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2015 year, number 1

1.
REPRESENTANION OF HISTORICAL-LEGAL RESEARCH IN THE RUSSIAN MAGAZINES OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY

I.G. Adonyeva
Novosibirsk State Technical University (NSTU), Prospekt K. Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, 630073
adoinessa@yandex.ru
Keywords: intellectual culture, book culture, fat magazines, historical-legal research, monograph, collected papers

Abstract >>
The article characterizes representation of results of historical-legal research in the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries. A wide range of sources is used. The basic concepts are the history of intellectual culture and book culture as its component. Intellectual culture is understood as cumulative mental and verbal resources of society that creates and uses ideas putting them into circulation among its contemporaries through various means of communication. Scientific and journalistic works by A.N. Afanasyev, A.G. Brickner, A.D. Gradovsky, I.I. Dityatin, V.N. Leshkov, A.V. Lokhvitsky, K.P. Pobedonostsev, N.V. Reutsky, B.N. Chicherin, P.K. Shchebalsky have been analyzed. It is noted that works on historical-legal topics were published by the leading experts in this area in the so-called fat magazines, which were the means of scientific knowledge dissemination. The article reveals specifics of publishing individual monographs and collected scientific papers the texts first appeared in press and then were published as separate editions turning into a part of book culture. Besides, in some cases publications in magazines could give authors an opportunity to continue their monographic studies. Most of the papers belonged to the Moscow University graduates and scholars, who were colleagues and friends with M.N. Katkov. They used the services of the printing house «Katkov and K and published their works in «The Russian Herald. The author concludes that the book culture and periodicals were an important component of intellectual culture of the period under review. They contributed to representation of academic historical-legal knowledge by introducing achievements of scientific jurisprudence to educated society.



2.
HEROIC SOTNIK, WOM AN HEROSTRATUS AND OTHERS: IMAGES OF TRAVELLERS FROM SIBERIA TO THE CAPITAL IN THE WEEKLY MAGAZINE S OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES

N.N. Rodigina1,2
1Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Novosibirsk, Viluiskaya St., 28, Russia
natrodigina@list.ru
2Tobolsk complex scientific station UB RAS, 626152, Tobolsk, Academician Yuri Osipov St, 15
Keywords: history of Siberia, periodical press of the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries, images of travels

Abstract >>
The aim of this article is to characterize publications on journeys from Siberia to Saint-Petersburg on the pages of the popular weekly magazines («Niva, «Rodina, «Ogonek etc.). The article analyzes specifics of thematic discourse about travelers from Siberia in the Russian periodical press of the second half of XIX - early XX centuries. This discourse appeared on the pages of several magazines for mass reading and originally had several functions: educational (stories about the new, unknown areas and exotic peoples), didactic (fostering respect for the brave, hardy and resourceful travelers), identificational (forming the national and regional identity through comparison with the most prominent compatriots). As travels from Siberia became more and more commercialized this discourse correlated with other thematic discourses dealing with controlling function of periodical press, the nature of heroism and criteria of usefulness to the nation and society. This complex of publications includes travelogues describing fictional journeys and information reports, articles about traveling and the photographs taken by travelers. A lack of travelers essays and notes can be probably explained by their low literary socialization. Within this discourse the relevant images of the travelers and their journeys were constructed. In the late XIX century the following words-markers dominated: «brave, «courageous, «hardy, «strong. In the early century such definitions as «tourist, «athlete, «entrepreneur, «Herostratus were added showing that the emotional perception of traveling changed from enthusiastic to neutral or critical.



3.
PROBLEMS OF PUBLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF RUSSIAN BOOKS IN PARIS IN THE 1920s - 1930s

E.M. Lbova
The State Public Scientific Technological Library, SB RAS, 630200, Novosibirsk, Voskhod st., 15
kate.lbova@gmail.com
Keywords: , , , , , , ,

Abstract >>
The paper describes the situation in the Russian book business in France in the 1920s - 1930s. The emphasis is put on the problems faced by the Russian publishers and distributors working in Paris. In the early 1920s Paris was not a leading publishing center for the Russian emigrants. The main reason was that publishing Russian books was more expensive in France, than in other countries of Europe. The high rate of franc had a significant effect on the final price of books and made them inaccessible for most of the Russian emigrants. Although the Russian emigrant book center later moved to Paris, its production was overpriced while the printing quality was low. As a result, at the beginning of 1930s a question arose about what to do with the Russian émigré press. In fact, the situation with publishing Russian books in France had always been dramatic. Book publishing represented big financial risks, both for writers, and for publishers. In addition to high price and poor quality, it was also marked by insufficient publicity and lack of feedback from readers on the published books. As a result books were stocked in warehouses being unclaimed, although the timely reviews could have promoted their sale significantly. Periodicals such as newspapers and magazines were more successful in Paris. However, their editors, authors and owners typically faced the same financial problems. Nevertheless, periodicals were more popular among the Russian emigrants in France. The example of long existing editions showed that an appropriate editorial approach and low prices were the cornerstone of success. The history of Russian publishing activity shows that even under adverse financial conditions it was possible to keep the pre-revolutionary tradition of publishing Russian books and «fat journals. In the 1930s Paris became an important center of Russian publishing business.



4.
THE PUBLISHING BUSINESS MODERNIZATION IN RUSSIA: INSTITUTIONAL CHANGES AT THE TURN OF THE XX-XXI CENTURIES

I. V. Lizunova, O. N. Alshevskaya
The State Public and Technological Scientific Library, SB RAS, 630200, Novosibirsk, Voskhod st., 15
kniga@spsl.nsc.ru
Keywords: technological modernization, technological transformation, institutional changes, publishing business, publishers, publishing organizations, bookselling network, online trade, Siberia, Far East

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to comprehending institutional transformations of publishing business: changing the institutions, their structure, competitiveness, main trends in modernization process in the 1990s - early XXI century. Applying the formal-logical and comparative-historical methods has contributed to revealing the causal chains in studying the problems of book industry institutional changes in the Siberian-Far Eastern region in relation to the logic and specificity of the publishing business modernization in Russia at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. Transformation of the domestic publishing and book disseminating system promoted the emergence of fundamentally new independent publishing and bookselling organizations. The state monopoly on production and distribution of printed materials had been destroyed by the beginning of the new century, and non-governmental structures formed the basis for institutional innovations in the publishing and bookselling system of the country and the region. The publishing business transformed from a monopolistic industry to a competitive one with a wide variety of forms of publishing and bookselling industries during two post-Soviet decades. While the production part of the modern publishing business has adapted to the market conditions, it cannot be said about the book distribution. The main problem of the post-Soviet book market has been a systemic crisis of book trade in the country, destabilization of an already imperfect institutional system of book distribution. The contemporary institutional structure of publishing business demonstrates the tendencies of differentiation, optimization and constant variability in addition to quantitative and qualitative modifications. Not only the conditions, boundaries and extent of the publishing and distribution activities have been modified, but also the subject structure of publishing and bookselling business, saturation of the publishing space. In general, institutional changes in the publishing and bookselling system have become an integral part of the ongoing modernization process of the Russian publishing business.



5.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FAR EASTERN BOOK PUBLISHING AND TRADE AT THE TURN OF THE XX - EARLY XXI CENTURIES

I.A. Goncharuk
Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russky Ostrov, Ayaks, 10, Build. F, Room 427
inna-korrektor@mail.ru
Keywords: book market, university publishing, book production, book-selling network

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the current state, main trends and peculiarities of the book publishing industry and trade in the Russian Far East in the late XX - early XXI centuries. The author pays much attention to the activities of publishing houses of higher schools while studying the book market structure. Analyzing the role of university publishing houses in the Far Eastern book market structure, the author emphasizes the State nature of the book publishing activities carried out by the editorial departments of higher schools; presents data on the amount of titles and number of printed copies of books issued by the higher institutions in the Far Eastern region, data on the book production of the regional publishing houses (percentage wise, considering the amount of titles and number of printed copies), as well as circulation data for the regions within the Russian Far East including average numbers of book copies (in 2005, as compared with 1985). The article conducts a comparative study on the Russian Far-East publishing industry activities in 1985-2005; reveals the reasons for decreasing numbers of book copies and growing numbers of book and brochure titles released in the Far Eastern Federal District including those issued by the editorial houses of higher schools as well as the Far Eastern and Yakutsk Publishing Houses. Special attention has been paid to the Khabarovsk Krai possessing the largest book-selling network «Mirs in the Far East. The author examines the book industry of the city of Khabarovsk in 1999-2002 as well as the book trade in the region during the 1950s -1990s compared to the present time; studies the book trade activities of the Khabarovsk company «Mirs (including the trade margin, assortment of books in shops, number of book-selling enterprises, company actions, etc.); presents the statistical data on the book trade activity in the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krais, in particular, on the number of bookstores in the subjects of the Far Eastern region. The author specifies the main trends in business activities of the book-selling enterprises in the region and analyzes peculiarities of cooperation between the bookstores and publishing houses in the Russian Far East.



6.
CANON VS UNDERGROUND : CHANGING ALGORITHM IN FICTION BOOK PUBLISHING IN RUSSIA IN THE LATE XX - EARLY XXI CENTURIES

V.G. Ivanov
The State Public Scientific Technical Library, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Voskhod St., 15
desnos8@yandex.ru
Keywords: canon, avant-guard, underground, samizdat, carnival art, publishing, uncensored literature, P.V. Senchin, I.F. Letov, Y.S. Dyagileva, V.G. Bogomyakov, V.A. Dikson, A. Zhdanov, O.B. Volov

Abstract >>
The paper describes transformations of the canon of modern fiction formed during the last twenty years and its confrontation with the underground literature developing its own lower and carnival canon as opposed to the official post-Soviet literature of the Grand Style. Nowadays the canon borders in fiction are diffused and determined mostly by the interests of publisher groups who define their politics in favor to certain writers. Thus, the contemporary so called fat magazines inherited the Soviet experience of editorial work creating a range of authors who over the course of the last 10 years have been sel ected to the lists of candidates for receiving the major literary prizes such as the Big Book, National Bestseller and others. The institution of literary awards is designed to determine the leading role of one or another literary school. On the other hand, works of young authors, who are not in the mainstream of fat magazines, correspond to the canon of the second, avant-garde and underground fiction; they search for their ideological postulates in the time of collapse of the Soviet system and choose their guiding lines in ideas of literary rebels of the 1980s. These two traditions have some points of interaction, though they work as autonomous systems with their inner principles of symbolic capital distribution. Many cities of Russia have their own literature enclaves, where the canon and underground literature develop in their own way. The paper describes points of attraction and repulsion of these two systems in different regions of the country, fr om metropolitan cities to large centers of Siberia such as Tyumen, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk where the unique literary schools have been formed by the early 2010s.



7.
LOCAL HISTORY EDITIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST IN THE EARLY XXI CENTURY: TRADITIONS AND INNOVATIONS

I. S. Troyak
The State Public Scientific Technical Library SB RAS, 630200, Novosibirsk, Voskhod st., 15
knigoved@spsl.nsc.ru
Keywords: book publishing, Far East, local lore history, library science, museums, archives, local history periodicals, electronic editions, electronic local history resources, early XXI century

Abstract >>
Since the beginning of the XXI century the literature on the local history has been released by the publishing houses, museums, archives, libraries, public organizations and individuals, as well as organizations whose activities are not directly connected with area studies. However, the majority of their publishing projects remain practically unknown outside the territory. Only exclusively published photo albums and illustrated editions can compete with book production from other regions. The bulk of local history literature in the region is formed by collections of articles and documents, sketches, monographs, bibliographic and reference books, and periodicals. They represent the history of certain cities and settlements; various ethnographic materials and historical sources; articles raising the problems of economy, culture and ecology in the region or describing the lives and activities of the famous fellow-countrymen; reports of archeologists and reviews. Quite often preparation of the publishing project is carried out by the combined efforts of several organizations. In the 1990s the traditional Notes and Proceedings issued by the regional museums were supplemented by the new magazines and the almanacs published by archives, administrative agencies, public organizations and individuals. Informatization of publishing activities of the archives, museums and libraries is reflected in editions posted on Websites or released compact disks. One of the library activity directions is creation of various databases devoted to local lore study. Along with catalogs, recommendatory indices, virtual exhibitions and information materials these databases contain electronic versions of some printed editions making these regional publications available to a wider range of readers.



8.
THE ORTHODOX PUBLISHING IN MODERN SIBERIA: FORMING THE SOURCE BASE OF RESEARCH

N.K. Chernyshova
The State Public Scientific Technical Library SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Voskhod st., 15
knigoved@spsl.nsc.ru
Keywords: Orthodox book, Publishing Council of the Russian Orthodox Church, publishing house, Orthodox book publishing, the Synodal Library of the Moscow Patriarchate named after Alexy II

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to investigation of an understudied phenomenon - the establishment of Orthodox publishing in Siberia and the Far East. The author considers the concept of «Orthodox book, the emergence of regulatory base and organizational structures of the church book publishing management, its publishing policy. The term «Orthodox book refers not only to publications issued by the Orthodox Church publishing houses, but also to a wide range of scientific, local historical, and other literature of Orthodox content produced by secular publishers. In order to eliminate spontaneous processes occurring in the Orthodox book publishing the Publishing Council of the Russian Orthodox Church was established. It was supposed to carry out peer review of all publications meant for distribution through the book trade system; the range of tasks for eparchial, parish and monastic publishers was outlined. It is concluded that creation of the accounting system of the Orthodox book production remains one of the unsolved problems which determined the actual source base of the present study. National bibliographi indices issued by the Russian Book Chamber do not reflect a significant part of the Orthodox publications, due to the fact that the publishing houses do not observe the law on a legal deposit. The Synodal Library of the Moscow Patriarchate named after Alexy II, for its part, tried to oblige the dioceses to send samples of published book production to it. As a result, the Synodal Library, despite some significant gaps, has the most complete collection of Orthodox book production published throughout Russia. Therefore, its fonds can be considered as one of the most important sources for studying the Orthodox publishing in the country. A promising direction of research is dealing with the regional book chambers existing in Siberia and the Far East, as well as with fonds of diocesan libraries and archives.



9.
MODERNIZATION PARADIGM OF THE RUSSIAN HISTORY IN THE XX CENTURY (REVIEWING THE URAL HISTORICAL HERALD)

A. V. Trofimov
Ural state economic University, 620142, Ekaterinburg, 8 March Street, 62
2519612@rambler.ru
Keywords: modernization paradigm, Ural Historical Herald, Russian history of the XX century

Abstract >>
The modern historiographic situation is characterized by poliparadigmality and multiconceptuality. The objective of this paper is to summarize the views on the historical development of Russia in the XX century expressed in line with the modernization paradigm based on the analysis of articles from The Ural Historical Herald. The author identifies three research perspectives: theoretical and methodological, historiographical, and specifically historical. The key issues examined by researchers of the Ural historical school are the following: the essence of the Russian version of modernization in the XX century, features and characteristics of imperial and Soviet modernization models, role of diffusions in history, the industrialization phenomenon in Russia and the Urals, the Ural-Kuznetsk Combine history, the agrarian transition concept, history of Yamal, etc. For the first time in a historiography based on the synthesis of civilization and modernization theoretical approaches the researchers solved the key problem of determining the cultural-civilization specifics of Russian modernization, showed the countrys place in the global process of civilization and modernization dynamics, analyzed main factors and mechanisms of internal and external impulses determining social-cultural, institutional-political, and social-economic development of Russia. The mechanisms of modernization processes have been considered at the civilization, national, regional, and local levels. The authors paid attention to the interaction between the macro, meso- and micro-processes in forming the Russian model of modernization, described the diffusive technologies that influenced the reception of social institutions and cultural values in the Urals.



10.
REVOLTS OF THE TATAR ETHNIC GROUPS IN WESTERN SIBERIA AT THE END OF THE 1620s - THE BEGINNING OF THE 1630s

Yu.S. Khudyakov
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, Akad. Lavrentieva, 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Khudjakov@mail.ru
Keywords: Siberian Tatars, Russian authorities, insurrections, Western Siberia, Oirats, steppe and forest-steppe regions

Abstract >>
The principal goal of this article is to analyze historic developments that are related to the period of insurrections of various Tatar ethnic groups against the Russian authorities. These ethnic groups inhabited the forest-steppe and steppe lands of Western Siberia at the end of the 1620s - the beginning of the 1630s. The paper focuses on the events that took place in the first third of the XVII century, including the insurrections of several Tatar ethnic groups against the Russian authorities in the territory of Western Siberia. In regard to these events the author considers participation of Kuchum Khans descendants, who aspired to restore the Tatar Khanate of Sibir, as well as participation of the Teleuts and several groups of the Oirats, whose rulers supported the insurgents but pursued their own ends, such as submission of the Siberian Tatars to their military-political influence. The author also considers the Russian warriors participation in the hostilities along with the service class Tatars who acted as a part of the Russian troops sent against the rebels and their allies among the Turkic and Mongolian nomads. According to the data from the Russian Siberian historical sources, the considerable proportion of Siberian Tatar inhabitants did not crave for escape following the insurgents to the Kazakh steppes and were loyal to the Russian authorities in Western Siberia despite the the insurgents agitation. The legatees of Kuchum Khan, who led the rebellious Siberian Tatars, aspired to resettle the separate groups of Siberian Tatars to the steppes, rather far away from the Russian lands, and rely on the assistance of the Oirat State. They transferred to the Oirat rulers the right to raise taxes from the rebellious Siberian Tatars, that provoked the great resentment among the Tatar population. Such policy alienated some ethnic groups of Siberian Tatars from the advocates of the Sibirian Khanates insurrection. The Russian authorities in Western Siberia sent the military groups of Russians and the service class Tatars to defend the Tatar population from the assaults of insurgents and Oirats. The Russian voivodes aspired to achieve peaceful relations with the Oirats by the diplomatic negotiations. Such policy was successful and resulted in the fact that a considerable proportion of insurgent Tatar inhabitants ceased to support the Siberian Tatar princes Ablaikerim and Devlet-Giray and returned to the Russians. At the beginning of the 1630s the number of insurgents appreciably decreased. Thanks to the efficient policy, the Russian authorities succeeded to enlist the considerable proportion of the Siberian Tatar population and retain Siberian lands as a part of the Russian state.



11.
ORGANIZATION OF OLD BELIEVERS SPECIALIZED SCHOOLS IN MOSCOW OLD BELIEVERS COMMUNITY OF THE ROGOZHSKY CEMETERY IN 1905-1907

I.M. Sevastyanov
Pokrovsky Old Belief Cathedral, Rostov-on-Don
oioann@mail.ru
Keywords: Old Believers, Moscow Old Believer community of the Rogozhsk y Cemetery, education, Old Believers elementary school, Old-Believers specialized schools

Abstract >>
The article deals with the history of Old-Belief - one of the most significant but little studied problems in Russian history. Researchers studying the Old Believers pay special attention to the so-called «golden age of their history. It began after the Supreme Decree of 1905 granting religious freedoms for Old Believers and ended after the 1918 Decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars separating the church from the state. Within a short period of time Old Believers built their own temples, published periodicals, developed the system of church forums, strengthened inter-church relations. Besides, a number of autonomous communities and establishments that met essential problems of Old Believers were established. First of all, the Old Believers developed their own educational system. The Moscow Old Believers community of the Rogozhsky cemetery especially succeeded in all these initiatives. The Rogozhsky communitys activities in the sphere of education was the result of its alternative view on learning and its role in a religious society. Besides, the creation of the Old Believers specialized schools was carried out without support of the state, only at the expenses of internal material and human resources of the Community. These factors heighten the interest and relevance of the proposed article. The objective of the paper is to reconstruct and analyze the Old Believers educational system of the Rogozhsky cemetery, the process of specialized schools establishment and functioning; to identify principles of activity, historical and statistical results as well as historical and organizational problems that emerged in 1905-1907. This article describes the process and challenges of creating the Old Believers elementary schools and the Town school at the Rogozhsky cemetery. The author involved and systematized all available sources of research both published and unpublished. Namely, three archival fonds, all Old Believers periodicals published in 1905-1918, modern monographs and studies on the topic were analyzed. The topic has been covered at length, based on the available sources and materials.



12.
THE HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE PEASANT LAND BANK ACTIVITY IN BELARUS

A.A. Kukharenko
Belarusian State University (BSU), Nezavisimosti Av. 4, Minsk, Republic of Belarus, 220030
KuharenkAA@bsu.by
Keywords: Peasant Land Bank, Belarusian and foreign historiography, pre-Soviet, Soviet and modern historiography

Abstract >>
One of the first attempts to weaken the land hunger of peasants was organizing a long-term loan for land acquisition. For this purpose the Peasant Land Bank was established in the Russian Empire. It was engaged in issuing loans for land purchase, land management activity, estates purchase and sale, charities. All these activities allowed it to become one of the Russian autocracys main tools of agrarian policy in late XIX - early XX centuries. The experience of bank involvement in the agrarian problem solution was unparalleled in the world practice. The author analyzes the level of knowledge about this problem in the Belarusian and foreign historiography. Thus, specifics of the Peasant Land Bank activities in the agrarian sector of Belarusian lands remain one of the understudied problems. Currently there is a need for revision of established approaches to studying the Peasant Land Bank activity formulated in the Soviet historical science. The Peasant Land Bank played the leading role in spreading the individual land property of peasants. The state mortgage had a positive impact on the growth of peasant land ownership, which contributed to capitalism development and elimination of feudal vestiges in the agriculture of the Russian Empire.



13.
PARTICIPATION OF MUNICIPAL Governments IN THE SOCIal and pOLITICAL LIFE of SIBERIA (1905-1917): HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE PROBLEM

A. B. Khramtsov
Tyumen State Architectural University (TyumGASU), 625001, Tyumen, Lunacharsky st., 2
khramtsov_ab@bk.ru
Keywords: municipal governments, city councils, politicization, social-political processes, democratization, Siberia

Abstract >>
The article examines the scientific works on the municipal government participation in the social and political process of Siberia in 1905-1917. Contemporary researchers express different views on the subject: liberal authors underline an active political position of municipal departments, conservatives defend the class-corporate nature of self-government. There were two periods marked by the growing politicization of city councils and caused by the first Russian revolution (195-1907) and the First World War (1914-1917) respectively. For a long time both Russian and Western historians have approached this issue from a strict ideological standpoint. At the present stage of historiography development there is an opportunity to conduct an objective study due to the methodological pluralism and declassification of archival collections. According to the majority of historians, the old traditions of municipal self-government are reproduced in the modern context: some elements of the modern municipal government resemble those from the pre-Soviet model of self-government. Previously the city councils functioned under the strict control of provincial administration. Currently there is also a tendency of incorporating the local authorities into the state hierarchy. The First Russian revolution pushed local governments to more active political actions. Dumas acted as coordinators of public organizations. They started to participate in solution of problems, which were in the public authority competence. They got involved in solving the problems that had been placed under the jurisdiction of state authorities. This in turn helped to raise the level of civil consciousness and legal culture of population in many Siberian cities. The author concludes that the problem diversity requires expanding the field of study in terms of its chronological and thematic frameworks. The analysis shows that researchers mostly focused on a limited number of Siberian cities, so the data dynamics cannot be observed. The history of municipal governments and city councils participation in the political life of Siberia is investigated selectively (mainly in large cities). Municipalities political activity requires a detailed, interdisciplinary, comparative and comprehensive study.



14.
THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION IN THE CITIES OF WESTERN SIBERIA IN 1914-1917

E.E. Shumilova
Institute of History, SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev St., Novosibirsk, 630090
e-shumilova@yandex.ru
Keywords: World War I, demography, Siberia, Novonikolaevsk, Barnaul, Tomsk, Omsk, mortality, birth-rate, nuptiality, sex and age composition

Abstract >>
The article attempts to provide comprehensive analysis of the demographic situation in the cities of Western Siberia such as Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Novonikolaevsk under conditions of the First World War. Special attention is paid to the analysis of population size, nuptiality, birth-rate, mortality, as well as age and sex composition. The conclusion is made that there was no uniform trend of population growth or decline in the large cities of Western Siberia during the war. The pre-war dominance of males no longer existed. It was replaced either by smoothing the numerical difference between sexes, or by skewing toward females. A significant reduction in the nuptiality among the citizens due to males being off at the front caused a drop in the birth-rate, while deterioration of the epidemiological situation in the cities led to mortality growth. The number of the elderly and children increased due to the influx of refugees.



15.
THE STATE TRADE PHENOMENON IN SIBERIA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (1921-1923)

P.V. Yurlov
Siberian Federal University, 2A, L. Prushinskaya St., Krasnoyarsk, 660112
yermak87@mail.ru
Keywords: state commercial capital, state trading enterprise, procurement, supply, market relations

Abstract >>
The article focuses on the establishment and operation of the state trade sector in the early period of NEP. An attempt is made to elucidate the problem of the state trading capital efficiency and to prove that it fulfilled the assigned task by creating a broad commodity distribution network. The profitability of individual state trading agencies is not considered a key factor, as it played a secondary role. The main reasons for the state trade creation were the tasks of controlling market relations by establishing a powerful state capital and forming a network of institutions capable of supplying the population and procurement of raw materials for export. The author studies such problems as the process of creating the state trading enterprises apparatus, its functioning, methods and main business partners, networking with the end user, everyday difficulties and work with buyers.



16.
THE ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION IN WESTERN SIBERIA IN CONNECTION WITH THE NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTING AT THE NOVOZEMELSKY NUCLEAR SITE

I.M. Savitsky
Institute of History SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Nikolaev st., 8
politik@history.nsc.ru
Keywords: nuclear weapons test, environment, nuclear traces, polluted areas, human settlements

Abstract >>
Historically, confrontation between the two great powers led to the arms race in the heart of which was creation of super weapons systems. Under these conditions, the Soviet Union did its best to create a nuclear missile shield. In the territories adjacent to the Western Siberia the nuclear test sites began to function, where nuclear and thermonuclear tests were carried out. A total of 132 tests were conducted at Novaya Zemlya (the Northern nuclear site («Object 700) was the main site in the USSR). It is noted that nuclear tests were conducted only when the wind rose showed a spike in the eastern direction so the nuclear cloud drifted within a few days along the territory of the USSR. Importantly, the most powerful nuclear and thermonuclear weapons were tested at Novaya Zemlya. As a result of these nuclear tests the large territories in Western Siberia, particularly, the Arctic areas were contaminated by radioactive substances. For example, in October, 1958 a total of 13 tests were carried out at the Novozemelsky nuclear site. Maximum levels of beta activity of radioactive fall-outs occurred on October, 6 - 7 and it was 89,60 um/cm per day. The nuclear traces affected southern areas of Western Siberia and the north of Kazakhstan in the second half-beginning of the third decade of August, the first decade of September and the firs half of October. The largest thermonuclear test in the world was detonated at Novaya Zemlya on October 30, 1961 It is clear that the components of nuclear weapons - strontium and tsezit polluted the vast territory, particularly the areas of Western Siberia. Of course, the terrible consequences of radiation had a great impact on the natural environment, wildlife, animals and population of the region, which was completely in the dark about the negative impact of nuclear tests. As a result of this and other factors, the morbidity caused by malignant tumors among the population of Western Siberia remains the highest in the Russian Federation.



17.
NEW INDUSTRIALIZATION OF THE TYUMEN NORTH: OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS

V.P. Karpov
Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, Tyumen, 625000, st. Volodarskogo, 38
7654321.58@mail.ru
Keywords: Arctic, Yamal, Northern projects, industrialization, science, technology, infrastructure, integration

Abstract >>
The objective of the article is to consider the prospects of the Tyumen North new industrialization. Its first wave took place in 1960-80s and was caused by the West Siberian oil and gas complex development. In 1990s the state was far from the problems of the North, but in the 2000s it was recognized that such perception of the North was erroneous. During the last five years the new industrialization course led to creating the new branches of industry and doubling of the volume of industrial production in the region. The northern mega-projects were launched: 1) creation of a center for liquefied natural gas (LNG) production in Yamal Peninsula (project Yamal LNG); 2) construction of Sabetta seaport considered by experts as the beginning of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) revival; 3) implementation of large-scale infrastructural project The Northern Latitudinal Way, which will connect the Northern and Sverdlovsk railways in order to provide access of the Russian integrated transportation system to the Arctic infrastructure in future. Implementation of the northern projects in the Tyumen Arctic could be an important step in Russias development. However, the Tyumen region cannot develop in isolation from the Russian and global trends. Opportunities provided by the new industrialization policy are limited by internal and external factors. External factors include the global economic crisis, Western sanctions, drop in oil prices. A disputed status of the Arctic territories and the Northern Sea Route (NSR) may also be a factor limiting the Tyumen Far North development. Underdeveloped government institutions, decelerating economic growth, dependence of the domestic economy on foreign technical and technological assistance constitute internal risks of new industrialization. The article ascertains that the Russsian economy is endangered not by further growth in hydrocarbon production but by weakness of engineering and manufacturing industries; emphasizes the necessity of solving such problems as infrastructure development, ice-breaking fleet and integration in the Arctic.



18.
SUZUN COPPER AND COINS IN 1766-1848

V.V. Vedernikov1
Altai Institute of Economic, Saint-Petersburg University of Management and Economic, Kulagina st., 13/15, Barnaul, 656011
vedernikov75@mail.ru
Keywords: coins, copper, Ekaterinburg mint, Suzun mint, Kolywano-Voskresensk foundries, money, silver

Abstract >>
The Suzun coining has been studied very unevenly and generally insufficiently. Researchers paid attention only to the early stage of Suzun mints activities and to its liquidation. The purpose of this article is to observe the copper money production in Suzun mint during the entire period of 1766-1848. Silver was the main product in Altai, therefore ore deposits containing industrial concentrations of silver were considered argentiferous although they could also contain copper. The copper production was an integral part of the whole cycle of silver production. By 1765, about 520 tons of copper mattes had been accumulated in Kolywano-Voskresensk foundries. Construction of the special copper foundry on the Nizhny Suzun River in 1764 led to separation of silver and copper smelting. Thus, copper production started to play a separate role. All produced copper was used for coining. At first due to technology imperfections it was impossible to refine copper removing both the detrimental impurities and precious metals. Since the produced copper contained gold and silver the Kolywan coins rouleau was increased up to 25 rubles from pood as opposed to Ekaterinburg roleau of 16 rubles / pood. However, the general progress in metallurgy of the 1770s allowed improving the copper refinement to an extent that stamping of state coins began already in 1781. By 1848, the share of Suzun mint in the Russian copper coining had increased up to 12.8% while the share of Ekaterinburg mint was 70%. In 1830-1855 the Ministry of finances improved the copper metallurgy essentially and reduced the production costs. On the other hand, it reduced the number of ovens and delayed the repair of Suzun foundry after the fire in 1829. Following the 1847 fire at the Suzun mint the Ministry of finances stopped the coinage switching over to production of sorted copper and to delivery of Suzun copper to Ekaterinburg mint.



19.
ON RELATIONSHIPS OF FEDOSEEVTSY AND FILIPPOVTSY IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY

I.N. Nikanorov
Institute of History, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Nikolaeva str., 8
nikanorov1203@ya.ru
Keywords: Old Believers, Agreement, controversy, Fedoseevtsy, Filippovtsy, manuscript collections, Orthodox tradition

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to mutual relationships of the two priestless Old-Believers Agreements - Fedoseevtsy and Filippovtsy - in the first half of the XIX century. The author analyzes materials from the Russian National Library manuscript collection previously unused by scholars that allowed him to reveal the most topical issues of the controversy that prevented reunion of the two Old-Believers Agreements considering themselves as successors of the early Vyg tradition. The author draws attention to the collection structure and composition, concluding that it is an example of novation polemical literature, which attempted to present the relations between the two religious agreements in the form of equitable dialogue. The article details the main points of polemics between the two agreements. Some of them had retained their relevance since the early XVIII century, others appeared later being caused by changes in the social-economic realities due to modernization and urbanization of the Russian Empire.



20.
DEPORTATION OF PEOPLE TO KAZAKHSTAN DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR

M.Ch. Kalybekova
Kazakhstan National Pedagogical University named after Abai, 202/41, Abay av., Almaty, Kazakhstan, 050060
k.manara@mail.ru
Keywords: deportation, special migrants, NKVD SSSR, relocation, migration, eviction, agricultural equipment, legal status

Abstract >>
The article covers the mass deportation of people to Kazakhstan during the Second World War. The author introduces new archival sources into scientific circulation (from the Archive of the Karlaq, Archive of the Committee on Legal Statistics and Special Records of the General Prosecutors of the Republic of Kazakhstan (materials of NKVD and MVD), Archive of the Committee on Legal Statistics and Special Records of the Karaganda region) regarding the notion of the Stalin stereotypes. The primary goal of research is to better understand the causes, major trends, extent and effect of the state repressive measures carried out in relation to the various categories of the population of Kazakhstan. Analysis of the agricultural equipment of the deported people allows us to identify the role of special settlers in creating the powerful industrial potential of the country in remote areas with harsh climatic conditions. Also of particular interest is the role of public authorities in creating living conditions and meeting the special needs of the settlers. The author also considers the results of governmental activities in this sphere as well as legal provision for the settlers. The research findings provide the opportunity to obtain new methodological and theoretical insights, to revisit this issue and evaluate the events that took place in the period under study. Significance of the theme lies in the fact that examining the topic through the prism of research makes it possible to analyze the historical processes which took place in the whole country. It also provides an opportunity to analyze the socio-political, economic and cultural life of the people who were deported to Kazakhstan. An objective study of this issue will contribute to consolidation of the Kazakh society and strengthening the foundations of national unity.



21.
CULTURAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE RUSSIAN OLD-SETTLERS IN THE ARCTIC AREAS OF YAKUTIA

S.Ye. Nikitina
The Institute of humanities Research and the indigenous Studies of the North, SB RAS, 677027, Yakutsk, Petrovsky st., 1
Sarg_Nik.ykt@mail.ru
Keywords: Russian Arctic old-settlers, original language and folklore, traditional nature management, ethnic identity

Abstract >>
The historical literature about the Old Russian culture of the XVI century preserved by the old-settlers in the Arctic areas of Yakutia represents participant observation of the exiles (at the end of the XIX century) and members of scientific expeditions of the XX century. Although this topic is of high scientific interest some issues remain unresolved, i.e. the question about the time of their origin, specifics of their adaptation and inter-civilization interaction. Special attention should be paid to the problem of their transformation in the XX-XXI centuries. The present paper supports the hypothesis of their arrival fr om the Russian North via the Northern Sea. They were accompanied by their families that provided the Russian old-settlers of Yakutia with an adequate social environment for inter-generational transmission of their original language and folklore and, ultimately, of their ethnic identity. The Russian identitys opposition to the alien linguistic landscape under the conditions of geographic isolation contributed to preservation of the Old Russian culture. Unification of the Soviet educational system, regular transportation links with European Russia, new cultural values promoted the Russian literary language as the means of communication to an extent that one can talk about the vanishing scenery. Field materials of the 2012-2014 expeditions allowed making the following conclusions: positive academic interest in the Old Russian language and folklore along with the State protectionist policy preserving the unique Arctic microeconomics had, undoubtedly, supported the tradition of their existence. An important condition for preserving this culture has been a mono-ethnic compact settlement (Russian Uste, Pokhodsk), wh ere the basis of the peoples life sustenance depended on the traditional use of natural resources. Collapse of the existing system of economic relations (the decline of the fur hunting industry, especially hunting the Arctic fox; collapse of the single system for delivering fishery products) changed the structure of the economy of the Russian enclave in the Arctic: the local people refused from dog breeding and fur hunting but retained the basic element of the traditional way of life - fishing. However, heir legal insecurity threatens the prospects of their traditional trades.