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"Philosophy of Education"

2014 year, number 3

1.
Philosophy of education of the XXI century: new guidelines and new opportunities

V. A. Kolesnikov
Irkutsk regional teacher education college, 53, str. 5-I Railway, Irkutsk, 664074
Keywords: education, above-institutionalrole of education, post-non-classical scientific picture of the world, fact of science in the Humanities, comprehension, subject-subject relations, the mission of education, revolutionizing (nonviolent) force of education, education as an essential condition for the formation of the national idea in the country, sidedness in the development of modern social relations

Abstract >>
In the article, on the basis of the educationgenesis, there is realized an attempt of theoretical-conceptual understanding of the contemporary social reality, which is the basis for the development of contemporary education, as a necessary condition for the positive-constructivist transformation of the society. There are described the essential challenges that modern education has failed to cope with (or has not noticed them).The purpose of the article is to show, on one hand, the need to overcome the standard and traditional approach of considering education as a whole which does not meet the realities of the time, on the other hand, the need to avoid segmental innovations in education and, as a consequence, the need for the transition to a global strategic updatingof the essence of educational sphere as the major vector in the enhancing of the transformation of our society. The article identifies theguidelines of education of the new century, its different mission in our daysthat will allow this sphere of social activity of the society to occupy an above-institutional position and promote modernization reforms in the country.
																								



2.
Multi-paradigmatic theory of education in the age of post-modern

A. O. Karpov
The Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2-nd Baumanskaya str., ap. 5, p. 1, Moscow, 105005
Keywords: ontology of education, performativity, implicit and local paradigms, research education

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to revealing the paradigm structure of modern education in the context of key tasks of formation of the society, functioning on the basis of knowledge. It analyzes the ontological specificities of paradigm situation in education; it introduces the notions of implicit and local paradigms; it describes the structure of implicit paradigm, the content of which is disclosed on the example of research-based education. The difficulties of the analysis of modern education as a social-cultural phenomenon are conditioned by its multiparadigm character and the paradigmatic groups being built in its functioning. The last distinguishes the paradigmatic situation of a sociocultural phenomenon from the natural-science one, the latter having been considered by the paradigmatic analysis due to T.S. Kuhn. The paradigms of doctrinal groups (local paradigms) do not speak about how the reality is organized, but how it should look through the lens of their ideas. Consequently, the concept of educational paradigm requires a philosophical study in view of this distinction. Accounting for the effect of «embedded-ness╗ of the theory and its carriers, describing the phenomenon, into the phenomenon itself is carried out, for example, within the «performative approach╗ to the analysis of markets. For the philosophical study of education it is a new problem, which solution will provide an approach to the determination of fundamental structures in its foundation and the paradigmatic organization of the education system as such. The essential foundations of being of a sociocultural phenomenon are expressed in the implicit (strong) paradigm, which is built into the reality, not just thought about. The implicit paradigm is a complex object representing an internal «theory╗ of functioning of the phenomenon, expressed in the ideal and material forms which constitute the phenomenon and its environment. Its elements are embedded into the physically expressed relationships, institutions, discourses, regulations and similar actually acting objects. The system of its ontological concepts-descriptors (the components of ontological matrix) represents the forms, methods, functions and generalization of the being of the sociocultural phenomenon. For the phenomenon of «education╗, as the corresponding components of the ontological matrix there act institutionalization and environment, technologism of training practices, the dominant quality of the cognition method, and the educational imperative. The cultural-producing locus of education in the society, functioning on the basis of knowledge, is the research education. It brings up the personality capable of creation of new knowledge, its technologizing and inclusion into socioeconomic relations. Such person is the anthropological-social foundation of a new cultural manufacture. Among the paradigmatic principles of the research education there are the institutional-environmental integration of the socio-cultural environment, which forms the structure of being; the scientific-innovational technologism defining the way of being; the transcendence of scientific cognition characterizing the function of being; the imperative of cognitive freedom constituting the generalization of being.
																								



3.
The system of education in the process of ensuring national security of the developed and developing states

E. F. Moros
St. Petersburg University of state fire service of the Ministry of emergency situations, Str. North, 1, Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, 662971, Russia
Keywords: education system, science, culture, ensuring national security, state development, national values

Abstract >>
The theory of national security is based on the classical canons of philosophical culture, on its main achievements that are always theoretical, methodological and praxeological basis in all spheres of human activity. In the foundation of existence and development of society there lies the realization by it the fundamental forces, which is the basic needs, interests and productive forces. The process of their realization conditions a certain selective attitude to the world around, which is determined by the significance of differences of means and conditions of its existence and steady development. Focusing on national security issues, it may be noted that the prevailing trend in the process of building a legal state must be changing of the vector from the state security towards the public safety. This attitude is oriented to the real conditions. On the basis of common interests the society defines the objectives of its activities, which are ideal reality of realization its productive forces. The process of achieving these goals is accompanied by the search for adequate means which society finds in actual conditions. Therefore, we can infer a condition called security only from the real state of society. This beginning underlies the basis of understanding of the national security phenomenon. Presently, the ensuring of national security is inconceivable without qualified personnel, because technological security is impossible without staffing and scientific development; the security of social development is inconceivable without education and science as fundamental bases; the environmental security is achievable on the basis of spiritual development and the formation of a new culture of survival. No social system, no country can develop normally without a system of values, so the nation, deprived of its values, turns into a crowd. One of the first places of the peopleĺs value formation belongs to education. There is no doubt that the person must be in the center of considering a whole range of security issues, because it is his/her security that determines how close the level of security of the state and society to the acceptable parameters. Thus, the weight of each country in the world is measured primarily by category of educational level of its population.
																								



4.
Humanism and the humanitarian bases of the russian educational paradigm

T. A. Rubantsova, O. V. Furyaeva
Siberian Railway University, Str. D. Kovalchuk, 191, 630049, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: humanity, education humanization, technocracy, scientism, humanitarian bases, education

Abstract >>
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship of humanism and the humanitarian foundations of the Russian educational paradigm. The article deals with education as a mechanism for transmission of values, which expresses the relationship of humanism and the humanitarian bases of the Russian educational paradigm. The article notes that in today's globalized world there takes place a process of disintegration of traditional values, which is reflected in the education system. Education is understood as a mechanism for socio-cultural continuity of the society. Global crises require a revision of the way of progress and enlightenment, in which humanity is moving, so the problem of humanization of education becomes topical. The article covers the main approaches to the category of «humanism╗, gives its typology, the relationship of humanism with the processes of humanization and dehumanization in society. Humanism in contemporary Russian society is often understood as a utopia, which has not found adequate expression of its social ideals. The paper analyzes the main approaches to the humanization of education, discusses the main historical stages of the formation of humanitarian foundations of Russian education. The modern model of education in Russia was formulated during the Renaissance and the Enlightenment on the basis of the German model. It assumed that the system has a large cycle of humanities for the formation of human morality, as well as a cycle of natural-technical disciplines allowing cognition of the world through reason. Into the concept of «humanism╗ there was put a class deterministic sense displacing the universal and civilized content. In the post-revolutionary school, there was preserved a pedagogical team trained in humanities that could not easily and thoughtlessly join the state's political line in education. Education remains a major element of public humanistic practice, due to its nature of universality, independence of its content from the political and economic fluctuations and market conditions, in spite of all attempts to dismantle it. This social institution retains the elements of humanistic pedagogical technologies of the past; and it is exactly there where the search under way for new ways in the humanistic pedagogical paradigm. The article concludes that humanitarian basis of the Russian educational paradigm is the contradiction between the social and cultural needs of modern society and the education system that does not respond to them because of the loss of humanistic goals in society's ideology, outdated methodology and application of old techniques and methods in teaching.
																								



5.
Integration in education

M. A. Abramova
Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nikolaeva str., 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: integration, history of study, modernization of education, efficiency of the educational process

Abstract >>
The author traces the roots of justification of integration as a fundamental principle of building a modern system of education. Actualization of this approach is due to the problems of realization of innovative projects in the modernization of the Russian education system. In pedagogics, the problem of integration of disciplines has been studied by progressive teachers from the ancient times. Active introduction of the technologies of training, based on the principle of integration took place in 70-ies of XIX century. In Russian schools there began the practice of the subject (or visual) lessons representing the germ of an integrative course of world-cognition. Since the beginning of the 20th century integration is reflected in the organization of educational material on the principle of concentration. In the educational research in the late 20th century considerable attention was paid to educational and developmental value of inter-subject connections, as well as to examination of the role of integration in the construction of educational process. On the basis of the conducted research it was concluded that the effective assimilation of information is achieved only in the process of active work and construction of educational process on the basis of using inter-subject relations and integration, as to intensify the process of mastering of educational information, and promotes the overall development of the student. Therefore, the study of the educational-cognitive activity of students on the use of interdisciplinary connections, and also revealing the role of integration in the improvement of the learning process in general has acquired a special relevance. Thus, integrative approach is fundamental in the construction of training process in the framework of a specific educational institution and organization of interaction of educational institutions representing different stages of training, starting from secondary schools, additional education and up to the profile educational institutions, both in Russia and abroad. On the basis of technology of integration there develops in students the ability to integral cognition of the world, the ability to "think in terms of centuries". In the article there are considered the problems of introducing an integrative approach in the conditions of mass school and University. The author notes the reasons for the dominance of lessons only with partial application of the elements of interdisciplinary connections that leads to the formation of mosaic views about the subject. The implementation of the program for development of education in Russia requires using integration as a fundamental principle of modernization of learning technologies and establishment of cooperation between educational institutions.
																								



6.
Scientific knowledge production during the higher school reform: problems and prospects

V. V. Petrov1,2, E. V. Pokasova1
1Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nikolaeva str., 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, str. Pirogova, 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: higher education, scientific knowledge, the university Republic, autonomy, control, decision making, educational policy

Abstract >>
The efficiency of the education system can be determined by the world rankings of higher education institutions, so one of the important tasks for the domestic universities is defined as entering the «top 100 list╗: in accordance with the program «5-100-2020╗ Russian universities must enter into the world ratings in 2020. Getting into the «Top 100 list╗ for any university can contribute to attracting students, increasing the number of students and increasing the cost of education in the university. In addition, in the Russian context it is associated with additional budget financing obtained by the university. Effective development of the university involves not only new experiences of production of scientific knowledge, but also the ability to adapt the obtained technologies to the research and educational activities of the existing educational institutions. In the foundation of a successful model of effective university there lies the model of medieval European universities which resembled in their structure a certain political formation, copying the basic organizational principles of classical European republics. The autonomy of universities allowed to protect rights, provide significant academic and scientific, creative freedom to their teachers, and, to a certain extent, to the students as well. In recent decades, the goals of the university system as a whole has undergone a pronounced change, but the principles, on which the classical university education is based, remain unchanged. The paper analyzes the success of the leading Western universities, identifies the key principles for the development of university education. It concludes that the basic principles of scientific knowledge production - namely, the basic research, the availability of academic freedom, diversified funding and autonomous control − will facilitate climbing of the leading Russian universities to the top positions of the world rankings.
																								



7.
Prolegomena to the analysis of the consciousness crisis in the conditions of education globalization

L. D. Rasskazov
V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, str. of K. Marx street, 124, Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Keywords: globalization, global problems, crisis, crisis consciousness, model of the analysis of the consciousness crisis, education, prolegomena, consciousness

Abstract >>
The purpose of the article is to offer an effective author's concept of the analysis of the crisis of consciousness in the context of education globalization. The main point of the article is to prove that cognition and knowledge is derived categories from the category of consciousness. A shift of accents from the cognitive process in which knowledge is discovered by students to the didactic process when knowledge is transmitted to students leads to the progressing trend of broadcasting knowledge, usually in a speculative, distorted form with the emptied content and serves, wittingly or unwittingly, the interests of the consumer society ideologues. The problem is that education within the growing trends of the consumer society is also being endowed with the categories of consumption and its properties and qualities. This is reflected in the dominance of didactic methods over the heuristic ones. Today consciousness is still a category not completely studied and occupies a subordinate position with respect to cognition and knowledge, while cognition is a derivative function of consciousness and, respectively, knowledge is a result of the cognitive process. Consciousness, as a rule, is thought of on the basis of the materialistic point of view or the idealist one. In either case it is treated either in a simplistic, fragmented fashion or in accordance with the concept of the active subject. Education today is facing a crisis that has touched the whole education in the world, and education in Russia, in particular. It is expressed in the fact that there will be no return to the old system, while the new system is only in its infancy. Having entered an era called globalization, the society, from the standpoint of education, is called the knowledge society or the information society. Education, despite the pedagogical and scientific achievements, traditions, technology, a special cultural institution of society, is behind the rapid changes in the socio-political and economic life. The author has made an attempt to present his own vision of education and the problems of modern society on the basis of works of domestic and foreign philosophers and scientists. The presented prolegomena can be applied to the study of theoretical problems and solving practical problems of education in the crisis conditions.
																								



8.
A spiritual-practical dominant idea of russian education and its byzantine origins

S. V. Kotina
A. I. Gertsen Russian State Pedagogical University, Quay Of The Moyka River, 48, Saint-Petersburg, 191186, Russia
Keywords: ancient Russian literature, Greek patristics, spiritual-practical character of knowledge, rhetorical-homiletic tradition, hagiography, anthropocentrism of Russian philosophy

Abstract >>
In the article, there is considered the problem of influence of the Eastern Christian civilization on the formation of education in ancient Russia, with particular attention paid to the comparison of the nature of ancient verbal creativity and the Byzantine literary-theological and philosophical traditions. Eastern Christian tradition, which was considered by elder Russian Slavophiles as the foundation of Russian spiritual and mental development, having centuries-old experience of philosophical reflection, had formed quite a reserved attitude to the possibilities of the human mind. Greek patristics discovered a balanced position between ancient rationalism and Biblical moral precepts; whereas the significance of philosophical doctrines was not excluded, but restricted in the applications to the spiritual-practical sphere. Philosophy was defined as a relative truth, which was to serve as a means to establishing a supreme principle. In comparison with Western Christianity, where the spheres of application of reason and faith were in a slightly different proportion, Greek patristics was not inclined to trust rational arguments for the meaning of fundamental moral convictions. On the contrary, the Western Church demonstrated its specificity in the propensity to build doctrinal tenets on formal logical deduction of reason. The heritage of the Latin pagan culture in the form of disproportionate aspiration to formalization was never gotten rid of in the Western thought despite the fact that the Roman ethical and social system was defeated in the clash with the anthropological ideals of Christianity. The identity of Russian culture with the Byzantine heritage is a permanent subject of interdisciplinary polemics and studies. Indeed, at first, the theological and philosophical achievements of Byzantine Christian Hellenism were perceived in the ancient Russian mind very passively and on a small scale; much more actively there were perceived the aesthetic aspects of Eastern Christianity. Possibly, it is not quite correct to directly compare the ancient Russian literacy and the Byzantine tradition of education: the penetration of the intellectual traditions of Hellenism into culture, which had just acquired its own alphabet, is a rather complicated process. The author emphasizes that the main priority of the development of Russian education is the orientation toward the moral-practical value of knowledge, which has as its background the Byzantine heritage. The influence of the Greek-Byzantine culture to Russia was manifested not so much on the theological-philosophical level but in the sphere of realization of a system of values; and the choice of the value coordinates remains one of the major tasks of modern education.
																								



9.
The problem of value orientation and the identity formation in the post-traditional conditions

G. A. Illarionov
V. P. Astaf'ev Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, Pr. Mira, 83, Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia
Keywords: education, Federal state educational standard, value orientation, identity, globalization, post-traditionalism, conflict of identities, reflexivity, educational policy

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the topical issues of value orientation and the formation of identity in Russian education. The norms, implemented in the framework of the educational system reform (in particular, the Federal state educational standards), engender the need in the theoretical understanding and further correcting the educational strategy in this direction. The issues of values and identity, being directly linked to the most general foundations of functioning of any society, are obviously topical, since the positioning of own identity and norms is the basis of the state goal-setting, choice of means and methods of solving any problems which Russia faces. The aim of this article is the correlation of the educational strategy, fixed in the introduced standards, with the deep internal processes of modernity, the totality of which is globalization, and one of its manifestations, post-traditionalism. The posttraditionalism, which is characterized by total reflexivity, «value polytheism╗ (the expression of M. Weber) and fragmentation of society, creates challenges for any integration projects; and no effective means to overcome them have been developed so anywhere in the world. There are distinguished the main aspects of inefficiency of the Russian educational strategy in the field of value orientation and identity formation. The first is a conflict of identities, both in the community and within the strategy. The lack of a clear justification of the proportion between ethnic and civic, religious and secular, regional and national identities create a situation in which the practitioner does not have a clear answer to the questions: how these identities interact, and which are given priority and in which situations. The reason for this lack of theoretical studying is the second aspect of the problem: the concept of the Russian personis deprived of a clear consistent content due to its isolation from more general philosophical ideological base. Any large-scale projects of identity formation in the past and present (such as the American «melting pot╗, European multiculturalism, the Chinese «lyanhen╗policy, the Soviet project, etc.) were invariably a part of a broad general philosophical system, which formed its objectives, means and results. The concept of the «citizen of Russia╗ does not have such a basis; therefore, it is deprived of a consensus regarding the internal content and expected results. The conclusion that can be drawn from this analysis is that, in its present form, the education strategy puts the teacherbefore an insurmountable task: to form an identity, which is devoid of a coherent inner content and value orientation in the conditions of absence of the common system of values.
																								



10.
Ethics of dignity Ós a foundation of educational strategy

V. V. Kuznetsov
I. I. Mechnikov Northern-Western State Medical University, Kirochnaya str., 41, St. Petersburg, 191015, Russia
Keywords: ethics, honor, dignity, education, identity

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the problem of dignity of the person which is considered as a universal value. An attempt is made to separate the description of dignity as a phenomenon and as a category. In the article, the problems, bases and concepts of the ethics of dignity are analyzed. In this context, education is considered as a process of formation of the human image. Philosophy is a creation of concepts. These concepts are the unity of conceptual constructions and phenomena. Ideas, meanings, values are naturally created in the social and personal life of the human being. The creators of religions, philosophical geniuses actualize higher meanings, ideas. This is a science of childbirth, birth of values, meanings and ideas. The art of the teacher like Socrates is to help pupil to recall what already exist in his/her soul. The teacher does not create anything fundamentally new in the Platonic sense. In some sense, new knowledge exists in the heart of the student. The teacher helps the student to extract the ideas. The philosopher himself does not produce ideas, meanings, ideology, just as the TV does not produce an image, but only translates it. The purpose of philosophy is the formation of a unified total space of the intellectual, philosophical and literary. It is possible that Russia is completed as an ideocracy of high ideas and meanings. There is a complex combinatorics of power as an order of ideas and an order of desires. In the era of traditional culture, the order of ideas dominated over the order of desires through repression. Now, the order of desires and instincts dominates over the high order of ideas and meanings. «Godĺs death╗ has spawned sexual revolution, the death of the subject, author, dominance of manipulative technologies over the repressive power technologies. There has been formed a new type of political domination, manipulation of consciousness. The danger of moral corruption in Russia is even worse than the danger of persecution and direct aggression. Now the goal of philosophy should be new constituting of the total intellectual and literary space. It is the problematic of dignity that can become a core of designing the space of our consciousness which is broken now.
																								



11.
The axiological nature of consciousness

V. A. Kushelev
A. I. Gertsen Russian State Pedagogical University St. Petersburg, Quay Of The Moyka River, 48, Saint-Petersburg, 191186, Russia
Keywords: self-consciousness, attitude, value, evaluation, selective interaction

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the explanation of value relation of the subject to itself as an object, the role of self-consciousness as a condition of selective attitude to another subject. The author begins with an analysis of Hume's skepticism, which the latter expressed concerning the views on the obviousness of our perceptionof our own «I╗ as a static identity and a conventional wisdom that mind is a bundle or bunch of different perceptions. The author relates the position of Hume with the view of Descartes, who thought that «I╗is a condition of confirmation of the existence of the human being. With all the differences of their positions,what they have in common, according to the author, isan attempt to explain the «I╗ as the center of personality using both epistemological interpretation of the «I╗ and the axiological one, which should be expressed by self-consciousness. Self-consciousness, «pollinating╗the stream of consciousness phenomena by their evaluations, forms the «I╗ as an initial reference standard of value. The values of other objects or subjects are «tried╗ by the individual to him/herself as aninvariable reference standard. The values of other objects become relative in the eyes of the individual, whereas his/her own value is recognized as absolute, which gives«I╗a static character. The connectionof the epistemological dynamics of consciousness with the axiological statics of self-consciousness forms the center of the individual «I╗. This center is necessary for the individual to organize the situations of selective interaction. The presence of «I╗ allows the subject to conditionally divide the real space, distinguishing a singular point «here╗,at which he/sheperceive him/herself in the temporal «now╗.The conversion of continuous space into a discrete one is carried out by dividing it into «existence╗ and «nonexistence╗. These are information characteristics, the boundary between which is determined by the limiting possibilities of perception of the senses of the individual. All he/she perceives exists for him/her and is included into the situation. Another part of reality that is not perceived by the senses does not exist for him/her and is not includedin the situation. A paradox of subjectivity arises. It is manifested in the fact that in different spatial points «here╗the individual always definitely perceives him/herself as in the temporal«now╗.The preliminary formation of attitude of the subject to another subject or object is a necessary prerequisite for selective interaction. The epistemological and axiological components of the «I╗can not only complement each other, but also mutually exclude each other.Self-consciousness, forming a relation of the individual to him/herself as an object, can distort, despite consciousness, the objectiveness of its data. A true representation of him/herself can be perceived as a negative value, while a false one, but desired and thus yet expected, as a positive value. The author suggests that the ability of individualĺs self-consciousnessto perceive him/herself from the outside is due to negative energy waves that propagate from the future to the past. An analysis of the nature of self-consciousness is regarded by the author as a methodological basis of the upbringing process. Its topicality is to the need to encourage high self-esteem of the individual, the ability to combine this self-esteem with actions and goals in life.
																								



12.
An axiological strategy of the personality centered aesthetic education of the junior schoolchildren

E. Yu. Volchegorskaya
Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University, Lenin Ave, 69, Chelyabinsk, 454080, Russia
Keywords: axiological approach, personally oriented aesthetic education, internalization of aesthetic values

Abstract >>
The objective of this article is to determine the value content of the personality centered aesthetic education, which theoretical and methodological strategy is an axiological approach. Based on understanding the axiological approach as a value-related pedagogical instrument, the personality centered aesthetic education is considered as a process, aimed on understanding the objective values of culture as special needs, which make them subjectively significant, stable life orientations of the person, his/her value orientations. The axiological approach involves studying the aesthetic values through their correlation with other values on the level of emotional reactions and significance for the person. The aesthetic values internalization ensures the formation of aesthetic education in the process of constant aesthetic creativity. The axiological approach allows building a set of values: the «aesthetic creativity╗ values (making of a creative product, «imaginary worlds╗, the desire to find unexpected solutions for the artistic and creative tasks etc.); the «aesthetic experience╗ values (desire for empathy with the heroes of artworks; sensitivity to the phenomena of the world, the desire to obtain aesthetic impressions etc.); the «aesthetic attitude╗ values (values of goodness, truth and beauty, the desire to establish supportive relationships with other people, values of mutual understanding, empathy in the process of aesthetic creativity). The axiological approach leads to distinguishing the main stages of internalization of aesthetic values in the process of the personality centered aesthetic education: the aesthetic values presentation in the form of concepts, norms, ideals, objects, events, works of art, involving the freedom of choice of the aesthetic values, types and methods of aesthetic creative activity through the creation of special axiological situations; the aesthetic values assimilation without realizing their significance; the stage of emotional-sensual incorporation of the aesthetic values through emotional comprehension of the aesthetic object in the process of observing emotional reactions of other people and incorporation of the aesthetic values into the system of value orientations; the stage of conscious accepting of aesthetic values through correlation of the value orientations with the subjectively significant personality values and their realization in aesthetic creativity and behavior. The axiological approach involves the aesthetic values study through their correlation with other values on the level of emotional reactions and personality significance. The aesthetic values internalization ensures the formation of aesthetic education in the process of constant aesthetic creativity. The article discusses the process of aesthetic values internalization, which covers several widest layers of personality (motivational, emotional, rational, activity and creativity) and creates a system of aesthetic values standards (attractive or repulsive, good or bad, beautiful or ugly) and the personality meaningful aesthetic values.
																								



13.
The development of emotional responsiveness of intellectually gifted adolescents

A. G. Ryapisova, E. V. Demina
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: innovative regional project, psychological and pedagogical support of gifted children, communicative competence, emotional sphere of the person, emotional sympathy, empathy, interactive methods

Abstract >>
The article considers a system of seminars dedicated to the organization of psychological-pedagogical support of the students of specialized classes of mathematical and natural-science orientation, involved in the innovative regional project. The aim of this publication is to present the methodological foundations of the development of the emotional-volitional sphere of intellectually gifted adolescents and to generalize the experience of the organization of psychological-pedagogical support of the educational process of the most talented students. The content of this article will allow teachers-psychologists, working with gifted students to identify, to understand and to adapt the proposed system to improve their own activities and to increase its efficiency. The main idea of the article consists in substantiation of expediency and opportunity of application of the interactive methods of teachers-psychologists' work for the development of emotional responsiveness of the gifted students. The innovative regional project «The system of specialized mathematical and natural science classes for the most talented students of Novosibirsk region╗ has been implemented since 2009 as a component of a complex of measures of the regional education system modernization. The purpose of the creation of specialized classes is the providing the conditions helping to identify and support the most gifted children, the implementation of a new program content and its methodological support, new quality and new results of the general education that reflects the future needs in the labor market and technology. This project provides the psycho-pedagogical support of the educational process with the purpose of creation the psycho-pedagogical conditions for the full development and personal development of the gifted child. In order to improve the professional competence of supervising specialists (teachers-psychologists, curators), there is implemented a system of training seminars and master classes. This form of organization of the professional interaction and mutual enrichment of professional experience has proven to be effective in the aspect of developing the ways to overcome the specific psychological problems inherent in the gifted adolescents - the pupils of specialized classes. The results of psycho-diagnostic examination have convincingly shown that one of the most urgent is the problem of development of affective-emotional sphere of the personality of intellectually gifted adolescents, including the deficit of development of emotional responsiveness as a meaningful emotional experience that creates barriers in communication with peers and adults, creates difficulties in the formation of communicative competence and socio-psychological adaptation in general. The definition of the conceptual apparatus in the aspect of the research problem is based on the classical and modern scientific-theoretical works of Russian scientists. To solve the tasks of development of adolescentsĺ empathy, there is substantiated the expediency of application of interactive methods of work of the teacher-psychologist with senior pupils of specialized classes. There is described a system of educational and extra-curricular group communications, including case studies, discussion, playing techniques, training, the technique of group projects; there are revealed the potentialities of development of emotional responsiveness by means of art.
																								



14.
Organization of the distance foreign language learning for the disabled students

E. V. Burtseva
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Pr. Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: distance learning, students with disabilities, synchronous learning, asynchronous learning, electronic materials

Abstract >>
The problems of inclusive education are considered in the article. In the process of learning the Chinese language, as a rule, there arise the the problems of an individual nature associated with the perception and reproduction of hieroglyphic material. The process of perception and reproduction of the unusual forms of hieroglyphic signs takes place slowly for many students. The ways of solving some of the problems the author reveals in the implemention of distance education for students with disabilities. The author defines the concept of «inclusive education╗, which best corresponds to the Chinese language learning process for students with disabilities: it is a flexible system that meets the needs of all children, not only with the development problems. The learning system adapts to the student, not the student, to the system. The opinions of the experts in social rehabilitation on teaching the disabled students by the distance learning method are controversial. The article presents some points of view on this issue. One of the trends in foreign language teaching is to create electronic materials for distance learning, electronic textbooks. The paper presents the results of joint work of the Chinese language teachers of the Chair of International Relations and Regional Studies and teachers from China of the Confucius Institute, connected with creating training materials of the Chinese language distance learning in the framework of the strategic development of the NSTU. The usage of a distance learning textbook is seen as an effective opportunity to organize foreign language teaching in the modern virtual communication environment between the teacher and students with disabilities in higher education, within which the combination of synchronous and asynchronous learning is used. The method of combining synchronous and asynchronous learning, realized by means of computer telecommunications, includes such forms of study of foreign language as chat-classes, web-classes, and online classes in the Skype program. Thus, for teaching students with disabilities, there is required the technical equipment in the university, the information and didactic support, the availability of qualified teachers, a technique that requires serious theoretical study, experimental verification and technical support. The process of implementation of distance education system is long and difficult, but the prospect of creation and implementation of the foreign language distance education can open up new opportunities for the students with disabilities to learn a foreign language, and in particular, Chinese.
																								



15.
The conditions of formation of educational strategies of the inclusive education subjects in the modern higher education institution

V. V. Degtyareva
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Pr. Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: inclusive education, education strategies, professional education of people with disabilities

Abstract >>
With the development of inclusive education there is the need to understand the reaction and evaluation of all subjects of the educational process, their readiness to implement this form of education, development of relevant mechanisms, strategies of its adoption. Here the definition of goals and objectives of inclusive education, forms and mechanisms of its implementation should be the basis of a flexible and gradual inclusion in the new educational space of all its participants. The article describes the conditions for the formation of educational strategies for the subjects of inclusive education in the higher education institution. The author considers that the entry in the educational environment of the university is determined by the characteristics of the space of higher professional education. Not excluding the fact of rehabilitation component, the humanistic, ethical idea of integration of people with disabilities into various spheres of life, the educational goals of higher education cannot be reduced to the absolutism of the idea of satisfaction of personĺs individual needs. Otherwise, we would neglect the purpose of higher education as a system of training of highly qualified personnel for modern economy and science. At the same time, integrating into inclusive educational environment of the university, the subjects of the educational process express the inherent to them social behavior patterns that determine their individual operating principle in this environment. This attitude also sets the limits of the inclusion. It is primarily determined not only by the institutional barriers, but more importantly, the moral ones. This means that today inclusive education is implemented in the absence of communication between the relevant actors of the educational process. By the way, the subjects of the educational process represent the forms and methods of educational cooperation in different ways, often formalizing them. This could devalue the meaning of vocational training for participants of the educational process. Today the inclusive practice is possible in the conditions of state support for education programs. However, while there is a strong correlation between the financial capabilities of the higher education institution at the federal level and the implementation of training programs at the regional level, the subjects implementing various educational programs, has a goal-orientation not to receiving further education as a tool, but simple involvement into educational activities through various imitative forms. Today, the educational strategies of the subjects of inclusive education can be defined as the strategies of nominal inclusion and exclusion of its participants. The educational strategies are connected not only with the content of goal-setting of the subject of educational process with respect to the tasks of vocational education, but also with the content of life activity of the participants in the educational space of the higher education institution in the conditions of inclusion.
																								



16.
Inclusive professional education of the disabled people: a social-philosophical aspect

T. N. Degtyaryova
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Pr. Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: special education, disabled person, exclusion, inclusive form of education, integrated form of education, traditional models of disability, post-traditional models of disability, normative-interpretative paradigm

Abstract >>
The present article is devoted to the problems of disabled people. The interest in this topic is generated by the growth of disability in modern society and also the processes of development of destructive sociality, leading to social exclusion. It is worth mentioning that the analysis of such a complex phenomenon as social inclusion of the person in general and of the disabled person in particular is impossible without a concrete context. In the article the context is provided by educational environment of the disabled person in his/her professional development, in other words, his/her identity formation. However, it is increasingly becoming clear that the inclusive role of education (as well as other social institutions) is not only to give access to educational institutions. Education presents the young disabled person with an opportunity of social inclusion in educational system and other social subsystems. The necessity of identifying these opportunities urges that the goals and the role of social institutions as agents of social inclusion should be reconsidered. In addition, reconsideration of institution of professional education from the social-pedagogical and sociological perspective is required. The study of educational inclusion of a disabled person is oriented to the analysis of the problems of accessibility, inclusion, exclusion of such a person from this process thus defining the social essence of this institution as the institution of rehabilitation. In this regard, social-philosophical analysis is aimed at understanding the principles and regularities, conditions of existence and activity of this social institution, namely at understanding the essence of social processes and attitude to the disabled. So the aim of the present article is to analyze the scientific-based approaches which are applied in practice of inclusive and professional education for the disabled in Russia and abroad. The article addresses only fundamental social-philosophical theories, which are considered the methodology of organization and arrangement of education for the disabled. All these ideas are considered from the perspective of normative or interpretative paradigm. The normative-interpretative approach allows us to solve the problem of organization of inclusive education in an integrated manner. In practice this approach makes it possible to consider inclusive form of education as adaptive environment for all participants of the process. In this form of education the interests of the disabled, healthy students, teaching staff and parents are recognized. That is why the inclusive model of professional education is promising.
																								



17.
The historiosophic ideas of eurasianism in light of search for the axiological foundation in building inclusive education

E. V. Nikitenko
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Pr. Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Eurasianism, inclusive education, symphonic personality, historiosophy of Eurasianism

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the search and analysis of axiological bases of inclusive education in Russia which are seen in the historiosophy of Eurasianism. The author shows that, while developing the own value bases in creation of model of inclusion in Russia, one can rely on the idea of symphonic personality from Eurasianism. The ontological bases existing in philosophy include, to various degrees, the principles of relationship of people in the society. For N. Luman and Yu. Habermas, communication acts as a condition of interaction of subjects in society, where, according to N. Luman, not only the information transfer acquires significance, but also the perception of information by similar language means. T. Parsons points to the importance of the phenomenon of interpenetration, interchange which is possible between systems. The stability of interpenetration determines also the self-sufficiency of the society. The Euroasian version of the human relations ontology is connected with the idea of unity of the variety, acting as a condition of realization of the personality, and also with the recognition of importance of each subject forming this unity. Having distinguished the Euroasian cultural-historical type, the Eurasians proclaim it to be a special world which essence is hidden in the symphonic personality. It is the polyphony of the Euroasian culture that defines it as a symphonic personality. In practice, the inclusive education in Russia faces a number of problems: unreadiness of the «healthy╗ pupils and teachers to work together with people with special educational needs; the lack of special psychological-pedagogical training, special knowledge of teaching structure which is connected with the absence in pedagogical programs, techniques of teaching of the sections devoted to inclusion in education, the weak material base necessary for implementation of inclusive education, and also unavailability of city infrastructure to provide mobility for the physically disabled people. In our opinion, for the realization of inclusive education, the key factor is psychological readiness of the subjects of educational process to accept physically disabled people, to perceive them not as limited but as people with special needs. And here it is worth paying attention to the value reference points of the society, a basis of any perception, how we perceive and treat «the other person╗, gradually introducing these new values. The idea of the symphonic personality can potentially act as the ontological principle on which relationship in the society is built.
																								



18.
Increasing social potential of the educational environment of universities in terms of inclusive education

L. A. Overchuk1, Kozial Anna2
1Novosibirsk State Technical University, Pr. Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Foreign Languages Institute, State High School, Str. Ptaszkowa, 213, Nowy Sacz, 33-333, Poland
Keywords: Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, inclusive education, reconstruction of the educational environment, the optimization of educational programmes, persons with health disabilities (PHD)

Abstract >>
The article describes the possibility of reconstruction of the educational environment of universities to improve its social potential in conditions of transition to inclusive education. There is presented a new paradigm in the implementation of the policy of equal opportunities for persons with disabilities on the example of Polish and Russian system of higher education, compared problems and possible ways of their overcoming. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities declares higher education as an important tool to ensure social inclusion of persons with disabilities (in 2012 the Convention was ratified in Russia). Analysis of inclusion in Poland shows the presence of the main problem while implementing the Convention, namely, the exclusion of persons with disabilities on the environment in the learning process. It is required to solve the problems of educational programmes adaptation and the creation of a barrier-free environment, both in Poland and Russia. The new paradigm of disability, as opposed to traditional, draws attention to the ways of interaction between the disabled and the environment, society as a whole. The basis of innovative social policy (formed on the concept of civil rights) is to reform social institutions, as well as higher education, to include the disabled. A system of social services that people with disabilities can delegate its limited capabilities and allow them to live independently in the community is needed in the infrastructure of society. Thus, the learning process should be accompanied by a professional rehabilitation support. Availability of specialized teachers and psychologists in the structure of higher education institutions will be able to provide real support in the reconstruction of the educational environment and optimize educational programs.
																								



19.
The role of inclusive education in the process of increasing the social status of the educational programs for the people with disabilities

G. S. Ptushkin, E. V. Traulko
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Pr. Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: education, educational program, inclusion, disabled person, person with limited abilities of health, integration, accessibility, social potential, resource centre

Abstract >>
In the article there are considered the issues of organization of inclusive education in the European countries and in Russia, an accent is made on the increase of social status of the educational programs for the disabled people, realized with the help of inclusive form of education. The main goal of the article is to reveal, on the basis of problem analysis of the foreign experience, an extent of readiness of the Russian higher education system for realization of the principles of inclusion in a system of vocational training for the disabled people. The inclusive education is a world-wide process, which spreads over all countries, especially those with the developed democracy. It presupposes reforming of the educational organizations and reconstruction of the studying rooms in order that they can meet the needs of the students of all kinds of disability. This form of training and education of the people with limited abilities of their health allows them to co-operate actively with the normally developing citizens and to get from them communicative and educational support. That promotes consolidation of the entire society, development of the principles of tolerance and humanism. Inclusion is an idea of education, removing the obstacles existing in the society. The inclusive school is an inevitable way for Russia, which follows the states with the developed democracy. That testifies to a certain level of political, economic and cultural development of our state. However, the genuine inclusion requires considerable investments necessary for the creation of accessible educational environment. Today only some of higher education institutions can provide such conditions. In the article, a conclusion is made that, based on the formed situation today in Russian higher education institutions, particularly, in the Novosibirsk State Technical University (NSTU), the inclusive education, first of all, can provide social integration of such contingent of students. It is too early to speaking today about creation of conditions of accessibility in all state higher education institutions for all categories of disable people. It is a complicated task, requiring mobilization of material and human resources, reconstruction of academic building and hostels, reformatting of the teachers' approaches for those pedagogues who work in the inclusive groups, changing the mentality toward the disabled people. At the first stages of development of the inclusive education, it is necessary to get support from the Ministry of Education, particularly, to establish a certain quota of recruitment for the higher education institutions, having substantial experience of training the disabled both in the separate and integrated groups. There are only few such higher education institutions in Russia, and the Institute of Social Rehabilitation of the NSTU is one them. Having the twenty-year experience of training the disabled, it can become, undoubtedly, the largest resource centre of the vocational inclusive training in the Siberian region.
																								



20.
Norm and antinorm: problems and prospectsof the inclusive education in China

M. A. Kuratchenko
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Pr. Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: inclusive education, social norms, the traditional society, the education system

Abstract >>
The article examines the categories of «norm╗ and «antinorm╗ in the Chinese tradition, and, as a consequence, their influence on the perception of persons with disabilities in society. The attitude towards the people that are different from others in the traditional culture is closely linked with the concept of the need to maintain stability of the society, the foundation of reproducing the customary practices and texts. In such a case, any going beyond the «normal╗ and generally accepted poses a risk for the community. The traditional cultures offer a variety of options for adaptation of antinorm: from destruction to assimilation, which seems to be a consequence of the existing in the community concepts of space and time, as well as the usual practices of social identity formation. In addition, within each cultural community there is uniquely solved the question of defining the boundaries between norm and antinorm. The data obtained in the course of the present study allow us to make conclusions about social adaptation, the role and place of persons with disabilities in the traditional Chinese society. Speaking of contemporary Chinese society, researchers as one of its main features indicate that the basic social practices are largely determined by the traditional beliefs. The perception of the people with disabilities and how to adapt them is no exception. The paper analyzes the legal framework, conducts a retrospective study of existing educational practices of persons with disabilities; the interpretation of lexical material suggests current trends in the development of inclusive education in China. It is interesting to note that these practices, which appeared in Europe and America a lot earlier, is the case of adaptation of foreign experience to Chinese realities. The study of the creation of inclusive education system in China is, on one hand, an experience of understanding the ways of adaptation of foreign elements by the traditional culture while maintaining both traditional and innovative components. On the other hand, it is a very interesting history of large-scale organization of millions of people to provide opportunities for education, occupation for the people with disabilities. It is a unique phenomenon, which has no analogues in the world.
																								



21.
An experience of the higher education institutions of the USA: financial aid for the students through the grant and loan programs

V. G. Shishikin
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Pr. Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: USA, higher education, higher education institutions, grants, loans, Federal center, States

Abstract >>
In the article there is studied the specifics of modern programs of financial aid for the students in the higher education institutions of the USA. The system of the market relations, which is the basis of development of higher education of the United States of America, the participation in its activity of authorities of different levels, as well as individuals and companies are important components for the formation of a variety of programs of financial aid for the students. The author distinguishes the most important sources of support for students, where the leading role belongs to the federal authorities, which carry out interaction with the governments of the states, individual educational institutions, persons and organizations. This cooperation has a complex and multichannel character and helps to create flexible procedures for providing the students with financial support in the form of grants and loans. The constant increase of the volume of financial support and variety of forms of material assistance allow students and their parents to choose the most active aid programs, among which an important role is played by «Pell Grants╗ and «Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants╗. These funds are given on the gratuitous basis, but they insufficient to compensate the current costs of training which annually grow. The programs of granting this aid serve as a base of financial support for the students from poor families, and also specialized groups of students of the American higher education institutions, for example, those who study mathematics and sciences, or the students from ethnic minorities of the country or physically disabled students. The programs of loans are provided not only by the budgetary but also the non-budgetary sources due to cooperation of the authorities and higher education institutions with the third-party organizations which are interested in the development of communications with the higher education. The volumes of financial support of granting «Federal Family Education Loans╗, «William D. Ford Federal Direct Student Loans╗, «Perkins Loans╗ and «Plus Loans╗ surpass the programs of grants, while providing the students with a possibility of compensation for expenses not only on learning, but also on accompanying needs. The federal government, without interfering directly with the relationship of borrowers and creditors, plays a role of arbitrator and guarantor of partiesĺ fulfilling the assumed obligations. The main distinctive feature of the programs of student loans is their repayment by the borrower on an interest rate below the market one. Delegating of the part of powers from the government to the private organizations fixes market and the democratic character of the system of financial assistance and provides its stability. The main objective is the increase of availability of the higher education in the USA and development of its egalitarian character.
																								



22.
On some aspects ofhigher education for the people with disabilities: an example of Japan

S. S. Kolyshkina
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Pr. Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: pedagogy, inclusive education, higher education in Japan

Abstract >>
Japan is one of the leading countries in the field of implementation of inclusive education at all stages of education, from primary school to higher education and secondary special education. In the field of education for people with disabilities, Japan in a short time has gone from discrimination of the disabled people and their complete elimination from the life of the community to creation of the most favorable conditions of life for them. One of the major impulses in this direction was given to Japan by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, after joining of which there began in Japan to develop legislation to create a barrier-free environment, an inclusive education system at all stages, special programs of support and patronage. To coordinate the dissemination of inclusive education, Japan createdthe National Disability Center, Japanese student supportCenter etc. At the moment, we can talk about the undoubted success achieved in the field of higher education for the people with disabilities in Japan. The process of integrating the disabled into society, including access to education in Japan is conducted in two ways: elimination of the «environmental╗ barriers and elimination of the «attitude-related╗ barriers. «Environmental╗ barriers are eliminated in the process of reconstruction of the existing infrastructure of universities because of the new architectural requirements of «barrier-free environment╗ and through the development of individual trajectories of students with limited mobility on the territory of the university. The «attitude-related╗ barriers can be overcome with the help ofvolunteer programs within the higher education institutions which help students with disabilities (the volunteers having special preliminary training), as well as municipal and state programs of socialization of the disabled. Japanese experience can be useful to develop ways to improve the social potential of Higher Education of the Russian Federation.
																								



23.
Round table ┬źSocial adaptation of students with disabilities in the context of implementation of inclusive education in modern higher education: the world and russian experience╗

O. V. Zinevich, V. V. Degtyareva
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Pr. Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: social adaptation, higher inclusive education, vocational education, semantic communicative space of the University

Abstract >>
This article is devoted to the review of topical problems of social adaptation of students with disabilities in the context of implementation of the practices of inclusive education both in Russia and in the world, discussed in the framework of the Round table held on 10 April 2014 in the framework of realization of the project «Enhancing knowledge and social potential: a module for the European integration of students with disabilities╗ (Erasmus programme, subprogramme J. Monet, September 2011 - August 2014). A lively discussion was prompted by the following issues: problems of inclusive education, humanitarian and institutional basis in the implementation of inclusive practices, motivation for getting higher education, social adaptation and support of people with disabilities in training, access to higher education through the development of remote and network infrastructure of the modern University. One of the main conclusions was the existence of an urgent need for a conceptual basis of the further development of inclusive education in Russian universities as conditions for the social adaptation and integration of students with disabilities. A special attention was paid to the problems of forming a single communication space for all participants in socialization of educational process: the teaching staff, students with disabilities, students with normal health. According to the participants, the leading task of implementing inclusive practice becomes the task of forming and development not only architectural-and-planning environment, but also the formation of psycho-pedagogical, educational-methodical and research infrastructure of educational institution of higher professional education. The most important conditions for this, according to participants, are: psychological readiness to interpersonal communication, removal of the motivational and value-related barriers among all participants of the educational process: disabled students, parents, students with normal health, and teachers. Researchers and specialists in the field of professional inclusive and special education emphasize the need for a serious examination of readiness of educational institutions to introduce and develop inclusive practices, not imitating the inclusion of people with disabilities but making it real. Both in Russia and abroad, the experts agree about the problems caused by the implementation experience of inclusion. In this regard, the task has become more urgent of comparative study of the experience of the countries of West and East in the implementation of inclusive education as a condition of successful social adaptation of people with disabilities.
																								



24.
Transcript of Webinar "School and the modern teenager" (February 27, 2014)

Yakov Turbovskoy
Institute of educational theory and pedagogy RAO, Moscow