sown plants, undergrowth, age structure, number, vitality
Pages: 231-237

Abstract >>
Results of the investigation of the parameters of post-fire succession and seed-bearing capacity of modal tree stands, factors of ground environment (thickness of the unburnt layer of forest litter, projective cover of grass and mossy vegetation), as well as the number, vitality and age structure of self-sown Pinus sylvestris and accompanying small-leaved species in the Lower Selenga pinery of forest-steppe in the south-west of Transbaikalia are presented. The seed crops turned out to be 1,5-2 times more abundant in comparison with the geographically substituting forest types in the forest-steppe of West Siberia, while the vitality of pine undergrowth under the canopy of tree stands passed by fire was extremely low. It was demonstrated that pine reforestation is successful at fire sites in the zone of semination from the forest walls and in the fire sites with sparse growth of trees in bilberry-rhododendron pineries: 2-3 times more abundant than that in the forest-steppe of West Siberia, and insufficient at fire-sites in bearberry-lichen pineries.

Trends of Chemical Element Content in the Needles of Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under Different Natural Conditions and Emission Load

T. A. Mikhailova, O. V. Kalugina, L. V. Afanasyeva, O. I. Nesterenko
Keywords: the Baikal Region, Pinus sylvestris, element trends in needles, technogenic digression
Pages: 239-247

Abstract >>
The studies were conducted in different parts of the Baikal Region - Southern Prebaikalia, South-Western Transbaikalia, and Northern Prebaikalia. It was shown that the biogeographical conditions have a greater effect on alteration of the trends of chemical elements concentrations, while they exhibit smaller changes in different forest types in the same geographical region. However, the most significant factor causing misbalance of the majority of elements is the emission load. It is concluded that the investigation of the trends of elements contents in assimilating organs of trees serves as the most important link in the system anlysis of the vital state of tree stands under natural conditions and under the action of abiotic factors.

Ecological Conditions and Their Role in the Formation of Primary Succession in Postsolifluction Areas

S. G. Prokushkin, V. G. Shkikunov, T. N. Bugaenko
Keywords: postsolifluction areas, primary succession, cryolithic zone, Central Evenkia
Pages: 249-261

Abstract >>
Ecological conditions in solifluction areas that are widespread in the cryolitic zone of Central Evenkia are investigated. Essential changes of microhabitat in some solifluction "microecosystems" are recorded. They are sharply different from microhabitat in the reference stand. These new ecological conditions result in changes of plant species composition and its diversity. However, no essential differences among ecological groups with respect to hydrothermal and trophic conditions were revealed.

Plant Successions in the Region of Sayan-Shushenskoye Reservoir

A. D. Sambuu, N. P. Mironycheva-tokareva
Keywords: succession, vegetation, species composition, dominating species
Pages: 263-270

Abstract >>
Reservoir construction on large rivers drastically changes the environment of flood-plain. Plant succession and rapid change of plant species start in the flooded zone. The results of investigation of succession processes in the plant cover arising in the area of flooded native ecosystems under the impact of the Sayan-Shushenskoye reservoir are presented.

Vital State of Tree Stands and Undergrowth of Virgin Spruce Forests in Submountain Regions of the Urals of the Basin of Upper Pechora

K. S. Bobkova, E. A. Robakidze, E. P. Galenko
Keywords: reserve, virgin spruce forests, monitoring, vital state, tree stand, undergrowth
Pages: 271-280

Abstract >>
The state of trees in five types of virgin spruce forest at the territory of the Pechoro-Ilych biospheric reserve was investigated. It was revealed that mature stands of bilberry and fern wood sorrel spruce forest types are characterized on the basis of the vital state of trees as the "healthy forest stand" with the damage index 0,03 to 0,50. The tree stand of polytric spruce forest with the damage index 0,7 relates to the category of "weakened tree stand". Reforestation process is expressed in all the types. The undergrowth accounting for 1,5 to 4,3 thousand sp. ha-1 consists mainly of conifers and is healthy.

Conjugated Species Groups in the Vegetation of Landscapes in the Basin of Upper and Middle Stream of the Pechora River as Indicators of Ecotopic and Phytocoenotic Conditions

S. V. Degteva, A. B. Novakovsky
Keywords: vegetation, ecological-coenotic groups, ecological scales, vascular plants, the basin of the Pechora river
Pages: 281-289

Abstract >>
Seven groups of conjugated vascular plants were marked out in the vegetation of landscapes in the upper and middle stream of the Pechora river basin using the Brave conjugate coefficient and graph theory. It was also revealed using Ellenberg indicator values and Ipatov coefficient that the assemblies of the investigated species occupy different positions in the ecological space and are characterized by clearly exhibited coenotic role in quite definite plant communities. The pleiades  of conjugated species, the majority of which was interpreted as ecological-coenotic groups of species, may be used as the indicators of eco- and biotope conditions.

Effect of Defoliation on the Changes of the Amounts of Allelochemicals and Soluble sugars in the Leaves of Betula pendula Roth

S. A. Bakhvalov, T. A. Kukushkina, G. I. Vysochina
Keywords: birch defoliation, dynamics of soluble sugars and phenols, flavonols, catechins, tannins, allelochemicals
Pages: 291-297

Abstract >>
Effect of strong (75 %) and complete (100 %) artificial defoliation of Betula pendula Roth on the dynamics of soluble sugars and phenols - flavonols, catechins and tannins - in the leaves of damaged plants was investigated. Within the first 15 days after strong defoliation of birch, no changes in flavonol, catechin and tannin content were revealed in the leaves. The amount of sugars increased at first, but returned to the normal level on the 10th day after defoliation. One year after strong defoliation, the amount of catechins and tannins in the leaves of damaged trees increased, while the amount of flavonols and sugars did not exhibit any differences from the leaves of reference trees. Within two years after strong damage, increased tannin content is conserved in the leaves, while the level of catechins and sugars remains at the reference level. One year after complete (100 %) artificial defoliation, the amount of flavonols and sugars in the leaves of damaged plants did not differ from that in the reference plants, while the concentrations of catechins and tannins exceeded those in reference plants. Two years after complete damage, the leaves contained increased amount of tannins, while the level of catechins, flavnols and sugars did not differ from the reference.

Lichens of Steppe Plant Associations in the State Nature Reserve "Khakasskiy"

O. A. Zyryanova
Keywords: lichens, the State natural reserve "Khakasskiy", steppe plant associations, epilithic, epigeyic, obligate and facultative calciphils
Pages: 299-305

Abstract >>
The species composition of the lichen flora of steppe communities was determined for the first time on the basis of own collections made in the State natural reserve "Khakasskiy". It consists of 134 species, 47 genera and 27 families. Biomorphological, ecological and geographical analyses were carried out.

Reconstruction of alaeohydrological Regime of Bog, Succession of Vegetations and Peat Accumulation on the Kas - Sym Interfluve

L. V. Karpenko
Keywords: bog, reconstruction, palaeohydrological regime, vegetation change, peat accumulation
Pages: 307-315

Abstract >>
Based on detailed analysis of the stratigraphy of a standard peaty profile laid on the large oligotrophic bog in the country between the rivers Kas and Sym, the left bank tributaries of the Yenisei river, the change of local vegetation and hydrological regime in the course of past seven thousand years was reconstructed.
Analysis of the stratigraphy of peat deposit revealed three stages of local changes of bog vegetation. Different degrees of bog moisture correspond to these stages. It was established that the regional climate had only a slight effect on the development of bog ecosystem.
The process of peat accumulation and its rate greatly varied during different periods of the Holocene. The average rate of peat accumulation in the profile was 0,88 mm/year.

Physiological Mechanism of the Formation in Phylogenesis of the Life Forms of Herbaceous Plants and their Coenoses in Connection with Changes in Water Supply (a Quantitative Approach)

N. A. Zhuravleva
Keywords: herbaceous coenoses, model of phylogenetic development, water supply, sprout forms
Pages: 317-326

Abstract >>
A model of phylogenetic development of the vital forms of herbaceous plants is proposed on the basis of multiaspect studies of physiological and morphological indices of the complete species compositions of two herbaceous coenoses (meadow and steppe). It is stated and justified that the physiological mechanism of their development, as water supply of the environment changes, consists in optimization of water deficit and production capacities of the leaf, respective emergence of the most economical species-related sprout forms (non-rosette, semi-rosette and rosette) and finally in the establishment of a definite proportion between these forms within the composition of this or that herbaceous coenosis.

Water-soluble Substances of Bud Meristem of Picea obovata L. and Pinus slvestris L.: Concentrations, Composition and Properties During the Formation of the State of Low-Temperature Stability

E. V. Alautdinova, S. Y. Simkina, P. V. Mironov
Keywords: ice formation, water-soluble substances, meristematic tissues of buds, water-retaining capacity, Picea obovata L., Pinus slvestris L
Pages: 327-333

Abstract >>
The seasonal dynmics of water-soluble substances and water content in the meristematic tissues of vegetative buds of Picea obovata L. and Pinus slvestris L. are considered. Changes of the concentrations of cytoplasmic solutions of meristematic cells under their dehydration as a result of extracellular or extra-organ ice formation were determined. It was discovered that the concentration of water-soluble substances of the cytoplasm can increase by a factor of 2-2.5 with a decrease in temperature in the negative range down to -40 as a result of water crystallization. A connection between the cellular content of water able to get crystallized, unfreezing water and the concentration of water-soluble substances under temperature decrease from 0 to -40 C was established.

Structural and Functional Features of Syringa vulgaris L. and Evaluation of the Possibility to Use Them in the Diagnostics of Atmospheric Pollution in Kemerovo

E. Y. Kolmogorova
Keywords: structural and functionfl features, diagnostics, atmospheric pollution, leaf apparatus, Syringa vulgaris L
Pages: 335-339

Abstract >>
Structural and functional features at the level of the leaf apparatus, sprout, entire organism of Syringa vulgaris under the conditions of Kemerovo city were revealed. The possibility to use these features in the diagnostics of atmospheric pollution was evaluated.
Maximal changes of the parameters under investigation for Syringa vulgaris were observed in Zavodsky, Kirovsky and Rudnichny districts that are characterized by the high degree of atmospheric air pollution.

Dependence of the Structure of Annual Rings of Trunk and Skeletal Root of Pinus sylvestris L. on Environmental Factors in the Forest-Steppe Zone of Pribaikalia

V. F. Zabuga, G. A. Zabuga
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris, trunk, skeletal root, structure of annual ring, environmental factors
Pages: 341-349

Abstract >>
It was established on the basis of the data of perennial observations that the annual growth of the layer of early tracheids of the trunk and the skeletal root of pine correlated with each other (r = 0,72-0,73). The size of annual rings of the organs under investigation were determined mainly by the width of the layer of early tracheids (r2 = 83-92 %) and were dependent on their radial diameter by 50 % for trunk and by less than 20 % for the skeletal root. The width of the layer of early and late tracheids of the trunk and skeletal root was significantly correlating with warmth and water supply, while the radial diameter of early and later tracheids was determined mainly by the temperature conditions of the environment. The joint effect of temperature of air and soil, air humidity and precipitation on the structure of annual rings of trunk and skeletal root, excluding the width of the layer of late tracheids, was 34-58 %.