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"Philosophy of Education"

2020 year, number 2

1.
INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL OF REGIONAL UNIVERSITY: EXPERIENCE OF CONSTRUCTING AN ONTOLOGICAL MODEL

S. I. Chernykh1, K. Yu. Kazantsev2
1Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: онтология образования, интеллектуальный капитал, человеческий капитал, структурный капитал, потребительский капитал, экосистема субъектов образования, академический капитализм, ontology of education, intellectual capital, human capital, structural capital, consumer capital, ecosystem of educational subjects, academic capitalism

Abstract >>
The paper discusses the methodological principles of constructing a model for the formation of intellectual capital of a regional university. Intellectual capital is considered as a resource in building the potential of a regional university in the context of increasing competition and transformation of the educational space of Russia, as well as a mechanism for overcoming regional inequality in the development of the educational environment. Methodology and methods of the research. The concept of «intellectual capital» is analyzed, the principles of constructing a model of intellectual capital of a regional university as a specific type of organization are determined. The analysis is based on institutional, structural-functional and statistical approaches. Methodological developments of the theory of human capital by P. Altbach, P. Bourdieu, P. J. Gumport, D. Rogero, B. Clarks, S. Slaughter, J. Coleman, R. Putnam and others, as well as a number of domestic researchers are considered. An important part of the paper is the determination of the factors of transformation of regional universities, which are aimed at overcoming the extensiveness of their development and strengthening competitiveness by improving the quality of management. The results of the research. An overview of the main methodological approaches to the definition of the concepts of «intellectual capital» and «intellectual capital of a regional university» is given, the external and internal factor indicators necessary for constructing a structural model of intellectual capital are determined. The role of the subjective factor of the intellectual community of a regional university and the increasing role of this factor in increasing the competitiveness of regional universities are proved. As a determining factor, employee engagement is analyzed, which, as an important HR trend, determines the formation of the university’s competitive capabilities «from the inside». Conclusion. Conclusions are drawn that modern regional universities are in a situation of «unstable choice». This situation, on one hand, is determined by their dependence on centralized funding, which makes them non-autonomous and minimizes academic freedom. On the other hand, these processes are exacerbated by the departmental fragmentation of regional universities and the inequality in both the social and economic aspects between the regions. The internal actors that determine the «unstable choice» are the quality of management and the weak involvement of the academic community in the processes of formation of a university development strategy. The concepts of an entrepreneurial university, academic capitalism, the innovative cycle of interaction «university - business - production» can now be implemented for a very limited number of Russian universities. Some ways to overcome these limitations are suggested.
																								



2.
ONTOLOGY OF EDUCATION AS THE BASIS OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL DOCTRINE

S. Yu. Polyankina
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: онтология образования, онтологизация, национальная доктрина образования, глобализация образовательной политики, ontology of education, ontologization, national doctrine of education, globalization of educational policy

Abstract >>
Introduction. The purpose of the paper is to identify national ontologies of education in the texts of education laws and other program documents of Russia, the USA, France, Great Britain, Finland, Japan and China. The national doctrine of education is called upon to formulate the provisions of the ontology of education and even the social ontology of the nation, in order to then become the conceptual basis of legislation in the field of education and the basis for its strategy of development. Currently, there are trends in globalization and unification of educational policy in a number of countries, including the Russian Federation. In order to decide on the appropriateness of approving the National Doctrine of Education under the current conditions, it is necessary to establish whether it is possible to fully reflect the education ontology in the law on education and other legal acts, and the development strategy of national policy. Methodology and methods of the research. The author used a high-quality content analysis of the texts constituting the legal framework for educational policy in Russia, the USA, the European Union, Great Britain, France, Finland, Japan and China, and a comparative and axiological approach to research. The results of the research. The ontology of education is a part of the social ontology and is indicative of it. The national doctrine of education, designed to most fully reflect the ontology of education serving the social ontology of a particular society, is a conceptual basis for the implementation of educational policy. We failed to find a document that is essentially a doctrine in any of the countries under study. Nevertheless, the provisions of the ontology of education are present in the first chapter of each of the laws on education considered or, in one way or another, are expressed in other program documents formulating the goals and objectives of education in a particular country. The most comprehensive social ontology through the ontology of education is found in France, Japan and China. Accordingly, the law on education of these countries clearly spells out the values transmitted by the national education system. The most difficult thing is to fix the ontology of education in the countries where there is no single law on education, and this area is regulated by many laws and acts (the USA and Great Britain). The axiosphere of education of these two countries is not clearly defined. Implicitly, however, all the foreign countries examined share the value of equal access to education and lifelong education. This is partly explained by the globalization of educational policy. Another consequence of the activities of supranational organizations is the countries’ concern about the internationalization of higher education and the inclusion in the rankings of countries with high quality education, which poses a potential threat to the country’s national security, as it replaces the internal goals of educational policy with external ones. Conclusion. In order to avoid these trends and in the absence of a clearly defined ontology of education (and further - social ontology) in the text of the law on education, the adoption of the National Doctrine of Education, substantiating the mission, value, goals and objectives of education in the name of building a society of the future, is required.
																								



3.
AXIOLOGY OF EDUCATION AS A FORMING SYSTEM: SOCIAL-PHILOSOPHICAL REFLECTION

I. V. Yakovleva
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: аксиология, аксиология образования, аксиологические основы образования, законы аксиологии образования, свобода образования, логос и антилогос, axiology, axiology of education, axiological foundations of education, laws of axiology of education, freedom of education, logos and antilogos

Abstract >>
Introduction. Emerging new paradigms and concepts of education, in which educational reality is reflected using new methods of philosophical theorizing, in most cases oblige to evaluate them from the perspective of axiological imperatives. In order to bring education to the measure of its time, that is, education meeting modern social and individual needs and meeting the current value guidelines of the world community, we must realize that the self-evolving individual is the main value for society. Therefore, the scientific concept of the modern philosophy of education includes new concepts of «ontology of education», «epistemology of education», «axiology of education», «praxiology of education», etc. Their purpose is to emphasize not only intellectual evolution as the main mission of education, but also to determine its axiological orientation in the proportion of individual and social forms of being based on the identification of the laws of their functioning and the significant phenomenological constants of the axiology of education. Methodology and methods of the research. Applying philosophical and axiological approach to the discussion that accompanies the formation of phenomena (logo and antilogos, freedom in education and free education, mechanisms of value institutionalization, technologies for raising goals and values of education) that work in the logic of the dialectical laws of development, we strive to determine the axiological foundations of the system of Russian education. The existing dialectical methodology for the transition from abstract to concrete, from general to special in the understanding that more and more is based on the accumulation of small, creates opportunities for clarification and coordination of the axiological foundations of education and the laws of their interaction. The results of the research of a new section of the philosophy of education are considered by us as a necessary basis for the education system. In order to determine the axiological orientation in the ratio of individual and social forms of being in the article: the value-educational guidelines enshrined in declarative laws on education, which are cardinal and subcardinal, are considered; definitions of basic and superstructure values of the education system are given; some methods have been worked out to study the emerging new axiology of education based on the laws of its functioning. It is recognized that as the most significant phenomenological constants in the axiology of education there should be considered «logos» and «antilogos», which have a decisive influence on the formation of social and educational reality, as well as a mental-semantic understanding of «freedom in education» and «free education». To overcome the crisis state of public consciousness, it is proposed to introduce into educational practice technologies and mechanisms of independent value institutionalization of an individual. Conclusion. A review of the axiological reality of education suggests that sociocultural values are key to the organization of the educational system. Studying and at the same time developing an understanding of the laws governing the development of value-based socially-individual consciousness will help orient education towards the formation of the methodological content of its own basic and superstructure values.
																								



4.
TRANSDISCIPLINARY CONSTRUCTION OF THEORETICAL IMAGES OF THE PHENOMENON OF EDUCATION

V. V. Vikhman
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: образование, теоретический образ феномена образования, социальный конструкционизм, дисциплинарный подход, трансдисциплинарность, трансдисциплинарное конструирование, education, theoretical image of a phenomenon of education, social constructionism, disciplinary approach, transdisciplinarity, transdisciplinary designing

Abstract >>
Introduction. This paper is aimed at finding a solution to the problem of understanding education as an object of research interests of various scientific and disciplinary fields. The situation of knowledge of the object of the study is burdened not so much by the existence of the current and constantly replenished body of theoretical ideas about education, generated by disciplinary areas, but by their disorderly, diverse and heterogeneous applied scientific approaches. It is assumed that each disciplinary scientific field recreates, i.e. designs its inherent «disciplinary theoretical image of education». It is seen that the design of the latter is based on disciplinary research traditions related to the applied disciplinary methods and knowledge designs. It is argued that the constant production of theoretical ideas about education exclusively within a mono-discipline framework, not only does not clarify the ontology of such a complex social phenomenon as education, but also makes it difficult to understand the connections, properties, patterns and relations of educational realities as such. It is proposed to refer as a novelty of knowledge to one of the possible research strategies for solving the emerging kind of disciplinary dominance in education knowledge - to the idea of transdisciplinary design. It is disclosed that the transition to transdisciplinarity in case of solving the problem of theoretical understanding of education, will enable to cross the disciplinary «boundaries» and foundations, to transfer knowledge schemes from different disciplines, to go to the meta-framework of research and to acquire a holistic view of the problem. It is stated that the result of the reference to transdisciplinary design will be a synthesized product of disciplinary research - a transdisciplinary theoretical image of the phenomenon of education. Methodology and methods of the research. Theoretical analysis of literary sources in terms of disciplinary research on education allows highlighting the promising direction of his knowledge - transdisciplinary design of his theoretical images. The concept of transdisciplinary construction of theoretical images of the object of study is based on an appeal to one of the leading paradigm in the theory of cognition - constructivism (in particular, social constructionism), as well as the introduction of the author’s ideal-typical design of «theoretical image of the phenomenon of education». The ideal-typical design of «theoretical image of the phenomenon of education» is intended to act as an idealized design, integrating all attribution signs of disciplinary theoretical images of education, not excluding their substantive self-sufficiency. The results of the research. Increasing attention to the issue of education as a complex and multilevel phenomenon in its multidisciplinary research attraction is primarily related to the reflection of disciplinary heuristic possibilities. Numerous studies show that scientific fields and areas such as pedagogy, psychology of education, sociology of education and finally philosophy of education have a decisive influence on the emergence of an array of theoretical ideas about education. It should be noted that the theoretical judgements on education expressed by them are analytical and do not exclude other disciplinary views on it. It should be noted that these scientific mono-disciplinary studies, with seemingly extensive scope, demonstrate a narrow penetration into ontology of such a complex phenomenon as education. A fundamentally new solution to the declared problem of understanding the phenomenon of education is seen in the transdisciplinary focus of view. In this regard, the new field of research in terms of knowledge of the phenomenon of education is presented by us in the form of the following aspects: 1) reliance on the author’s ideal-typical design of «theoretical image of the phenomenon of education»; 2) implementation of transdisciplinary design of theoretical image of the education phenomenon by formation of disciplinary prototypes that are put in its foundation. The transdisciplinary theoretical image of the phenomenon of education, which is a synthesized version of disciplinary views on education, will allow not only to solve the above-mentioned problem of diversity of theoretical ideas about it, but also, most probably, to build a holistic vision on it. Conclusion. In understanding the ways of cognition of the phenomenon of education, disciplinary sciences and practices have gone a rather long and difficult way. Paying tribute to what they have done, it should be noted that in the context of complexity of the social phenomenon we are studying, which is the phenomenon of education, the search for other strategies to study it remains an urgent need. The circumstances identified by us, which allowed us to argue that disciplinary sciences design their own disciplinary theoretical study of education, served as a guide to changing the focus of the study of the phenomenon of education in its theoretical representations. At the heart of our research is the fact that the appeal to a transdisciplinary approach in designing and obtaining from it a theoretical image of the phenomenon of education, which in our opinion acts as a synthesized format of its disciplinary «predecessors», is very relevant and heuristically productive.
																								



5.
INFLUENCE OF GLOBAL TRENDS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC PROJECTS OF THE RUSSIAN EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT

E. V. Andrienko
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: развитие образования, стратегический проект, мировые тренды, российское образование, педагогическая терминология, сравнительно-сопоставительный анализ, причины снижения качества образования, уровни образования, development of education, strategic project, world trends, Russian education, pedagogical terminology, comparative analysis, reasons for the decline in the quality of education, levels of education

Abstract >>
Introduction. The problems of implementing strategic projects of the development of Russian education in the context of global trends are updated in connection with the decline in the quality of education in Russia, which is confirmed by the results of PISA (2018). Despite the fact that the quality of education is declining in many countries of the world, the current state of the educational policy of the Russian Federation is aimed at radically changing the situation, taking into account the changing conditions. Methodology and methods of the research. The research is based on a comparative analysis of Russian and foreign educational phenomena, taking into account global and socio-cultural trends. The paper presents comparative characteristics of modern pedagogical terminology that denotes new phenomena that have emerged in education under the influence of world trends of the XXI century. The author reveals similarities and differences in Russian and foreign education at all levels of its realization: general education; professional education; higher education; additional education. A critical analysis of strategic projects of the development of education in Russia with the determination of negative conditions for their implementation is given. The results of the research. The analysis of the implementation of strategic projects for the development of education in the Russian Federation has shown their low effectiveness in relation to the target indicators. The lack of high results is due to the relatively low status of education in relation to other state projects in the Russian Federation. At the same time, modern education in Russia undoubtedly takes into account the influence of global trends and reflects all the leading trends in the development of education in the world. However, state education policy lags behind world standards, resulting in excessive centralization of education, a large gap between the center and the regions in terms of development and effectiveness of education and underestimation of the educational experience of the Soviet Union. Conclusion. The projects for the development of Russian education cannot replace a systematic state educational policy aimed at the sustainable development of all levels of education. Projects are implemented situationally, in the interests of a minority (inclusive education, gifted children, etc.), they do not affect the improvement of the quality of education of the majority of its subjects.
																								



6.
PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE SYSTEM OF TRAINING OF ENGINEERING PERSONNEL FOR THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

A. V. Krupkin
Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia Boris Yeltsin, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: современное инженерное образование, развитие отечественной системы подготовки инженеров-строителей, modern engineering education, development of the domestic system of training of civil engineers

Abstract >>
Introduction. The relevance of the paper is related to the need to improve the quality of modern engineering education for the Russian construction industry. The aim of the study is to identify the main problems and find the ways of addressing them in this educational area, taking into account existing traditions and modern challenges. The methodology and methods of the research. The object of the study is the system of training engineering personnel for the construction region of Russia. The subject of the study is modeling the development of systemic training of civil engineers and architects in modern domestic universities. General theoretical methods are used as research methods: analysis of theoretical and scientific and practical sources, generalization of practical experience and analytical data, design of various models, including in the field of training. The results of the research. As a basic problem in the training system under consideration, the author cites: lack of forecasting the need for personnel in the construction sector; not meeting the needs of the labor market for content and technology training of civil engineers; weak focus of construction training programs on global trends (Massive use of digital technologies, creation of «smart» cities, etc.). Conclusion. These problems can be solved through a number of comprehensive measures. As such activities can be: comprehensive analysis of the training system for the construction industry including related areas and specialties of secondary vocational and higher education; the formation of a system for forecasting the personnel needs of the industry taking into account the regional specifics, as well as the specifics of other industries assigned to the Russian Ministry of Construction; improving the mechanism of targeted training and admission to targeted training in terms of determining the quota of admission satiated in the relevant areas and specialties of training, as well as the list of organizations - customers, determining a set of possible measures to support the student; improving the quality and level of education training for graduates; improving the scientific support for the development of the construction industry.
																								



7.
WHAT IS EDUCATION IN THE XXI CENTURY?

N. A. Kornienko
Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: глобализация образования, образовательная Матура, дистанционное образование, национальные проекты В«ОбразованиеВ» и В«НаукаВ» в Новосибирской области, globalization of education, educational Matura, distance education, Novosibirsk National Projects В«EducationВ» and В«ScienceВ»

Abstract >>
Introduction. The fundamental goals and values in the field of education, formulated by the UN in the framework of ensuring fair quality education for all, and lifelong learning opportunities, today contradict the unstoppable competition in the labor market and the requirements of modern business. The educational problem of the continuous preparation of the «human resource», which can ensure economic success for the state, business and individual well-being, requires a revision of views on the functions of education and on the social roles of all participants in the educational process. Methodology and methods of the research. A new vector of education development is based on the study of futurological views on the development of Russian education, a content analysis of globalizing education under the influence of a spontaneous market on it. The empirical base was information on large-scale work in all areas of the National Projects «Education» and «Science» in the Novosibirsk Region. The analysis of the study of goals and strategic objectives in the context of the Education and Science Project gives an idea of what education will be in the XXI century in the Novosibirsk region. The results of the research. Based on an analysis of the goals and strategic objectives of the Novosibirsk National Project «Education» and «Science», we forecast the main value-oriented guidelines of Russian education in the 21st century. It is especially noted that for the formation of the future, the values embodied in the cultural experience of mankind in its specific national forms are of great importance. Globalization processes today already contribute to the development of multicultural cognitive interest, contributing to the introduction of civilizational socio-educational methodology. Trying to avoid excessive conservatism, we propose to integrate the European educational methodology (Matura) in order to qualitatively improve the preparation of foreign applicants for education in leading universities in Novosibirsk. In the course of the discussion of numerous educational problems related to distance methodology, questions are raised of understanding the role and importance of robotics and artificial intelligence in Russian conditions. The idea of non-formal education based on free, wide access to educational resources and the possibility of its legitimacy is put forward and discussed. Conclusion. Numerous problems and lessons in the transformation of the Russian education system indicate that traditional education should be completely rethought and replaced with a system that will develop creativity and shape an individual who is able to navigate and adapt in a changing sociocultural reality.
																								



8.
DOES THE MODERN EDUCATION SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PERSONAL IDENTITY?

G. I. Petrova
National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: личностная идентичность, индивид, антропологический портрет, стратегия образования, образовательное знание, personal identity, individual, anthropological portrait, strategy of education, educational knowledge

Abstract >>
Introduction. The purpose of the paper is to carry out philosophical reflection about modern education and its ability to solve crisis of personal identity. The relevance of the topic of the paper is caused by the contradiction that exists in the theory and practice of modern education. The problem situation is summarized as follows: the strategy of modern education contradicts its traditional role, which has always been focused on the personality formation. It means that it loses its traditional status. The status consists in performing the role of a leading social institution, which design ways of cultural development of society and each individual person. The paper raises the next problem. Can it be ahead of social and cultural processes? Can it develop relevant educational strategies? The paper raises the issue about possibilities of modern education to fulfill this implicit educational function. It is the problem question of the paper. Methodology and methods of the research. The constructivist methodology of solving the problem is used, when education is considered as a social institution, constructed by the socio-cultural background of the epoch and the style of thinking that philosophy offers in a specific historical time. The research method is a comparative analysis of the strategic attitudes of classical and modern education. The results of the research, are summarized as follows: today the education has its own strategic task to satisfy requirements of the employer. It seems that the modern educational strategies satisfy the leading trends of commodification, economization, marketization etc. This allows drawing conclusion about the transformations of the cultural and anthropological portrait (picture) of the subject of the education. These changes do not promote solving the problem of overcoming the crisis of personal identity. This conclusion is a consequence of the fact that modern education has adopted economic characteristics for its essence. Therefore education is transformed into an economic institute. Conclusion. The conclusions are drawn and the some predictions are considered about future of society. There is a question regarding the formation of a pure commodification educational strategy. Economic transformations are a threat to modern education.
																								



9.
IMPACT OF DIGITALIZATION OF EDUCATION ON PEOPLE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SAFETY PROBLEM

L. V. Bayeva
Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia
Keywords: влияние цифровизации, безопасная коммуникативно-образовательная среда, безопасность, риски, impact of digitalization, safe communicative and educational environment, digitalization of education, security, risks

Abstract >>
Introduction. The goal of the paper is to study the impact of digitization of education on the person from the position of theory of safety and to justify the necessity of creation of a safe communicative learning environment in the emerging system of digital education in Russia. Methodology and methods of the research is based on the principles of the value approach, the theory of «risk society» by W. Beck, as well as the theory of electronic culture, developed by the author in recent years. The results of the research. Possible risk-related trends related to the digital transformation of the communication environment are revealed and characterized. They relate to ethical, cognitive, anthropological, and psychological aspects that should be taken into account when implementing digital learning as the main form. Based on the study of possible risks, the components of a safe communication and educational environment aimed at countering the main threats and a system of preventive actions are proposed. They are aimed at solving the problems of diagnostics and monitoring of risk-related processes (psychological, communicative, motivational, etc.), ensuring the protection of personal data, personal rights and freedoms in the digital environment, and forming social skills, patriotic, morally-oriented behavior, and the ability to work in a social environment (both traditional and digital). Conclusion. Assessment of the impact of digitalization of communication on a person and assessment of emerging risks leads to the need to create a system of communication and educational environment for digital education, which involves both countering possible negative and forming an information culture and ethics.
																								



10.
SOCIO-CULTURAL SPECIFICITY OF SOCIO-PEDAGOGICAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EDUCATION CRISIS (WESTERN AND RUSSIAN APPROACHES)

I. E. Babushkin, P. G. Vorontsov, V. A. Eliseev, E. V. Ushakova
Altai State Medical University of the Ministry of health of the Russian Federation, Barnaul, Russia
Keywords: мировой кризис образования, специфика социокультурных традиций, цели, методы, пути выхода из кризиса, world crisis of education, specifics of sociocultural traditions, goals, methods, ways out of crisis

Abstract >>
Introduction. The paper analyzes the works of specialists who study the socio-cultural transformations of education at the international level from the 70s of the twentieth century to the present time. Particular attention is paid to the problem of the global crisis in education. Purpose of the paper: to consider the global crisis of education from the standpoint of social philosophy and education sciences. Methodology and methods of the research. The work uses a systemic and dialectical methodology; applied comparative and socio-cultural approaches; methods of analysis and integration of socio-cultural data on the transformations of education in modern society. The results of the research. The specificity of the correlation between the real state of education at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries and the declared state of the crisis in education in different countries and socio-cultural traditions is traced. The paradox established by a number of experts that the statement by F. Coombs and UNESCO of the world crisis in education was made just at a time when the potential for education accumulated by social systems was the highest was noted. The task of designating the crisis state of education at the world level then required restructuring and transformation of the entire world education system on some new grounds. Following this, the question naturally arose about the appropriate ways of these transformations-modernizations. A more detailed study showed that in the Western tradition, where the world crisis of transformation was proclaimed, a plan for global modernization of education was developed on the basis of a total transition to an elite-mass global society (globalism) with an appropriate system of education. This is a global transition to elite education for the elite and mass education for the bulk of the world’s population with a low level of knowledge and the formed controlled behavior of the masses in the global consumer society. A fundamentally different approach to understanding the crisis state in the Russian tradition as a low level of human education and lack of education is shown. The way out of such a crisis can only be a comprehensive rise in the level of education with the aim of forming a comprehensively developed personality, capable of self-development, self-government, conciliar and ecologically balanced existence in the coming noospheric civilization. Conclusion. Thus, a fundamentally different approach to understanding the planetary crisis in education in the Western and Russian traditions is established. Different sociocultural goals, methods, ways and results of overcoming the crisis in education in different sociocultural traditions naturally follow from this. This is building: either a fragmented conflict of an elite-mass society, consisting of degraded post-people, or a friendly whole noosphere society with a socio-natural balance of life of a creator person.
																								



11.
SOCIAL AND PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF MILITARY SERVANTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF PRIMARY ADAPTATION

I. A. Fedoseeva1, A. Yu. Bushuev2
1Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk Higher Military Command School, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: социальная адаптация, профессиональная подготовка военнослужащих, социально-педагогическое сопровождение, профессиональная мотивация, social adaptation, professional training of military personnel, social and pedagogical support, professional motivation

Abstract >>
Introduction. This paper is devoted to the consideration of the specifics of social adaptation as a factor in social and pedagogical support in the training of junior specialists. Methodology and methods of the research is based on a theoretical analysis of foreign and domestic scientific sources. The results of the research. The content of the social adaptation of the military personnel and its relationship with a number of psychological parameters has been revealed. The characteristics of the social adaptation of military personnel are considered. The stages of the social adaptation of military personnel to the military professional environment are described. The criteria for the adaptability of junior specialists to professional and military activities are established. The specifics of social and pedagogical support as a direction of work, which allows optimizing the indicators of social adaptation of military personnel, is determined. The main components of the social and pedagogical support of the professional training of military personnel are disclosed, which include the following: dissemination of information among military personnel on the phenomenon of social adaptation to military professional activity, behavior in the military-social environment; the formation of positive professional motivation for military professional activity; supporting military personnel in the process of mastering a new professional role by them; training military personnel in the skills of interaction in a military team, methods of resolving interpersonal conflicts in the military environment; assistance to military personnel in the recognition of their personal characteristics, which play an important role in adapting to the military professional environment, etc. The novelty of the research topic is to describe the specifics of social adaptation as a factor in social and pedagogical support in the training of junior specialists based on the integration of foreign and domestic work experience. Conclusion. According to foreign researchers, the military team is a concept with common goals and rules, which exists in the minds of the participants, but is not always fully represented in a cognitive form. The rules used in the social-military environment are a set of variables that, when combined, create the structure of the situation of the military. Accordingly, the implementation of the rules adopted in the military team is an important component of the social adaptation of military personnel, which determines the specifics of their activities. In domestic studies, the specifics of creating pedagogical conditions for operational social adaptation to the military environment, the formation of psychological readiness and patriotism among military personnel as part of training centers in military schools of the Russian Federation by organizing social and pedagogical support are presented. This area of work is understood as a system of measures aimed at socio-psychological and psychophysiological examination of military personnel, providing them with psychological assistance in the process of military professional activity, as well as correcting manifestations of maladaptation taking into account the state of physical and psychological health.
																								



12.
VALUE ORIENTATIONS OF FIRST-YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS AS THE BASIS FOR THE FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL CULTURE OF THE FUTURE SPECIALIST

E. R. Zinkevich, O. S. Kulbakh
St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: ценностно-смысловая сфера, ценностные ориентации, профессиональная культура, воспитательная работа, value-semantic sphere, value orientations, professional culture, educational work

Abstract >>
Introduction. The purpose of the study is to determine the structure of value orientations of freshmen - prospective instructors-defectologists and clinical psychologists. The interest in the problem is explained by its significance in the formation of the professional culture of future specialists. The publication aims to attract the attention of researchers to the interdisciplinary problem associated with the value orientations of young people. Methodology and research technique. The object of the study is first-year students: future defectologists and future clinical psychologists. The subject of the study is value orientations, their research was built on the basis of aspectual, scientific, pragmatic, system and empirical approaches. For diagnosis, the methodology of M. Rokich was used. The results were processed using mathematical statistics methods using the Statistica 10.0 application package. The results of the study. Addressing the problem is due to the need to form the value-semantic sphere of students yet in the early stages of studying at a university. The results of the study demonstrated the distribution of terminal and instrumental values by the degree of their significance among respondents. Considering instrumental values in both groups in aggregate, we can conclude that the prospective defectologists are characterized by a pragmatic orientation and the prospective clinical psychologists, by an altruistic. We can recommend the expansion of methodological tools aimed at studying the value orientations of students in higher education institutions and review the content of educational work with students of various specialties at the stage of pre-vocational training. Conclusion. A heterogeneous structure of values of the first-year students was revealed, indicating the absence of prerequisites for the formation of a professional culture among the prospective educators-defectologists, while among the prospective clinical psychologists the hierarchy of values is more harmonious and can serve as the basis for their professional development. The scientific novelty of the study is that its results are proof of the need to research the structure of students’ value orientations yet at the stage of pre-vocational training. The study has methodological significance, serving as a reference point for career-oriented work in school. The applied significance of the results are in their relevance for the development of variable educational programs that take into account the professional orientation of future specialists, and for corrective work with students.
																								



13.
RESOURCE CLASSES AS AN ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

N. A. Ryapisov, A. G. Ryapisova, T. L. Chepel
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: ресурсный класс, детский аутизм, дети с расстройствами аутистического спектра, проектная сессия, resource class, children’s autism, children with autism spectrum disorders, project session

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Introduction. Education of children with autism is one of the most urgent and difficult tasks of both foreign and Russian education, as evidenced by numerous publications of researchers and practitioners. One of the options for ensuring the rights of children with autism spectrum disorders to inclusive education in secondary schools is the creation of resource classes (resource zones). The practice of working resource classes in the education system of the Novosibirsk region deserves not only the attention of the pedagogical and scientific community, but also special scientific research and generalization to determine the possibilities of scaling up this innovative experience. Methodology and methods of the research. The methodological basis for the work of resource classes is the theory of applied behavior analysis (ABA). But the experience of creating resource classes in foreign countries shows the possibility of using alternative scientific theories-cognitive-behavioral, emotional-level, verbal-behavioral approach and a model based on development, individualization and relationships - DIR-Floortime. To analyze and generalize the practical experience of resource classes in the education system of the Novosibirsk region, a project session was organized on the basis of the Novosibirsk state pedagogical University, which was attended by 378 people. During the discussion of methodological, technological and organizational aspects of resource classes, invited experts-speakers expressed their views on the achievements, current problems and prospects for the development of inclusive education for children with autism in the Novosibirsk region. The results of the research. In the 2019/20 academic year, there are more than 31 thousand children with disabilities in the Novosibirsk region, including about 600 children with autism spectrum disorders. At the initiative of parents of children with autism who have chosen inclusive education for their special children in accordance with their statutory right, resource classes for teaching children with this diagnosis have been created at five schools in the period from 2017 to 2019. The results of their activities allow us to see both the effects and problem areas, evaluate the requests of parents and employees of inclusive schools for psychological and pedagogical support and assistance in the education and development of children with autism spectrum disorders. Following the results of the project session, proposals were formulated and sent to the Ministry of education of the Novosibirsk region. Conclusion. During the project session, we analyzed the experience of resource classes as innovative infrastructure components of educational inclusion and identified opportunities to improve special educational conditions for teaching children with autism spectrum disorders in the educational space of the Novosibirsk region.
																								



14.
PEDAGOGICAL INTEGRATION AND METASUBJECT APPROACH IN NATURAL SCIENCE EDUCATION

O. B. Makarova, M. V. Iashvili
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: педагогическая интеграция, междисциплинарный уровень интеграции, интегрированный учебный предмет, междисциплинарность, метапредметность, метапредмет, educational integration, interdisciplinary integration, integrated teaching, interdisciplinary connections, interdisciplinary approach, meta-subject

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Introduction. The paper presents a study of the history of pedagogical integration and metasubject approach in education. The interrelation of academic disciplines is a complex multidimensional problem and has its own didactic laws, the research of which is carried out in the fundamental works of domestic and foreign scientists of XX-XXI centuries. The system analysis of scientific research and pedagogical experience has shown that these concepts are often synonymous, although this is not true. The contradiction between the existing practice of general education and the new metasubject requirements of state educational standards can be resolved by the creation of integrated or interdisciplinary disciplines, which will lead to the elimination of multi-subject teaching and the formation of a holistic system of general scientific knowledge in students. Methodology and methods of the research. The methodological basis of the study is the personal-activity approach to the analysis and disclosure of the pedagogical process; a systematic approach to the construction and consideration of the studied pedagogical objects; the theory of integration of the content of education in the framework of system and level construction; interdisciplinary approach, etc. The results of the research. The difference in the content of the concepts of «metasubject», «interdisciplinary», «integration» is revealed. Meta-subjects are а new educational form, built over the traditional academic subjects. They represent a new type of subjects, the basis of which is a mental activity type of combining educational material of different subjects, as well as a reflexive attitude to the basics of thinking. Integration is a universal concept, it is a general scientific, interdisciplinary level of integration which allows to structure the educational material and combine subjects into integrated subjects or metasubjects. Conclusion. Pedagogical integration is a methodological basis for the construction of interdisciplinary integrated subjects or metasubjects. Long before the introduction into the modern education system of new Federal state educational standards, which included metasubject results, namely - in the 70-90-ies of the 20th century, there were developed integrated courses, metasubject forms of education identical to modern metasubjects. But, unfortunately, as it often happens in pedagogy, something that was already discovered is rediscovered. Metasubject in the context that offers an educational standard is interdisciplinary interaction plus general educational skills. So interdisciplinarity is one of the levels of integration.
																								



15.
PEDAGOGICAL ASSISTANCE IN THE SUCCESSFUL PREPARATION OF STUDENTS FOR THE STATE FINAL ASSESSMENT

A. V. Malanicheva
Altai State Pedagogical University, Barnaul, Russia
Keywords: организация работы учителя, подготовка школьников, ГИА, ОГЭ, ЕГЭ, обществознание, organization of the teacher’s work, training of students, GIA, OGE, social studies

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Introduction. The problem of high-quality preparation of students for the state final certification is topical in modern education. This is due to the lack of a single textbook or manual, the content of which would reflect the theoretical material that corresponds to the tested knowledge in the tasks contained in the control and measurement materials of the state final assessment and the current Bank of tasks, with which the student could develop skills to perform tasks of control and measurement materials. Methodology and methods of the research. The object of the research is the process of education in a General educational organization, the subject is pedagogical assistance to the successful preparation of students for the state final assessment in an educational organization. When analyzing the works of T. A. Bocharova, Yu. S. Egorova, N. F. Efremova, L. Yu. Eremina, I. V. Luchina, O. D. Mishina, we have identified activity-based, psychological and content-based approaches. Analyzing the works of B. G. Ananiev, Y. K. Babanskiy, I. P. Poglazova, M. N. we came to the conclusion that the training of schoolchildren is viewed from the perspective of organizing a process aimed at effective learning. Special attention in the organization of the process of learning by schoolchildren is paid to their psychophysiological features (L. S. Vygotsky, P. Ya. Galperin, I. ya. Winter, etc.). S. M. Grombakh, Yu. a. Kornarzhevsky, V. M. Polonsky, T. I. Shamova and others were engaged in the problem of control over the process of mastering knowledge by schoolchildren. In the study, we used theoretical and empirical methods of collecting information. The results of the research. We see the solution to this problem in the systematic organization of preparation of school children for the state final certification starting from the 9th grade. The training of students should be based on the principle of continuity of tasks presented in the control and measurement materials of the main state exam and the unified state exam for students completing General education. The implementation of the considered method of preparing students for the state final certification in the schools of Barnaul showed an increase in the level of knowledge, formed skills and abilities of students when performing, both in the form of the main state exam and in the form of a unified state exam. Due to constant changes in the content of tasks of control and measuring materials, the structure of control and measuring materials, this research topic is relevant and promising. Conclusion. In the course of our research, we came to the conclusion that when organizing the educational process is based on the continuity of tasks, students develop skills that allow them to perform tasks of control and measuring materials for a higher score.