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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2009 year, number 2

1.
Tebain as a Precursor of Opioid Analgesics

T. G. Tolstikova, A. V. Bolkunov, E. A. Morozova, S. E. Tolstikov
Keywords: tebain, analgesics, opioid receptors, pyrrolidinomorphinanes, sulphotebain
Pages: 115-133

Abstract >>
Review deals with the discussion of the state existing in the world in the area of developments of selective narcotic analgesics of different structural types based on the synthetic transformations of tebain.



2.
Anode Oxidation of Sulphite and Thiosulphate Ions on Porous Electrodes Made of Carbon Fibres

A. G. Belobaba, D. V. Sukhorukov, A. I. Masliy, A. A. Gusev
Keywords: porous electrode, carbon fibres, anode oxidation, sulphite, thiosulphate
Pages: 135-140

Abstract >>
Dynamics of the anode oxidation of sulphite and thiosulphate solutions (concentration: 10 g/l) on carbon felt VNG-30 and "Karbolon V-22" under different electrolysis conditions was investigated. It was established that these materials are rather stable under anode polarization to ϕ ≈ 1.7 V (c.s.e.) and may be used for the anode oxidation of sulphite and thiosulphate ions. It was demonstrated that the oxidation rate increases with an increase in the anode polarization, especially with a decrease in the concentration of the oxidizing anions. It was shown that the addition of KBr (up to 10 g/l) to the solution causes a substantial acceleration of the oxidation of both sulphite and thiosulphate.



3.
Application of Mechanical Activation for the Synthesis of Cathode Materials Based on Solid Solutions LiNi1-yCoyO2

N. V. Kosova, E. T. Devyatkina, A. B. Slobodyuk
Keywords: mechanical activation, lithium ion rechargeable batteries, cathode materials, LiNi1-yCoyO2, Li MAS NMR, cycling
Pages: 141-149

Abstract >>
Dry, waste-free and energy-saving synthesis of cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries based on solid solutions of the composition LiNi1-yCoyO2 (y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) was carried out. Double hydroxides of nickel and cobalt, as well as anhydrous oxides of nickel and cobalt in mixture with lithium hydroxide were used as the initial reagents. It was shown that, independently of the initial reagents, the samples are characterized by high dispersity, phase uniformity and are indexed in the space group R3m. With an increase in nickel content, lattice parameters а and с increase; a good correspondence with Wegard rule for solid solutions in the system LiNiO2-LiCoO2 is observed. The bands in the IR spectrum shift to smaller frequencies as a result of a decrease in covalence in the layer (Ni1-yCoyO2)2. The 6,7Li NMR spectra contain two components which are shifted both to the positive and to the negative region and provide evidence of the interaction of lithium ions with Ni3+ ions in the first and the second coordination spheres. Analysis of the fine structure of the second component of MAS spectra situated near 0 ppm showed that nickel ions in the layers Ni1-yCoyO2 are distributed non-uniformly for 0.6 ≤ (1-y) ≤ 0.8. Such a deviation from the random distribution of Ni/Co has a narrow local character and is not detected by means of XPA but affects the electrochemical properties of cathode materials.



4.
Cost Efficient Processing of Lithium-Bearing Crude Ores for Obtaining Lithium Compounds and Cement

N. P. Kotsupalo, A. D. Ryabtsev, M. A. Yagolnitser, N. Z. Lyakhov
Keywords: spodumene ore, lime method, leaching, aluminate solution, decomposition, lithium compounds, sludge, cement, cost efficiency
Pages: 151-159

Abstract >>
In order to improve the efficiency of the production of lithium compounds from crude spodumene ores, the possibility of their integrated processing using the lime high-temperature treatment of spodumene is demonstrated.



5.
Reactions of β-Pinene Epoxide with Some Amines under the Action of Microwave Radiation

S. S. Laev, V. V. Fomenko, N. I. Komarova, D. V. Korchagina, N. F. Salakhutdinov
Keywords: ?-pinene epoxide, amines, amino alcohols, chromatography
Pages: 161-166

Abstract >>
Interaction of β-pinene epoxide with some amines (butylamine, diethylamine, piperidine, morpholine) under the action of the microwave radiation is investigated. It is established that opening of the epoxide cycle occurs in all the cases, and mainly a pair of isomeric amino alcohols (2-{amino-methyl}-6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane-2-ols) is formed. In all the experiments involving column chromatography, one of the isomers was isolated and characterized; for piperidine, both isomers were. characterized. In the experiment with butylamine, 1-para-menthene-7,8-diol was isolated from the reaction mass; in the case of diethylamine, an amino alcohol of menthane structure was isolated.



6.
Mercury in Natural Objects of West Siberia

Е. Е. Lyapina, E. A. Golovatskaya, I. I. Ippolitov, Y. I. Preis
Keywords: mercury, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity, natural indicators, monitoring
Pages: 167-173

Abstract >>
In the course of ecological and chemical investigations of mercury content in the environmental objects, comparative evaluation of the accumulating abilities of various natural indicators was carried out for the bog and urban ecosystems as examples. Experimental data on mercury content in urban soil, peat, lichens, moss, wood and needles of conifers are presented.



7.
Influence of Mechanical Treatment on the Composition of Bitumen-Saturated Sandstone

G. S. Pevneva, E. V. Ivanova, V. G. Surkov, A. K. Golovko, A. F. Safronov
Keywords: bitumen-saturated sandstone, mechanical treatment, product composition
Pages: 175-181

Abstract >>
Changes in the composition of the organic component of bitumen-saturated sandstone arising as a result of its mechanical treatment in AGO-2 set-up in the medium of argon and hydrogen were investigated. It was shown that the mechanical treatment in the medium of argon causes a decrease in the yield of bitumoid (organic component), a decrease in the concentrations of pyrobitumen, oil, saturated hydrocarbons and triarenes, while the fraction of tar increases sharply. Treatment of sandstone in the medium of hydrogen does not cause any substantial changes of the material constitution of bitumoid in comparison with the initial sample; however, the content of saturated, bi- and triaromatic hydrocarbons in the hydrocarbon group composition of this bitumoid is much lower than that in the bitumoid of the initial sandstone.



8.
Intensification of the Process of Collagen Dissolution with the Help of Mechanical Treatment

V. A. Poluboyarov, E. V. Voloskova, V. V. Yankovaya, T. I. Guryanova
Keywords: offal, processing of wastes, alkali-salt treatment, acetic acid, ultrasound, enzymatic agents, molecular mass, dissolution of collagen, intensification, mechanochemical action
Pages: 183-189

Abstract >>
Different methods of the mechanochemical intensification of the process of collagen dissolution are proposed: cavitation at the stage of preliminary treatment of the collagen-containing material and mechanical mixing at the stage of dissolution in acetic acid. In order to obtain pure products of collagen dissolution which would not be contaminated with chemical reagents and would be suitable for use as raw materials in medicine and in food industry, treatment with a set of enzymatic agents is used. Colloid solutions conserving the fibrous structure necessary for further use of the products of collagen dissolution were obtained.



9.
Some Prenylated Phenols of Rhododendron adamsii: Isolation, Modification and Pharmacological Tests

A. D. Rogachev, N. I. Komarova, D. V. Korchagina, M. P. Dolgikh, I. V. Sorokina, D. S. Baev, T. G. Tolstikova, V. V. Fomenko, N. F. Salakhutdinov
Keywords: Rhododendron adamsii, meroterpenoids, xanthenols, coagulants
Pages: 191-198

Abstract >>
Methyl ester of cannabigerorcynic acid 1, previously unknown derivative of octahydroxanthenol 2 and daurichromenic acid 4 were isolated from the lipophilic extracts of Rh. adamsii. Derivatives of compounds 1 and 2 were obtained. It was shown that xanthenol 2 possesses coagulating and hypothermic effect. Methyl ester of cannabigerorcynic acid was discovered in a natural object for the first time.



10.
QSAR Modelling of Maximum Permissible Concentrations of Organic Substances in the Air of Working Areas

А. А. Toropov, V. O. Kudyshkin, I. N. Nurgaliev, R. Z. Akhmerov, S. S. Rashidova
Keywords: QSAR, SMILES, descriptor, maximum permissible concentrations, processing of plastics
Pages: 199-202

Abstract >>
Optimal descriptors were determined on the basis of the data obtained by means of SMILES (simplified molecular input line entry system). It was established that they give a satisfactory prediction of the logarithms of maximum permissible concentrations of the substances that may be present in the air of the working area during the production and processing of plastics.



11.
Photogalvanochemical Oxidation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol

D. G. Aseev, A. A. Batoeva, M. R. Sizykh
Keywords: galvanochemical oxidation, ultraviolet radiation, 2, 4-dichlorophenol
Pages: 203-207

Abstract >>
Results of photoactivated galvanochemical oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol in aqueous solution in a flow reactor of the film type are discussed. It is established that photoactivation promotes an increase in the rate constant of the oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by a factor of 1.7 due to the acceleration of destruction of intermediate products and allows one to achieve almost complete mineralization of the substrate.



12.
Effect of Mineralization of the Aqueous Phase and Watering on the Composition of Interfacial Layer of Water-Oil Emulsions

N. A. Nebogina, I. V. Prozorova, N. V. Yudina
Keywords: water-oil emulsions, interfacial layer, natural oil emulsifiers, pyrobitumen
Pages: 209-214

Abstract >>
Effect of water and salt content of oil emulsions on the group composition of their interfacial layer was investigated. It was shown that an increase in water and salt content causes an increase in the fraction of heteroatomic components, an increase in the degrees of cyclicity and aromaticity of pyrobitumen species extracted from the interfacial layers of emulsions, in comparison with pyrobitumen of oil.



13.
Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel: State and Trends of Development

G. P. Pashkov, P. N. Kuznetsov, A. F. Safronov, N. Z. Lyakhov
Keywords: synthetic fuel, oil, gas, industrial processing
Pages: 215-227

Abstract >>
The state of the problem of production of the synthetic hydrocarbon fuel abroad and in Russia is considered. It is shown that abroad, in view of the limited oil resources, new energy strategies were adopted and are put into effect. These strategies are aimed at diversification of energy carriers, involvement of nonconventional kinds of organic raw materials (mainly coal and natural gas), as well as plant raw materials, into industrial processing to obtain ecologically safe liquid fuel, and establishment of the corresponding production. It was stressed that the technologies of the production of synthetic liquid fuel from coal reached the level of commercial efficiency. In Russia, it is necessary to develop and accept, as soon as possible, a novel energy strategy aimed at the creation of competitive technologies for advances oil processing and for obtaining high-quality and ecologically safe liquid hydrocarbons from coal and natural gas.