Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia



Advanced Search

Geography and Natural Resources

2019 year, number 5S

1.
THE MAN IN SIBERIA: GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCHES OF ACADEMICIAN V.V. VOROBYEV

N.V. VOROBYEV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
vorobyev@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: экономическая география, география населения, историческая география, города, формирование и динамика населения, региональное природопользование, эколого-географические проблемы, тематическое картогра фирование, экологический атлас, Сибирь, economic geography, population geography, historical geography, cities, population formation and dynamics, regional nature management, environmental and geographical problems, thematic mapping, ecological atlas, Siberia

Abstract >>
The paper takes us through the life course, research priorities, and scientific achievements of the geographer, specialist in the field of socio-economic geography, cartography and environmental protection Vladimir Vasilievich Vorobyev (19.10.1929- 14.05.2003). V.V. Vorobyev obtained his main scientific results in the fields of economic geography, historical geography, geogra phy of the population and cities, regional nature management, environmental and geographical developments, atlas and envi ronmental mapping. The scientist offered and substantiated original ideas about the geographical features of the formation of the population of Siberia. Thus, the decisive role of the initial main body of old-timers was identified, and it determined the com position of the region’s inhabitants, their connection with exit points, and new waves of immigrants. The research results are published in more than 350 scientific papers, including three individual and a large number of collective monographs. Academi cian V.V. Vorobyev is the founder of the Siberian school of population geography and the scientific school Methodology of En vironmental Ecological Mapping. The scientific activity of V.V. Vorobyev was noteworthy for the ability to set a goal and achieve its achievement. This applies both to his personal scientific work on the economic and geographical problems of cities, formation of the population, its dynamics and forecasting, and the collective development of nature management, environmental protection and ecological mapping of Siberia. The scientific and organizational decisions existing up until now enabled the creation of the Dissertation Council and the scientific journal «Geography and Natural Resources», which are still functioning in the Institute.
																								



2.
NATURAL ESSENCE AND SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ECOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF GEOSYSTEMS

I.N. VLADIMIROV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033 Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
garisson@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: экологизация природопользования, потенциал, геосистемы, экологический потенциал, функции гео систем, экологические функции, environmentalization of nature management, potential, geosystems, ecological potential, functions of geosystems, ecological functions

Abstract >>
Currently, the main purpose of environmentalization of nature management is to create conditions for the harmonious and balanced development of nature, society, and economy. One should pay particular attention to the importance of life supporting functions of geosystems for society before directly using natural resources in order to maintain the balance of the nee ds of the population with environmental well-being. Under these conditions, ecological optimization of nature management based on the ecological potential of geosystems is the main paradigm of environmental policy, allowing one to balance the ecological and economic interests of society, create scientific prerequisites for developing legal environmental standards, economic calculations, and scientific and informational/analytical support for nature protection and environmental safety.
																								



3.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF LAND USE AND POLLUTION OF LANDSCAPES OF THE SELENGA RIVER DELTA

I.A. BELOZERTSEVA1,2, O.A. YEKIMOVSKAYA3, I.B. VOROBYEVA1, N.V. VLASOVA1, D.N. LOPATINA1, M.S. YANCHUK1, N.D. DUBROVSKII1,2
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
belozia@mail.ru
2Irkutsk State University, 664011, Irkutsk, ul. Sukhe-Batora, 5, Russia
3Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 670047, Ulan-Ude, ul. Sakhyanovoi, 6, Russia
oafe@mail.ru
Keywords: почвы, поверхностные воды, землепользование, трансформация, дельта р. Селенги, soil, surface water, land use, transformation, the Selenga river delta

Abstract >>
In the summer of 2017-2018 we researched the landscape-geochemical and socio-geographical aspects in the delta of the Selenga river (southeast coast of Lake Baikal). The structure of land use is dominated by hayfields and pastures. The study area is important for the development of meat and dairy farming in Buryatia. The cultivated crops here are cereals, legumes, cold-resistant silage crops, potatoes and other vegetables. In the Selenga river delta various types of soils have been formed: fluvisols, folic-podburs, and gray metamorphic and folic-gray soils. The fertile soils of the high floodplain with chernozems and phaeozems are used for arable land. The agricultural land of terraces with gray and folic-gray soils is used for pasture. The soils of the low floodplain of waterlogged meadows are included in agricultural circulation. We revealed that the soils of most agricultural lands have a satisfactory agronomic quality. The upper horizons of gray soils under the forest and chernozems under the steppe have high humus concentrations in their natural state. In constantly used agricultural soils humus content is reduced. In fallow lands, its concentrations are restored. The water pH level of soils is mostly neutral. It is revealed that the soils of the Selenga delta are mainly light soils. It was revealed that gray soils after forest clearing and using them for arable land, quickly degrade and lose their fertility. Soils of the steppes show good resistance to agricultural use. Soil deposits and arable land, previously located under forest, are infertile and require introduction of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. Soils recently introduced for agricultural use require phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Chernozems and gray soil of natural landscapes, as well as anthrosols, previously located under steppe, are in good and satisfactory agronomic condition. Near the settlement of Kabansk we established high concentrations of some heavy metals in alluvial soils, exceeding the MPC. An increased content of oil products, phosphates, fluorides and heavy metals in the waters of the Selenga river was revealed. The coastal waters of Lake Baikal at the mouth of the Selenga river still meet sanitary and hygienic requirements. Alluvial soils of the Selenga river delta acts as a geochemical barrier to the migration of pollutants into Lake Baikal.
																								



4.
TOURISM ON THE NORTHERN BAIKAL COAST AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

I.B. VOROBYEVA, N.V. VLASOVA, I.A. BELOZERTSEVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
Irene@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: экологическое состояние, загрязнение, поверхностные воды, туризм, ecological state, pollution, surface water, tourism

Abstract >>
The paper outlines the tourist flow to the Republic of Buryatia. We revealed that during the last ten years there was an increase in the total flow of tourists by 60 %, and of foreign tourists by 3.5 times. The main areas of tourism on the northern coast of Lake Baikal are health-improving, educational, sports, water, scientific, ecotourism and extreme. Presented are the results of studies of the surface water of the rivers Upper Angara, Kichera, Dzelinda, Tyya, of the lakes - Slyudyanskoe (Bolshoe) and Boguchan, and the coastal zone of Lake Baikal. According to the results of the analysis of the lake waters of Slyudyanskie (Bolshoe) and Boguchan, an increased content of sulfates, phosphates and ammonium was found in the summer. The revealed presence of ammonia and nitrites in the water indicates a constant flow of household wastewater into the reservoir. Higher con centrations of sulfates, nitrates, and phosphates are found in the water of the studied rivers now than in the middle of the 20 th century. Especially significant changes in the hydrochemical regime were detected in the water of the Kichera river. We established elevated concentrations of nitrates and sulfates both in winter and summer. The chemical composition of Baikal water is under the constant influence of the Upper Angara and Kichera, which is manifested in a low content of bicarbonates and calcium. Elevated concentrations of sulfates and nitrogen compounds were found. The rivers Upper Angara and Kichera are connected with each other and wastewaters from Kichera and Lake Sikili, falling into Lake Baikal, what was recorded by chemical ana lyzes in winter. In summer, both phosphates and nitrogen compounds (ammonia and nitrites) were recorded there, which indicates a constant influx of pollutants into the reservoir. We revealed that the hydrochemical regime of the rivers of northern Baikal basically retains seasonal changes in the composition of river waters, only quantitative values have become higher.
																								



5.
STRUCTURE AND TENDENCY FORMATION OF FORESTS OF SOUTH-EASTERN COAST OF LAKE BAIKAL

A.P. SIZYKH1, A.P. GRITSENYUK2, A.I. SHEKHOVTSOV3, V.I. VORONIN1
1Siberian Institute of Plants Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontova, 132, Russia
alexander.sizykh@gmail.com
2V.R. Filippov Agriculture Academy, 670034, Ulan-Ude, ul. Pushkina, 8, Russia
3V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
ashekhov@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: геоботаническая съемка, структурно-динамическая организация лесов, юго-восточное побережье озера Байкал, geobotanic survey, structural-dynamic organization of forests, south-eastern coast of Lake Baikal

Abstract >>
The studies of structural-dynamic organization of forests in the central part of Lake Baikal eastern shore performed using method of field geobotanic survey (at the key sites) revealed modern trends of the formation of forest communities under different physical-geographic conditions in the Eastern Pre-Baikal in the whole. In particular, we noticed expansion of dark-coniferous trees species as undergrowth, at initial stages of timber stand formation, with appearing in the second synfolium suggesting spatial widening of a dark-coniferous component in taiga structure on the background of climate dynamics during last decades in the region. Common features of forest communities at the key sites - the Tolbazikha and Manturikha Rivers valleys, as well as in middle part of the Bol’shaya River (south-eastern coast of Lake) is strengthening of dark-coniferous species position in the un dergrowth of polydominant dark- and light-coniferous forests. Often on burnt sites and cuttings under the canopy of small-leaf timber stand, there is undergrowth of trees forming dark-coniferous taiga (cedar, spruce, fir) characteristic for pre-mountain region of the Khamar-Daban Ridge. According to the integrated studies data consisting of plants species composition, geoelemen tal (arealogical) and ecotypological (ecotypes) compositions, to ratio of belt-zonal plants groups in the communities and to structural-dynamic variability of communities with time for these physical-geographic conditions, we have to state that at present there are trends of substitution of dark-coniferous - light-coniferous taiga by dark-coniferous component everywhere. Such trends in the forests formation were noticed before several times for Lake Baikal southern and western shores, as well as in the whole Baikal Region.
																								



6.
MAPPING THE IMPACT OF MINING PRODUCTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE-SUSTAINING ACTIVITY OF THE POPULATION OF THE BAIKAL-MONGOL REGION

A.D. ABALAKOV1,2, N.B. BAZAROVA1
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
abalakovirk@mail.ru
2Irkutsk State University, 664003, Irkutsk, ul. Karla Marksa, 1, Russia
Keywords: горнодобывающая промышленность, население, хозяйство, взаимодействие, экологическая оценка, картографирование, mining, population, economy, interaction, environmental assessment, mapping

Abstract >>
The development of mineral and raw-material resources is accompanied by persistent negative changes in the environment, which threaten the state of ecological systems, health and economic activity of the population. In the Baikal-Mongolian region, various types of minerals are being developed. We identified areas where natural and socio-economic complexes were disturbed under the influence of mining, or the disturbance is forecasted. We proposed a model that reflects the main directions and stages of the study. Examined are the issues of the influence of the mining industry of the Baikal-Mongolian region on the human environment and the livelihoods of the population, which are understood as everyday activities of people, their work and leisure, quality of life and environment, environmental safety. We also presented a method for technogenic impact assessment. A series of maps compiled using high-resolution satellite images and geographic information technologies were developed. The maps show the consequences of the impact on economic activity, public health, specially protected natural areas, spa facilities and health and recreation facilities. A new direction is considered related to the development of mining and geological tourism. An environ mental assessment was carried out taking into account various indicators - impact indicators, considering different types of raw materials, mining conditions and methods. Special attention is given to the types and purpose of the mine workings, areas of disturbed lands, volumes of overburden and raw materials, their toxicity degree, distance from the pollutant, nature of distribu tion and migration of chemical elements. The approaches of a systematic analysis of the geographical environment developed and implemented by a prominent academic Vladimir Vasilievich Vorobyev was further strengthened in this work. His works are based on an anthropocentric concept, according to which the interaction of nature and society is considered in the interests of man, provides sustainable socially-oriented territorial development of our country and its regions.
																								



7.
THE TRANSBOUNDARY WORLD NATURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE OBJECT “SAYAN CROSS” DESIGN

T.P. KALIKHMAN
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
kalikhman@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: особо охраняемые природные территории, территории традиционного природопользования, ко ренные малочисленные народы, Восточный Саян, specially protected natural areas, territories of traditional nature used, native small peoples, East Sayan

Abstract >>
The article discusses the possibility of organizing the “ Sayan Cross ” transboundary UNESCO World Heritage Site in the East Sayan mountainous region. The object includes the following territories: part of the Khuvsgul aimak in Mongolia, and in Russia - part of the Nizhneudinsky district of the Irkutsk region, part of the Tojinsky kozhuun of the Tyva Republic and the Okinsky district of the Buryatia Republic. Each of these sectors of the Sayan Cross with a large area is sparsely populated and inaccessible. The design of the Sayan Cross includes the formation of the structure of a transboundary UNESCO World Heritage Site, namely the planning of various categories new specially protected natural areas and territories of traditional nature used of native small turkic-speaking peoples with mountainous reindeer herding - Dukha (Tsaatans), Tofalars, Sojots and Tojins. In most cases, protected areas of national importance are included in World Heritage Sites. But in order to combine the natural and cultural components of the Sayan Cross object, it is also necessary to take into account the protected natural areas of regional significance and the territories of traditional nature used. Territorial planning for the conservation of natural areas and inhabited sites by native Sayan peoples is a complex and lengthy process. The main problem is related to the contradiction between the extremely clear task of preserving the nature at the global level and environment of small ethnic groups and the task of intensive development of the territory associated with the extraction of natural resources at the regional level. Therefore, the creation of a World Heritage Site will solve the problem of the contradiction between the priority of conservation of the natural environment at the global level and the priority of intensive development of the territory at the regional and local levels.
																								



8.
FOREST FIRE ACTIVITY AND FIRE HAZARD IN THE BAIKAL REGION UNDER MODERN CONDITIONS

E.V. MAKSYUTOVA, E.L. MAKARENKO, A.V. SILAEV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
emaksyutova@bk.ru
Keywords: горимость, плотность пожара, площадь пожара, изменения климата, пожароопасность в лесу по условиям погоды, пожароопасность лесорастительного покрова, космические снимки, fire frequency, fire density, fire area, climate change, fire hazard in the forest according on weather conditions, fire hazard of forest cover, satellite images

Abstract >>
Forest fire activity in the Baikal region during 2000-2017 is higher as compared to Russia in terms of fire frequency, density, and area. The fire frequency and the average area of a single fire are observed to be increasing. This is facilitated by the fire hazard of the forest cover mainly represented by coniferous stands and by the values of the fire hazard in the forest ac cording to weather conditions varying from average to extreme. Changes in the average air temperature over all months of the fire hazard season contribute to maintaining the danger of fires in the Baikal region. The greatest potential natural fire hazard caused by weather conditions (a Nesterov index of more than 1000 units) was noted in the June-July of 2015 according to the weather stations of Ulan-Ude and Chita. The most developed and populated southern part of the Baikal region suffers from fires most often, which indicates that the fires are caused by humans. For the territory of the Tunkinsky basin, satellite images are used to identify the fire hazardous years of 2001, 2010, 2015, and 2016, and the fire covered areas are determined, which vary from 18 to 32 % for the territory of the Badara tract.
																								



9.
VEGETATION FIRE CONTROL ON PROTECTED AREAS

A.V. VOLOKITINA1, T.M. SOFRONOVA2, M.A. KORETS1
1V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Russia
volokit@ksc.krasn.ru
2V.P. Astafiev Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, ul. A. Lebedevoi, 89, Russia
tmsofronova@gmail.com
Keywords: особо охраняемые природные территории, пожары растительности, оценка пожарной опас ности, прогноз поведения пожара, контролирование пожара, protected areas, vegetation fires, fire danger rating, fire behavior prediction, fire control

Abstract >>
The paper considers the necessity to control each occurring vegetation fire on protected areas. This is possible using an improved forest fire danger rating and fire behavior prediction with the help of vegetation fuel maps. Fire data for the nature reserve “ Stolby ” were taken for a retrospective performance test of the developed software program on fire behavior prediction including fire spread rate, type, development, effects and calculation of the necessary manpower and resources for its control and suppression.
																								



10.
DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN THE INDUSTRIAL REGION

P.S. MAMASYOV, G.YE. MEKUSH, V.A. RYABOV
Novokuznetsk Institute (Branch) of Kemerovo State University, 654041, Novokuznetsk, ul. Tsiolkovskogo, 23, Russia
4tuna93@mail.ru
Keywords: альтернативная энергетика, зонирование, индустриальный регион, стратегия социально-эко номического развития, угольная экономика, энергетический переход, Кемеровская область, alternative energy, zoning, industrial region, the Kemerovo oblast, socio-economic development strategy, coal economy, energy transition

Abstract >>
The paper considers the development of alternative energy for an industrial region (as exemplified by the Kemerovo oblast). Based on the assessment of natural, environmental and socio-economic factors and conditions, we demonstrate possibilities of alternative energy for each administrative region of Kuzbass. Presented is the zoning of the territory, the main criterion of which was the similarity of the development paths of alternative energy. We identified seven zones, and each one has its own promising types of alternative energy: solar, wind, small and micro-hydropower, bioenergy and, as a feature of this territory, the use of mine methane. We supplied justification that the economy of the region, based on the coal industry, can experience all the negative consequences of a decrease in demand for this energy resource. The significant potential of the resources of the Kem erovo oblast for the development of alternative energy enables the development of a new energy industry and identifies new ways of regional development.
																								



11.
SPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS AND WILDLAND OF THE FAR EASTERN RUSSIA: A NEW SPATIAL RECALCULATION

V.N. BOCHARNIKOV1, E.G. EGIDAREV1,2
1The Pacific Geographical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 690041, Vladivostok, ul. Radio, 7, Russia
vbocharnikov@mail.ru
2The WWF-Russia, Amur Branch, 690003, Vladivostok, ul. Verkhneportovaya, 18a, Russia
egidarev@yandex.ru
Keywords: ООПТ, Дальневосточная Россия, дикая природа, эколого-географическое районирование, ГИС, антропогенное преобразование, protected areas, Far Eastern Russia, wildlerness, ecological and geographical zoning, GIS, anthropogenic transformation

Abstract >>
This article was prepared on the materials held in 2015-2018 of initiative geoinformational assessment of the current level of anthropogenic disturbance in Russia’s natural ecosystems. A new calculation of the wildlife index for biomes and admin istrative-territorial entities of the Far Eastern Federal District is made. The cartographic material shows the current location of protected natural areas of federal and regional significance within the new borders of the Far Eastern Federal District. The Far Eastern protected areas, officially approved in the last decades of the current century, are briefly characterized, special attention is paid to the transboundary conservation problems of rare and threatened species of animals and the created reserves of inter national importance. Summarized geographical information is provided on the ratio of officially protected natural areas and those that have retained their ecological and biospheric potential, but which do not have official status of large areas of wildlife. It is proposed the introduction into the Russian environmental system of a new category of protected areas - «wildlerness reserve», the widespread global counterpart of which are the conservation facilities IUCN «1b» «wilderness» reserves.
																								



12.
NATURAL DISASTERS ON THE RIVERS OF THE SOUTH OF IRKUTSK OBLAST IN 2019: GEOMORPHOLOGICAL ASPECT

M.YU. OPEKUNOVA, S.A. MAKAROV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
opek@mail.ru
Keywords: экзогенные геологические процессы, пойменно-русловые комплексы, паводок, наводнение, морфо динамический тип русла, мониторинг, береговые деформации, чрезвычайные ситуации, exogenous geological processes, floodplain-channel complexes, flood, morphodynamic type of channel, monitor ing, river banks deformation, emergencies

Abstract >>
This paper presents the results of geomorphological reconnaissance field studies of the effects of floods on the rivers of the Irkutsk oblast basin Angara - Iya (Angara river tributary), Olha (Irkut river tributary), as well as a number of tributaries of the lake Baikal. Were considered three sites located in different geodynamic conditions: Iya-river (Gadaley mouth-mouth Azey), Olkha, part of the tributares of lake Baikal (near the Baikalsk). The typing of channels and complexes of the studied rivers is carried out. High geodiversity of channel types within the study area was noted. The river Iya has incised, adapted, wide floodplain-channel river channel type. Olha characterized wide floodplaine with a meandering or branched- meandering type of channel with mostly segmental flat floodplain type. Tributaries of lake Baikal (Solzan, Babkha, Bezymyannaya) in the lower reaches and are characterized by a wide-floodplain, adapted branched and branched-winding types of channel, often with shore-and selezaschitnymi designs. On the basis of a combination of morphodynamic channel types the basic types, degree of interac tion of flood waters and floodplain-channel complexes on various sites are preliminary defined. It is noted that for the wide-floodplain areas the main type of interaction of the flow - floodplain-channel system was the flooding of negative forms of floodplain relief, in the areas of the adapted and embedded channel there was a complete flooding of floodplains. The most intensive, apparently, interaction of the flow and flow-floodplain-channel complexes, took place in the zones of change of the hydrodynamic regime, morphodynamic types of the channel. The types of exogenous geomorphological processes in river valleys arising or activated by the passage of the flood were determined.
																								



13.
MAPPING A TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE OF THE ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE BAIKAL REGION

D.A. LOPATKIN
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
ld@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: геоинформационное картографирование, региональный экологический каркас, природные гео системы, особо охраняемые природные территории, агроландшафты, geoinformation mapping, regional ecological framework, natural geosystems, specially protected natural ter ritories, agrolandscapes

Abstract >>
Mapping the areas which build the ecological framework is based on a theoretical approach, a functional separation method and a three-level classification of the ecological framework elements of a region previously developed by the author. We considered a region is as part of the southern regions of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation (the Republic of Buryatia, the Zabaykalsky Krai and the Irkutsk oblast) within the catchment area of Lake Baikal and the northern regions of Mongolia. The methodology consists in a comprehensive analysis of the three most important target components in the organiza tion of the ecological framework of the region: protection of the Baikal geosystem; landscape and biological diversity protection; providing comfortable living conditions for the population of the region and the state of its physical health. Changes in environ mental legislation, in particular, the adoption of new federal laws and decrees of the Government of the Russian Federation, the expansion of the study area, and the experience in creating digital maps of the “Ecological Atlas of the Lake Baikal Basin” (2015): natural geosystems, resilience of geosystems to anthropogenic impacts, recommended use of landscapes; land use; land and forest resources, etc., this all provides general methodological concept for the preparation of a series of maps of the eco logical framework of the Baikal region. The territories that create the ecological framework were determined by comparing and analyzing the structure and functional features of landscapes and land uses using layers of digital map series: Landscape of the Lake Baikal Basin; Modern Land Use; Protected Areas, etc.
																								



14.
SEMIOTIC SYSTEM OF ATLAS MAPPING OF THE BAIKAL REGION

D.A. BATUEV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
dbatuevuseful@yandex.ru
Keywords: Байкальский регион, атласное картографирование, семиотическая система, семиотика атласов, атласные картосемиотические знания, синтактическая классификация знаков, способы картографического изображения, the Baikal region, atlas mapping, semiotic system, semiotics of atlases, atlas cartosemiotic knowledge, syntactic classification of signs, mapping methods

Abstract >>
Contemporary society needs competent atlas cartosemiotic publications that form its scientific knowledge and intellectual communication potential. We consider the process of forming the iconic system of atlas mapping of the Baikal region. More than twenty atlases were created for the territory of the Baikal region and published. Fifteen of these were selected by us for their general cartosemiotic study. The internal cartosemiotic structure of atlases was analyzed through the prism of a unified system developed by the author, the classification of symbols and graphic display methods on the example of two atlases: of Transbai kalia and the Ecological Atlas of the Lake Baikal Basin. Both atlases include scientific fundamental and comprehensive content: we achieved the thematic completeness of the atlas, its sections and individual maps, created as a whole scientific work, showing specifically the components of nature and society and their territorial interaction. The analytical, synthetic, complex and system maps of the atlases are combined with a special system-hierarchical organization of the legend. In general, the mutual coordina tion of individual maps in sections and of the sections themselves was successfully implemented, which corresponds to the scien tific requirements for compiling maps and designing atlases for publication. The presence of balance and diversity in the combi nation of various types, classes, groups and types of syntactic designs of map characters revealed during semiotic analysis of atlases demonstrates a high scientific level of map compilation works and works on the general semiotic design of the publication of the atlas of Transbaikalia and the Environmental Atlas of the Lake Baikal Basin.
																								



15.
STRUCTURAL SHIFTS IN THE INDUSTRY OF THE IRKUTSK OBLAST IN THE POST-SOVIET PERIOD

L.A. BEZRUKOV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
bezrukov@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: промышленное производство, отраслевая и продуктовая структуры, институциональная струк тура, территориальная структура, ресурсно-сырьевая специализация, внешний рынок, территориально-производствен ный комплекс (ТПК), industrial production, industry and product structure, institutional structure, territorial structure, resource and raw material specialization, foreign market, territorial-production complex (TPC)

Abstract >>
The paper presents the analysis of the changes that occurred in the post-Soviet period in the main industrial structures of the Irkutsk oblast - industry, food, institutional and territorial. We revealed a sectoral shift in industry and product structures in the direction of strengthening resource and raw material specialization and increasing the share of industries and types of products that focus primarily on the foreign market. The transformation of the institutional structure as a result of the privatiza tion of basic enterprises and their transfer under the control of metropolitan capital has led to a significant reduction in the fiscal return for the region. The main trend in changing the territorial structure of industrial production is a dramatic shift to the pe ripheral northern regions with the formation of a new large Verkhnelenskii territorial-production complex there. The main direc tions of regional industry development in the foreseeable future, their advantages and disadvantages are outlined.
																								



16.
INTERREGIONAL INTERACTION IN SIBERIA FOR MEETING THE MAIN CHALLENGES

N.M. SYSOEVA1,2
1Irkutsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontova, 134, Russia
syssoeva@oresp.irk.ru
2V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
Keywords: взаимодействие между регионами, межрегиональные экономические ассоциации, субъекты межрегиональных связей, территориальные проблемы, пространственное развитие, interaction between regions, interregional economic associations, subjects of interregional relations, territorial issues, spatial development

Abstract >>
The urgency of the topic of interregional cooperation is caused by a decrease in the intensity of horizontal ties between regions resulted from the increased centralization of economic resources, a general decrease in the rate of economic growth, and the underdeveloped institutional basis of the cooperation. The research considers the possibility of enhancing interregional coop eration on the basis of a joint addressing the main territorial challenges by regional authorities, which are currently being ad dressed from the federal level. It has proven essential to include horizontal ties between regions, which will take into account the interests of the territories. Three groups of similar problems have been identified related to the nature of the use of natural re sources, environmental impact on the habitat, and the preservation of the human potential of the territory. We proposed to study the practice of reducing the level of decision-making in the country and abroad by the method of case analysis, in particular, when solving the problems of protecting Lake Baikal, in order to create a system of institutions for inter-regional interaction. This approach will strengthen federalism and accelerate the pace of socio-economic development of territories.
																								



17.
CHEMICAL COMPLEX OF THE IRKUTSK OBLAST: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

M.A. TARAKANOV
Irkutsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontova, 134, Russia
mihaltar@mail.ru
Keywords: химический комплекс, Иркутская область, сырье, нефть, природный газ, калийная соль, дре весные отходы, экологические проблемы, перспективы, региональное развитие, chemical complex, Irkutsk region, raw materials, oil, natural gas, potassium salt, wood waste, environmental problems, prospects, regional development

Abstract >>
One of the largest and highly developed chemical complexes in Russia was formed in the Irkutsk region by the beginning of the 1990s and comprised of the petrochemical, chemical, microbiological, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. This paper described the transformation of the sectoral and product structures of this complex over the years of market reforms, the processes of separation, shutdown, and expansion of existing enterprises, and the creation of new industries. It was noted that the ecological conditions in the cities of the south of the Irkutsk oblast were improved due to technical and technological envi ronmental measures at the enterprises of the chemical complex and, to a greater extent, because a number of its enterprises were decommissioned and reduced in production output. At the same time, new serious environmental problems arose, associated with the need to eliminate waste and reclaim the territories of the enterprises that ceased to operate. The problems and prospects of diversification and development of the chemical complex on the basis of new types of local raw materials, namely natural gas, potassium salt, and wood waste. The conclusion was made that, the implementation of gas-chemical, potassium, and microbio logical projects could potentially make the chemical complex of the Irkutsk region one of the largest ones in the country again.
																								



18.
SERVICE ROADS AS A FACTOR OF TRANSPORT ACCESSIBILITY

V.N. BOGDANOV, G.B. DUGAROVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
victvss@gmail.com
Keywords: транспортная доступность, технологические дороги, удаленность, северные территории, transport accessibility, service roads, remoteness, northern territory

Abstract >>
The development of the transport network affects the socio-economic development of the territory and it is one of the most important factors in the growth of the level and quality of the population life. There is the need for a study of transport acces sibility. In our work, we presented the mapping and assessment of changes in transport accessibility after the construction of service road. After the construction of the ESPO pipeline, a service road was built along it to maintenance the pipeline, which is located close to the district centers and crosses the local roads. This new road connected them into one network with year-round traffic. The object of our research is the Area of Oil and Gas Extraction in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the North Irkutsk region.We have created transport accessibility maps with and without all service roads, separately for winter and summer seasons. We have created maps for several district centers. We calculated transport accessibility using the method of constructing iso chrones - lines of equal travel time to overcome the space relative to given points, using open GIS GRASS GIS. After construc tion, the company owner of this road gives permission to the municipal and federal services and local population use for free, but a preliminary application is required. There is a payment requirement and compliance with restrictions for transportation of commercial goods. After the construction of the ESPO pipeline, people who live close to the pipeline can reach to the district centers and neighboring districts by car year-round theoretically. The materials of this study can be useful in calculating the travel time on these roads, and finding priority areas for the construction of new roads.
																								



19.
REGIONAL PRIORITIES OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA)

G.I. GLADKEVICH
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1, Russia
dolph-glad@mail.ru
Keywords: региональная экономическая и социальная эффективность, территориальные сочетания мине рального сырья, Западная Якутия, транспортная доступность, экономико-географическое положение, regional economic and social efficiency, territorial combinations of mineral raw materials, Western Yakutia, transport accessibility, economic and geographical location

Abstract >>
A significant increase in the regional economic and social efficiency of the use of mineral resources in the regions of the Far North of Russia is the main condition for raising social standards of quality of life and slowing the significant migration outflow of the population from these places. This is possible with the creation of a denser transport infrastructure, the development of which will be facilitated by the transition from single-industry focal development schemes to a combination of sectors of the economy on the basis of territorial complexes of mineral raw materials. The object of the study was chosen Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Assessment of territorial combinations of mineral resources of the Republic showed the priority of further development of Western Yakutia, based on the potential of existing transit pipelines of Federal importance and using the benefits of proxim ity to the oil and gas areas of the Irkutsk region. This option solves the problem of “connecting” Yakutsk to the unified transport system of the country without the construction of an ultra-expensive bridge across the Lena river and accelerates the development of the emerging industrial area in the North-Western part of Yakutia on the basis of the Tomtor Deposit.
																								



20.
SOCIO-GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES OF THE POTENTIAL OF DEVELOPMENT OF EASTERN SIBERIA

T.I. ZABORTSEVA1,2, P.V. ROGOV1
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
zabti@irigs.irk.ru
2Irkutsk State University, 664003, Irkutsk, ul. Кarla Marksa, 1, Russia
Keywords: регионы Восточной Сибири, специализация, социально-экономическое развитие, строительная индустрия, жилищное строительство, Eastern Siberian regions, specialization, socio-economic development, construction industry, housing

Abstract >>
The description of the Asian territory of Russia in the format of an economic region, which is traditional for Siberian ge ographers, is continued in this article. The Eastern Siberia (the Irkutsk region, the Krasnoyarsk Krai, the Zabaykalsky Krai, and the Republics of Buryatia, Tyva, and Khakassia), which occupies almost a quarter of Russia, is populated by less than 6 % of Russians. It is established that resource-oriented productions commenced during the planned economic system and using the raw-materials base of the region continue to dominate during the period of market relations, with oil and gas production ac tively developing in the 21st century. According to the Spatial Development Strategy of Russia (until 2025), seven urban areas in the Eastern Siberia are identified as promising for the first time, including Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk as world-class scientific and educational centers. At the same time, there is an unprecedented outflow of population (since 1990, the population of the region has decreased by more than a million people, with the Irkutsk region being the leader in absolute terms) and a large-scale increase in “ metropolitan ” residents in all regions of the Eastern Siberia, with the city of Ulan-Ude being the leader. However, one may also observe positive construction dynamics and the active demand for housing mortgages, which are due to government programs for the development of housing of various hierarchical statuses (federal, regional, and municipal).
																								



21.
PERMEABILITY OF BORDERS AND TRANSPORT AND GEOGRAPHIC POSITION OF THE TERRITORY OF THE KHMAO-YUGRA

S.N. SOKOLOV, E.A. KUZNETSOVA
Nizhnevartovsk State University, 628605, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra, Nizhnevartovsk, ul. Lenina, 56, Russia
snsokolov1@yandex.ru
Keywords: транспортно-географическое положение, экономико-географическое положение, транспортная доступность, проницаемости границ, Ханты-Мансийский автономный округ - Югра, transport and geographical location, economic and geographical location, transport accessibility, permeability of borders, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra

Abstract >>
The paper considers the transport and geographical position of the region (TGP), which is an essential component of the economic and geographical position. The TGP means the position with regard to the transport network, the network of transport hubs and flows. The area of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra is characterized by a large remoteness of its territory from the ice-free seas and oceans, and therefore the TGP of the okrug is not profitable. Underdeveloped transport and eco nomic conditions hinders the restructuring of the productive forces of the region. There are automobile, railway, river, aviation and pipeline transport in the okrug, which contribute to the overcoming the geographical distance and the realizing integration processes. The undeveloped transport infrastructure creates significant difficulties in the development of a territory with a high natural resource potential. The TGP refers to interaction resources; their role is especially great in Asian Russia, including the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra. These resources include transport accessibility, an important indicator that affects the socio-economic situation in the region. It is necessary to calculate an indicator of border permeability to assess transport accessibility. The permeability of the area is an assessment of this area according to the contact degree between its sections. We proposed to introduce an indicator of border permeability that would take into account not only railways, highways and waterways, but also air routes, oil and gas pipelines. By calculating, we revealed that the most permeable border is with the Sverdlovsk oblast, less permeable with the Tyumen oblast, medium permeable with the Tomsk oblast and Yamal, and low permeable with the Republic of Komi. The least permeabale border is with the Krasnoyarsk krai.
																								



22.
ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE WITHIN THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA

O.A. YEKIMOVSKAYA1, I.A. BELOZERTSEVA2,3, A.P. GRITSENYUK4,5
1Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 670047, ul. Sakhyanovoi, 8, Ulan-Ude, Russia
oafe@mail.ru
2V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
belozia@mail.ru
3Irkutsk State University, 664011, Irkutsk, ul. Sukhe-Batora, 5, Russia
4V.R. Filippov Buryat State Academy of Agriculture, 670034, Ulan-Ude, ul. Pushkina, 8, Russia
gap1958@mail.ru
5Federal Forestry Agency FSBI В«Roslesinforg», Buryat Branch, 670046, Ulan-Ude, ul. Klyuchevskaya, 41, Russia
Keywords: постагрогенные степные ландшафты, Бурятия Республика, потенциал, развитие сельского хо зяйства, функционирование экосистем, социально-экономические и экологические последствия, рентная оценка сельскохозяйственных угодий, аgriculture, land use, vegetation, pasture lands, Republic of Buryatia

Abstract >>
We analyzed the main features, directions and factors of the agricultural land use system. Special attention is given to the most valuable resource - cropland. Its overgrowing with trees and shrubs is defined. Using the example of abandoned cropland within the forest zone of the republic, we revealed that the areas adjacent to the forest are potential pine forests with dry and herb-grass types of forests in future. Their use as cropland is possible with mandatory irrigation. The use as natural forage land is impractical due to the widespread dominance of unproductive plant species inedible for agricultural animals Potentilla, Heteropap pus, Artemísia in the grassy vegetation cover. The state of forest shelter belts at key research sites was assessed using the method of taxation and eye-measuring. One of the problems of rational land use of the republic is the presence of large abandoned land. Their return to agricultural circulation and agricultural rehabilitation requires significant costs. To assess the economic feasibility of introducing abandoned arable and natural fodder lands into agricultural production and calculating potential profits, a rent assessment was carried out, and the value of net operating income was calculated. In our methodology, the calculation of the value of costs is based on the use of the actual costs of agricultural enterprises, taking into account the adjustability of prices for crops and reflects the current socio-economic situation in the regions of the Republic of Buryatia. The calculations show that the cultivation of wheat, oats and barley is profitable for most agricultural enterprises in the republic with a minimum rate of return of 5 %. In the areas where the cultivation of oats or barley does not generate income, the costs pay off when growing the leading crop - wheat. According to the indicators of rental income from arable and pasture lands, the total income was calculated.
																								



23.
THE SCALE OF THE BAIKAL AND FAR EAST REGIONS COAL EXPORT

E.A. SHERIN
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
egor-sherin@mail.ru
Keywords: угольная промышленность, транспортировка углей, железные дороги, грузовые порты, экспорт, Сибирь, Дальний Восток, coal industry, coal transportation, railways, cargo ports, export, Siberia, Far East

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the current state of coal export in the east of Russia, namely the Baikal, South Yakutia and Far Eastern coals. The place of the Baikal and Far Eastern regions on an all-Russian scale is established. The advantages and disadvan tages of coal complexes in Eastern Siberia and the Far East of Russia are examined in terms of export potential, such as the quality of coal and proximity to foreign markets. The reasons for the development of the coal industry in eastern Russia in recent years are identified. The countries and regions of the world importing the Baikal, South Yakutia, and Far Eastern coals are identified. Each coal-mining region in the east of Russia, whose coals are exported, is investigated. The volumes of the export, the directions of supplies, and the types of coal shipped are determined. The transport infrastructure used for the export of coal within the Baikal and Far Eastern regions, including border crossings and cargo ports, is analyzed. This study also touches upon the problems and constraining factors of coal export, such as the limited capacity of Russian railways, their utilized capacity, high transport tariffs for coal transportation, as well as loaded cargo ports carrying out coal transportation and their overcharges. The possibilities of overcoming these problems and the constraining factors of coal export are considered, which include, first of all, reconstruction of railway sections carrying out coal transportation, modernization of cargo ports loading coal to sea transport, and improvement in the depth of processing of coal mined in Siberia. The possibility of building new rail links with border crossings on the border between Russia and China is analyzed. The main prospects for coal export to the East Asian market are determined.
																								



24.
INFLUENCE OF MINING INDUSTRY ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT OF THE DISTRICTS OF THE IRKUTSK OBLAST

N.A. IPPOLITOVA1,2
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
nina-ip@list.ru
2Irkutsk State University, 664003, Irkutsk, ul. Karla Marksa, 1, Russia
Keywords: социально-экономическая среда, уровень жизни населения, горнодобывающая промышленность, месторождения, Иркутская область, socio-economic environment, living standards, mining, deposits, the Irkutsk oblast

Abstract >>
The paper presents an assessment of the socio-economic environment of the areas with mining orientation in the structure of which the mining industry has already been developed or can be developed in the near future. Based on the results of the study, we ranked the districts according to the living standards and resource prerequisites for the development of the mining industry in the short term. The socio-economic environment considered by the municipalities of the Irkutsk oblast is signifi cantly differentiated both in terms of living standards and resource prerequisites for the further development of the mining indus try. However, we can identify some general trends existing at the present moment. Those territories where the mining industry has a long history of development and the raw materials have steady demand in the global and domestic markets (Bodaibo, Nizhneilimskii, Mamsko-Chuiskii districts and Cheremkhovo) have a well-developed social infrastructure. In areas where the development of the mining industry has only just begun or is planned in the near future, there is an urgent need to create and further develop a social infrastructure, which is complicated by environmental conditions (Katanga, Zhigalovskii, Kirenskii dis tricts, etc.). It is the high cost of the extracted raw materials and its demand that should contribute to this process.
																								



25.
POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES OF THE TRANSITION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA AND THE ZABAYKALSKY KRAI TO THE FAR EASTERN FEDERAL DISTRICT IN THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SPHERE

O.V. EVSTROP’EVA, P.L. POPOV, A.A. CHERENEV, V.G. SARAEV, V.N. VESELOVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
golomanka1972@gmail.com
Keywords: макрорегионы, Байкальский регион, компоненты уровня развития и социального благополучия, ареал, отставание, переход в ДФО, macroregions, the Baikal region, components of the development level and social well-being, areal, lagging, transition to the FFD

Abstract >>
The Baikal region (the Irkutsk oblast, the Republic of Buryatia, and the Zabaykalsky Krai) is considered in the context of distribution of component phenomena of the level of development and social well-being over the macroregions of the Russian Federation with account for the dynamics of these phenomena during 2005-2016. The macroregions of the Russian Federation are compared by the components of the level of development and social well-being. In terms of the status achieved in 2016 and relative to most of the positions considered, the Eastern Siberia, particularly the Baikal region, is the least advantageous as compared to the Far East, and the macroregions located further in the west seem to have the highest values. As for the dynam ics, there are two areas of relatively rapid growth in the Russian Federation. One of them is located in the west of the country and includes the Central Black Earth Economic Region, the Central Non-Black Earth Region, the Northwest, the Southwest, and St. Petersburg. The other one includes the Far East, mainly its oceanic part. The Baikal region is located in a vast area of relatively slow growth. The Irkutsk oblast lags behind the Republic of Buryatia and the Zabaykalsky Krai in terms of the rate of progression of some components of socio-economic development and prosperity. It is proposed that the transition of the Republic of Buryatia and the Zabaykalsky Krai to the Far Eastern Federal District (FFD) may improve this trend and, in addition, in crease the injustice in the distribution of material goods allowed in relation to the Irkutsk oblast.
																								



26.
SOCIAL SECURITY OF THE POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA)

V.N. VESELOVA, L.B. BASHALKHANOVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
veselova@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: суровость климата, смертность населения, типы питания, продуктовая корзина, severe climatic conditions, population mortality, type of nutrition, food basket

Abstract >>
The paper shows that an important factor in maintaining health in severe climatic conditions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is a balanced protein-lipid type of food recommended in SB RAMS. In 1992 the normative zoning established standards for the Republic of the protein:fat:carbohydrate (82.8:78.6:386.3 g/day), they were rather high for that period, but significantly lower than necessary, but their adoption ensured systematic social protection of the population. We analyzed the gradual reform of norms and limits of the regulatory zoning of the food basket in the Republic. It was established that the introduction at the regional level of two regulatory zones since the III quarter of 2002, relevant for this period, has led to a sharp deterioration in the socio-economic situation of the population. The structure protein:fat:carbohydrate (70.0:60.69:330.8) and the energy value of food in the food basket in the second regulatory zone have become practically comparable with the norms of the regions of southern Siberia. The norms protein: fat:carbohydrate (79.3:74.7:312.3 g/day) for 2013 remain below those recommended by the SB RAMS. On average, the deviations of protein and fat norms in the Republic in 2013 remained at the level of 1992 and amounted to 41 and 49 %, respectively. The paper demonstrates that the transformations are associated with a sharp decrease and slowdown in the growth rate of the living wage - the basic parameter of the socio-economic security of the population. The decrease in the level of social protection of the population was accompanied by an increase in mortality, especially from dis eases of the circulatory system and digestive organs. The largest contribution to overall mortality at both the regional and mu nicipal levels is made up of mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (44 %). It is necessary to change the normative zoning of the food basket with the maximum approximation of the norms to the protein-lipid type of nutrition to enhance the social security of the population of the northern territories.
																								



27.
POPULATION MIGRATION OF SIBERIA: POST-SOVIET TRENDS

N.V. VOROBYEV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
vorobyev@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: миграционные процессы, тенденции миграции, территориальная дифференциация, регионы, Сибирь, migration processes, migration trends, territorial differentiation, regions, Siberia

Abstract >>
This paper describes post-Soviet social and geographical features and trends in the development of migration processes in the historical and cultural macroregion of Siberia as a whole and with differentiation of 16 constituent regions. The study is carried out using information from the Rosstat database relating to the post-Soviet period, especially data from the 2013-2018 time interval during which no changes were introduced into the rules of statistical accounting of migration. The main post-Sovi et trends in the population migration of Siberia are as follows. First, a decrease in the volume of migration “at the place of residence” with an increase in the volume of migration “at the place of temporary residence”. Second, a centripetal intrare gional vector, a negative “western” interregional vector, and a positive vector of interstate migration. Third, depopulation in the migration of peripheral territories. Fourth, the slowdown of extensive urbanization due to exhausted rural demographic resourc es and rising prices for urban housing. Fifth, the improvement of suburbanization in the areas affected by the largest cities. Fi nally, the accumulation of population into the urban agglomerations of the trans-Siberian Economic Corridor. The migration trends manifested in individual regions are as follows. The maximal migration mobility is observed in the Khanty-Mansi Auto nomous Okrug (KHMAO), the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YNAO), and the Altai Republic. A migration growth is observed in five regions (the Tyumen oblast, the Novosibirsk oblast, the Tomsk oblast, the Republic of Khakassia, and the Krasnoyarsk Krai), and a migration loss is manifested in the remaining 11 oblasts. The Tyumen, Novosibirsk, and Tomsk regions are the only regions with population growth from Russian territories. A migration gain from outside the Russian Federation is observed in all the above-mentioned regions.
																								



28.
CHANGE OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE OF THE POPULATION OF THE IRKUTSK OBLAST

Yu.N. DMITRIEVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
Yuliya.dmitr@mail.ru
Keywords: демографические процессы, типы возрастных структур, группировка территории, муниципаль ные образования, Иркутская область, демографические процессы, типы возрастных структур, группировка территории, муниципаль ные образования, Иркутская область, demographic processes, types of age structures, territory grouping, municipal districts, Irkutsk oblast

Abstract >>
This paper focuses on the problem of studying the demographic structure of the Irkutsk oblast in terms of reducing the number and proportion of young and working-age population. The indicators of reproduction of the population of the Irkutsk oblast for the period from 2011 to 2018 are analyzed. According to the UN scale, the proportion of elderly people over the age of 65 for the municipal districts, which determines the general pattern of aging of the population, is calculated. The cartograph ic method is used for grouping the territory of the Irkutsk oblast according to three types of age structures of the population: progressive, stationary, and regressive. It is shown that the demographic structure of the region’s population is territorially dif ferentiated: the progressive type is characteristic of the middle settlement area of the Irkutsk oblast and the Ust-Orda Buryat Ok rug, and the regressive type is characteristic for most urban districts and northern peripheral regions of the region. It is proposed to distinguish a transitional subtype from the progressive type of the age structure to the stationary type with a minimum difference in the proportion of ages younger and older than the working-age one. It has been established that the formulas for the age structures of the population of municipal districts are determined by the indicators of natural reproduction and the migration situation. According to state statistics, the forecast of the demographic structure of the population until 2036 is given. Currently, the region’s population is characterized by a transition from the stationary type of demographic structure to the regressive one.
																								



29.
ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF THE SETTLEMENT SYSTEM IN THE TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TYVA

M.K. MANDYT, TS.D. GONCHIKOV
D. Banzarov Buryat State University, 670000, Ulan-Ude, ul. Smolina, 24а
mandyt88@mail.ru
Keywords: system, settlement, tool, problems, development, typology, concept, система, расселение, инструмент, проблемы, развитие, типология, концепция

Abstract >>
This paper touches upon the regional settlement system as a tool for solving the main problems of territorial development of the Republic of Tyva. Revealing the economic content of this settlement requires one to focus on the settlement typologies, which makes it possible not only to estimate both the current level of socio-economic development of the region and the most important problems of a particular area, i. e., the problems related to the regional economy. Finally, the main attention is paid to the concept of developing a five-step hierarchical settlement system as a key solution to the most important and urgent regional problems: achieving the economically and socially well-balanced development of all territorial parts of the Republic and increas ing the level and living standards of the population.
																								



30.
PUBLIC HEALTH OF URBANIZED TERRITORIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA AND MONGOLIA

N.V. SHARTOVA1, S. ENKH-AMGALAN2, S.M. MALKHAZOVA1
1M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1, Russia
shartova@yandex.ru
2Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar-15170, Mongolia
amgalan69@yahoo.com
Keywords: общественное здоровье, территориальная дифференциация, заболеваемость, смертность, За каменск, Улан-Удэ, загрязнение, public health, territorial differentiation, morbidity, mortality, Zakamensk, Ulan-Ude, pollution

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of public health study in Buryatia (on the example of the cities of Ulan-Ude and Zakamensk) and Mongolia (on the example of the industrial centers of Ulan-Bator, Erdenet, Darkhan). Medical-demographic differences between analyzed territorial units are identified on the analysis of morbidity and mortality rates for 2010-2016. There is a certain similarity of morbidity and mortality in the urban areas of Buryatia and Mongolia. This is the prevalence of environ mentally significant diseases, such as neoplasms, respiratory diseases, diseases of the genitourinary system. On the example of Zakamensk it was revealed that in industrial single-industry cities an unfavorable environmental situation is formed even after the closure of enterprises.
																								



31.
THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF THE POPULATION INDUSTRIAL REGION

V.A. RYABOV, P.S. MAMASEV
Novokuznetsk Institute (branch) FSBEI В«Kemerovo State University», 654041, Novokuznetsk, ul. Tsiolkovskogo, 23, Russia
val27@ya.ru
Keywords: качество жизни населения, экологический фактор, состояние окружающей среды, индекс ан тропогенной нагрузки, оценка качества жизни населения, Кемеровская область, Кузбасс, quality of life of the population, environmental factor, state of environment, index of anthropogenic load, asses sment of quality of life of the population, Kemerovo region, Kuzbass

Abstract >>
The influence of environmental factor on the formation of the quality of life of the population and its special role in shap ing the quality of life of the population in industrial region (on the example of Kemerovo region) have been shown. The ap proaches to assessing the quality of life are analyzed. The main anthropogenic factors and their influence on the formation of environmentally disadvantaged living environment of the population of Kuzbass are revealed. The main reasons of high anthro pogenic pressure are established. The territorial assessment of the differences of anthropogenic impact (anthropogenic load index) in the Kemerovo region was carried out.
																								



32.
NATURAL, MECHANICAL MOVEMENT OF THE POPULATION AND FORMATION OF LABOR POTENTIAL IN THE REGIONS OF SIBERIA AND THE FAR EAST

Ya.A. LESHCHENKO, A.A. LISOVTSOV
East-Siberian Institute of Medical and Ecological Research, 665827, Angarsk, 12a microdistrict, Russia
yaleshenko@gmail.com
Keywords: смертность, рождаемость, миграция, трудовой потенциал, mortality, birth rate, migration, labor potential

Abstract >>
Studies have been conducted to evaluate the processes of natural and mechanical movement of the population of the regions of Siberia and the Far East in the post-Soviet period (using the example of the Irkutsk and Amur oblasts), the impact of these processes on the formation of labor potential. In both regions, from 1990 to 2017, the natural movement of the population was assessed as narrowed demographic reproduction, which did not ensure the formation of the necessary parameters of labor poten tial in the future. The processes of the mechanical movement of the population were characterized by a migration outflow of the population from the Siberian Federal District (SFD) and Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD) to the western regions of Russia. The eastern vector of increase in the outflow of the population was noted: the relative indicators of the mechanical decline in the population in the EFD and the Amur oblast were significantly higher than the average in the SFD and the Irkutsk oblast. The most negative aspect of the influx of migrants from abroad is illegal migration. A set of measures is proposed to solve the problems of internal and external migration.
																								



33.
STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT VECTORS OF THE HUMAN POTENTIAL OF THE BAIKAL REGION

O.V. VALEEVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
valeeva.o.v@yandex.ru
Keywords: человеческий потенциал, Байкальский регион, социально-экономическое развитие, муниципальные образования, стратегические направления, human potential, the Baikal region, socio-economic development, municipal districts, strategic directions

Abstract >>
This paper describes a study of the quality and living standard of the population of municipal districts of the Irkutsk oblast, the Republic of Buryatia, and the Zabaykalsky Krai in the context of a typed regional policy, whose activities are aimed at improving the human potential of the region as a whole with no account for the individual characteristics of each munici pal district. The region is characterized by significant intraregional imbalances in the socio-economic development of munici pal districts, which affect the living standards of the population, thereby allowing one to identify the problems and prospects of human development. It is shown that the successful development of human potential requires effective measures as part of the strategic programs of socio-economic development of the municipal districts of the Baikal region. Priority directions are proposed for increasing the human potential in seven groups of municipal districts, distinguished by geographical location and the ratio of urban and rural population (urbanized, low-urbanized, rural, northern, transboundary, suburban, and near-high way). Taking into account the territorial features of the region allows one to determine the human development vectors more accurately.
																								



34.
MAPPING NATURAL POPULATION CHANGES OF THE IRKUTSK OBLAST

A.N. VOROBYEV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
tore12@yandex.ru
Keywords: естественное движение населения, дазиметрический метод, ареалы расселения, население, ред козаселенный регион, Иркутская область, natural population changes, dasymetric method, distribution areas, population, sparsely populated region, the Irkutsk oblast

Abstract >>
We considered the specifics of mapping natural population changes of the Irkutsk oblast. The Irkutsk oblast is a non-uniformly populated territory in its main part with a rare network of settlements (mainly of focal character) with the exception of the south along the Transsiberian Railway. We applied the dasymetric method by V.P. Semenov-Tyan-Shanskii adjusted for Siberian realities to identify local characteristics of the population distribution. The boundaries of the territories of areal settle ment were determined by the spot method with a buffer radius of 3 km from the borders of the settlement. Continuous lines of settlement formed by single or double chains of settlements along the transport routes, being the axes of economic activity, border upon the territories of areal settlement. A defining characteristic of this method is that the calculation of natural growth and further mapping was carried out not according to administrative units, but in the context of settlements and populated areas, ignoring the boundaries of municipalities. A cartographic study enables the identification of patterns and detailing of natural migration, taking into account the characteristics of the actual distribution of the population of the Irkutsk oblast.
																								



35.
ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE OF THE EVENK MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF THE KRASNOYARSK KRAI BY INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS

E.A. EVSEENKO, V.I. KIRKO, A.I. SHADRIN
V.P. Astafiev Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, ul. Ady Lebedevoi, 89, Russia
katrinevseen@yandex.ru
Keywords: качество жизни, коренные малочисленные народы, северные территории, субъективность оценки качества жизни, социально-экономические показатели, демографические показатели, уровень благосостояния, условия труда населения, уровень жизни населения, объективность качества жизни, quality of life, indigenous peoples, northern territories, subjectivity of quality of life assessment, socio-economic indicators, demographic indicators, level of well-being, working conditions of the population, standard of living of the population, objectivity of quality of life assessment

Abstract >>
The subject of the study is the quality of life of the indigenous peoples of the north of Siberia - Evenki and Keto, locally living in the rural settlements of Baikit and Sulomai of Evenki municipal district of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The purpose of this study is to analyze the differentiation of the subjective perception of the quality of life by different layers of the population living in remote villages of the northern taiga zone of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The task is the application of the developed methodology for a comparative analysis of the quality of life of residents in remote villages of Siberia. The scientific novelty of this study lies in the application of the method of objective and sybjective assessment of the quality of life to the population group living compactly in harsh northern conditions and belonging to the category of indigenous peoples of the North.
																								



36.
MEDICAL-GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES OF SIBERIA

T.N. SHEKHOVTSOVA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
tan-truf@yandex.ru
Keywords: медицинская география, экология человека (антропоэкология), ИГ СО РАН, medical geography, human ecology (anthropoecology), IG SB RAS

Abstract >>
The article presents the main trends of medical geographic researches in general. The experience of studying Siberia from the standpoint of medical geography at the V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography SB RAS (IG SB RAS) is considered. The main branch directions of medical-geographic researches of Institute are discussed: medical-geographical zoning, biogeochemical, studying of geography of diseases with natural foci and zooparasitological. It is noted that medical and geographical research was the foundation for the formation of such areas in the Institute as recreational-geographical and anthropoecological. It is spoken about transformation of ideas of medical-geographical researches over time for various reasons, both external and inter nal, about change of research focus. It is noted that the IG SB RAS a powerful research center for multi-faceted multidimen sional study of the population of Siberia and neighboring territories of the sector of medical geography, sector of geography of the population and other units, which operates at the present time.