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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2011 year, number 2

The Attitudes of East-Siberian High-Ranking Officials toward the Great Reforms.

P.N. Matkhanova
Keywords: the 1860s reforms, Eastern Siberia, administration, liberal bureaucracy
Pages: 3-7

Abstract >>
The article analyzes attitudes toward the reforms expressed by the East-Siberian governor-generals and other high-ranking officials. Many of them, including N.N. Muravyov-Amurskiy and M.S. Korsakov, supported the governmental course of reforms. However the top administrators strove for greater independence and biger budget for the Far Eastern regions' development, while the liberal bureaucracy in the capital  opposed both of these initiatives.

Evaluation of the 1860s-1870s Reforms by the Siberian Regionalists.

M.V. Shilovsky
Keywords: reforms of the 1860s-1870s, regionalism, Siberia, serfdom, social and political life, government, society
Pages: 7-10

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the instant reaction of the Siberian regionalists G.N. Potanin, N.M. Yadrintsev, S.S. Shashkov, N.I. Naumov and others to the reforms of 1860s-1870s and shows how their opinions changed in course of time.

Governors on the Reform of Municipal Government on the Eve of Serfdom's Abolition.

A.N. Biktasheva
Keywords: governor, official initiative, abolition of serfdom, reorganization of municipal government
Pages: 11-14

Abstract >>
This article is devoted to the study of reformatory activities of the Russian governors. The subject of analysis is governors' official reports on measures taken with the purpose of reorganization of municipal government, drawn up on the instructions of Minister of Internal Affairs on the eve of serfdom's abolition in the Russian Empire.

The Press as a Management Instrument of the Provincial Administration on the Eve and during the Great Reforms.

N.N. Morozova
Keywords: provincial administration, official press, Provincial Gazette, the 1860s reforms
Pages: 14-17

Abstract >>
The paper characterizes the role of the Gubernskiye Vedomosti (Provincial Gazette) in the provincial administration in the early period of Alexander II's reign. Based on the materials about the Tomsk and Tobolsk provinces the author finds out what problems were solved by the local administrators with the help of the official press.

Universal Military Sservice as a Part of Military Reforms of Emperor Alexander I.

V.I. Bayandin
Keywords: recruitment regulations, recruitments, recruitment confirmations, redemption, universal military service, manifesto of 1874, Siberian non-Russians, call-up age, Russian Imperial Army
Pages: 18-21

Abstract >>
The article considers the question of the law on the all-classes military service in January 1874 in Russia. The process of preparation and carrying out of the recruitment in the country and its peculiarities in Siberia is investigated. The author estimates a value of the law for the improvement of military efficiency under the conditions of rapid rise of military potential of some leading European countries. Attitude of different social groups to the law is analyzed.

Discussions about Local Justice in Western Siberia in the Second Half of the XIX - the Beginning of the XX Centuries in the Context of Professional Legal Conscience of the Regional Lawyers.

I.G Adonyeva
Keywords: professional legal conscience, local justice, local court, justice of the peace, district court, idealization of law
Pages: 22-25

Abstract >>
The paper considers specific traits of West-Siberian lawyers' legal conscience in the context of their perception of the local justice's structure and functions. The lawyers' opinions were determined by the level of their vocational training as well as by peculiarities of the regional judicial system. As a result it led to idealization of justices of the peace as described in the judicial regulations and to expectations that judicial reform will be carried out in full.

The Living and Working Conditions of Justices of the Peace in Western Siberia in the Late XIX - Early XX Centuries.

E.A. Krestyannikov
Keywords: judicial reforms, Western Siberia, justices of the peace
Pages: 26-29

Abstract >>
The article deals with the everyday life of justices of the peace in Western Siberia before the revolution. Peculiarities of this legal institution along with Siberian conditions created difficulties the local justices of the peace had to overcome. compared to other employees of the Ministry of Justice they were more burdened with lawsuits, wanted for material resources and suffered from disorderly life, so the results of their work were adversely affected by all these factors. The central authorities tried to take proper account of the region's specific features, but the everyday judicial work proved that all these attempts failed and the whole system of  justice of the peace worked under the permanent crisis.

Public Legal Profession of Eastern Siberia: Professional Group Characteristic (1885 - February of 1917).

S.L. Shakherova
Keywords: legal profession, public solicitor, assistant of public solicitor, private solicitor, juridical reform, Eastern Siberia
Pages: 30-33

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the stages of the East Siberian legal profession's formation as a professional group. The article analyzes peculiarities of its structure and territorial distribution. The author studies the factors influenced the distribution of public solicitors. Interconnection between territorial distribution of lawyers and accessibility of professional juridical help in the Eastern Siberia is established.

A Governor in a Siberian Province (Devoted to the 150th Anniversary of the Birth of the Governor Ivan I. Kraft)

A.A. Pavlov, S.E. Nikitina
Keywords: Governor of the Yakutian Oblast, socio-cultural processes, scientific studying of the region, folk education, public health, agronomical culture, educational public organizations, periodical press
Pages: 33-36

Abstract >>
The article deals with the Councilor of State Ivan I. Kraft who was the most colorful figure of all the heads of the oblast. In the years when Ivan I. Kraft governed the Yakutian Oblast (1907-1913) the considerable socio-cultural changes took place: the cart-roads were built; delivery of mail became faster; the new stations were opened at the roads. Telephone, electricity, movies became the realities of Yakutsk citizens' life; the public and political press became widespread. Ivan I. Kraft gave special attention to enlightenment, public health, and equipping agriculture with advanced technologies.

Modernization Paradigm in the Regional History of Russia (XVIII - early XX century).

I.V. Poberezhnikov
Keywords: modernization, reconceptualization, region, variability, frontier, colonization, development, enclavity, spatial differentiation
Pages: 37-41

Abstract >>
The paper describes how historians could use the new modernization paradigm in their studies on regional history of Russia. The author shows how the nature and dynamics of modernization were influenced by the frontier location of the country bordering on different civilization worlds; by Russia's versatile climatic and environmental conditions, her rich mineral resources. He also proves that the eastern regions of Russia provide material for creating a unique frontier model of modernization.

Soviet Mobilization Model of Siberia's Development: Problems of Studying.

A.I. Timoshenko
Keywords: state policy, mobilization, development
Pages: 42-45

Abstract >>
The article shows the importance of studying the historical experience of mobilization methods of Siberia's development in the Soviet era. The author considers possible lines of research, the general state of research both in Western and Russian historiography.

Purges in the Managerial Personnel of the Tsentrosoyuz in 1930: Goals and Methods.

A.A. Nikolaev
Keywords: comsumer's cooperation, Tsentrosoyuz, Sibkraisoyuz, purges of the cooperation staff, private capital
Pages: 46-50

Abstract >>
The paper based on the documents regarding the purge in the personnel of the cooperative enterprises in 1930 analyzes the managerial staff of the Tsentrosoyuz which came in sight of the state controlling bodies. The author concludes that the cooperative managerial personnel consisted of a large number of administrators focused on market methods of procuring and manufacturing activities. They kept their top positions in the most significant spheres of cooperative sector owing to their high qualification and absence of any politically incriminating evidence. Only in the late 1920s when the government set a course for creating a system of centralized planning and refused from the private market methods the cooperatives' managers who had had a work record before the revolution were considered not only irrelevant but also dangerous for fulfillment of state programs. The planned procurements and ration card system replaced the free trade and agricultural goods purchasing as the top-priority methods of cooperation work.

Results of the Spring Sowing Campaign in 1930: the Price of Forced Collectivization.

V.A. Ilyinykh
Keywords: agrarian policy, Siberia, collectivization, agricultural industry, planting acreages, statistical sources
Pages: 50-54

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the results of the spring agricultural campaign in 1930 in Siberia. It reveals political, economical, natural and climatic factors which lead to significant acreage reduction. One of the most important goals of the research was to define the representative and comparable sources on the basis of which one can credibly reconstruct the dynamics of planting acreages in the region in 1929-1930.

Educational Status of Siberian Builders in 1946-1970s.

A.A. Dolgoluk
Keywords: cultural level of the population, education, builders, workers, specialists, Siberia
Pages: 55-58

Abstract >>
The article observes the changes in educational potential of the labours, engineering and technical workers and servants during 25 years after the World War II. The author compares educational status of the employees occupied in the building industry and other branches of material industry. The article shows the difficulties in supplying Siberian construction sites with specialists of higher and specialized secondary education, reveals the role of the system of night classes and part-time education, including schools for working youth in increase of the builders' cultural and technical level.

Compensatory Agreements in the Programs of Siberia Development in 1960-1980s.

V.P. Timoshenko
Keywords: international division of labour, compensatory agreements, credit agreements, wood resources, oil and gas complex, transport building
Pages: 59-63

Abstract >>
The article considers the practice of foreign technical-technological experience application in the process of Siberian development in the form of compensatory agreements. Favorable conditions have been created in Siberia for development of this form of cooperation, which has played an appreciable role in industrial development of the region.

Siberian Period in the Biography of the Academician A.L. Yanshin: on the Centenary of his Birth.

N.A. Kupershtokh
Keywords: Academician A.L. Yanshin, geological research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR
Pages: 63-67

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the Academician A.L. Yanshin's role in organizing the research activities in the Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of sciences of the USSR. His work resulted in exploration of major deposits of natural resources, necessary for the development of the productive forces in Siberia and adjacent territories.

Party Nomenclature in Western Siberia During Perestroika.

M.V. Kotlyarov
Keywords: KPSU, perestroika, nomenclature, Western Siberia
Pages: 67-71

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the party nomenclature in the Western Siberia in 1985-1991. The author shows that during perestroika significant reduction and change in the party's composition took place. In 1985-1990 the correlation between gender, age and national groups among the party cadres has not practically changed. However a number of national economy specialists and persons with higher political education increased in executive positions. Significant reduction in number of experienced workers in the party committees reflected their weakness and decrease of their status in the political system. As a result it lead to the further weakness of the KPSU.

Farm Enterprises as a Part of the Agricultural Sector of Siberia in 1990s.

I.B. Karpunina
Keywords: agrarian reform, farm enterprises, agricultural industry, Siberia
Pages: 71-76

Abstract >>
The article deals with formation of a new sector in agrarian economy of Siberia in 1990s, its significance and input in agricultural industry and reasons of its low effectiveness.

Effectiveness of the Siberian Researchers Participation in the RGNF (Russian Foundation for Humanities) Contests.

M. Y. Cherevikina
Keywords: effectiveness of the scientific community, scientific project contest, preferences of contestants
Pages: 76-82

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to analysis of effectiveness of the Siberian scientific community participating in scientific project contests organized by the RGNF (Russian Foundation for Humanities) in 2009-2010. Based on the vast statistical data the author shows the results of projects supported by the RGNF and implemented in different fields of science; correlation between projects carried out by researchers from the Russian Academy of Sciences and from higher education institutions. Special attention is given to evaluation of results of the main contest. The article reveals unfavorable trends in contests organized during the crisis years; analyzes underlying factors which influenced these trends; among them - preferences of the contestants from the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Transportation of Silver and Gold from the Plants of the Altay District to Saint-Petersburg in the late XIX Century.

A.A. Zavyalov
Keywords: Altay, smelting of silver and gold, Saint-Petersburg, water-way, railway, costs
Pages: 83-86

Abstract >>
There is a vast historiography on the Altay mining industry, its creation, its role in economic and cultural development of the local population. However researchers didn't pay much attention to the history of transportation of gold and silver from the Altay district to Saint-Petersburg. That is why an attempt was made to trace the routes of gold and silver delivery from the Altay to Saint-Petersburg in the end of the XIX century as well as to evaluate its costs (also taking into account the transportation costs). This task was accomplished on the basis of archival documents for the first time introduced for scientific use. It allowed determining not only the total expenditure of the gold and silver transportation from the Altay to the capital, but also showing separate costs for overland transport, waterways and later - for railroads.

Irkutsk Custom-House in the Second Half of the XIX - Early XX Century.

A.V. Neklyudova
Keywords: East Siberia, custom-house, transit, trade, smuggling, customs
Pages: 86-89

Abstract >>
The article studies Irkutsk custom-house activity in the second half of the XIX - early XX century. The main attention is devoted to the process of the custom-house's foundation, registration of its structure, identification of its activity bases. This makes possible to trace the volumes and flow of goods, their selection, relations between businessmen and the custom-house and its struggle with smuggling.

Historiography of Urban Cemeteries in the Administrative Centers of Western Siberia.

E.I. Krasilnikova
Keywords: cemetery, necropolis, local history, historical memory, historiography
Pages: 89-92

Abstract >>
This article provides a review of studies conducted by historians, regional ethnographers, archaeologists, anthropologists and devoted to the history of urban cemeteries in Tomsk, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Barnaul and Tyumen. The author analyzed each author's contribution into researching this issue, determines the gaps in their knowledge and prospects for future studies.

Elections for the 1st-the 4th State Dumas in the Yenisei Province.

S.A. Safronov
Keywords: the State Duma, the Yenisei province, the selective law, political parties
Pages: 93-96

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to pre-election struggle of candidates in the State Duma of four convocations in 1906-1912 in the Yenisei province, party identification of the Siberian deputies. The article gives consideration to the change of the elective legislation concerning Siberia and other regions of Russia after dispersal of the Second State Duma, decline in political activity of population after suppression of the first Russian revolution 1905-1907.

Industrial Organizations' Patronage of Kolkhozes and Sovkhozes in Western Siberia in the Second Half of the 1960s - the First Half of the 1980s.

D.S. Orlov
Keywords: rural economy, patronage, agrarian policy, Western Siberia
Pages: 96-99

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the organization of industrial enterprises' patronage of kolkhozes and sovkhozes in the middle of the 1960s - the first half of the 1980s in the Altai, Kemerovo and Novosibirsk regions. The author comes to the conclusion that under the conditions of the administrative organizing economic managing system in the agrarian sphere the organization of the patronage to agricultural producers was a desperate measure caused by shortening of labour potential in West Siberian village and weak material and technical base of the regional agricultural enterprises.