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"Philosophy of Education"

2019 year, number 3

1.
MODEL OF TRANSFORMATION OF RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES: FACTORS OF CHOICE

E. V. Kudryashova, S. E. Sorokin
Northern Federal University named after M. V. Lomonosov, Arkhangelsk, Russia
Keywords: университет, образование, В«третья миссияВ», предпринимательский университет, инновационный университет, исследовательский университет, корпоративный университет, сетевой университет, University, education, В«third missionВ», entrepreneurial University, innovation University, research University, corporate University, network University

Abstract >>
Introduction. The research is devoted to the actual problem of development of the Russian system of higher education, its compliance with global trends and challenges, the search for new forms and ways of life of universities in modern Russian conditions. Methodology and methods of the research. The authors analyze the theoretical models of educational institutions of higher education: entrepreneurial, innovative, research, corporate network University, identify their key features. The results of the research. The article considers the experience of these models in foreign countries, as well as the problems of its adaptation in Russian conditions. For example, the key problems of adaptation of the entrepreneurial University model in the Russian environment are the lack of experience of such activities among the teams and University management during the previous periods of work; mutual unwillingness to cooperate on the part of universities and the business sector, enterprises, corporations, a small number of successful practices in this direction; the framework of the existing system of management and financing of universities. The directions of the state policy in the sphere of education aimed at encouraging universities to choose new ways of their development, such as, for example, the implementation of the project on the creation of national research universities or the project «Universities as centers of the space for creating innovations» are highlighted. Conclusion. In conclusion, there are two groups of scenarios that result in the selection of universities models of its transformation under the influence of external factors (the decisions of the management education, the establishment of the University «from scratch» for a specific state or corporate needs, the needs of the region location of University or large corporations) and under the influence of internal factors (conscious choice of the staff and management of the University in favor of a particular model, the traditional specifics of the University, changes in the financing structure, creation of the University «from scratch» for private companies as a business project). The conclusion is made about the need for universities to choose the strategic goals of their develo pment and the specific transformation model by which it will take place.
																								



2.
REFLECTION AS A SUBJECT OF RESEARCH: SOCIAL-PHILOSOPHICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS

E. V. Bateneva
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: рефлексия, эмпирическая рефлексия, логическая рефлексия, трансцендентальная рефлексия, теоретическая и практическая рефлексия, феноменологическая рефлексия, рефлексия в профессиональной педагогике, reflection, empirical reflection, logical reflection, transcendental reflection, theoretical and practical reflection, phenomenological reflection, reflection in professional pedagogy

Abstract >>
Introduction. The rate of change of the labour market requirements exceeds the speed of vocational education transformation. A person is forced to determine the professional development guidelines him/herself to maintain his/her competitiveness. He/she has to self-reflect, and on this basis we actualize the significance of the reflection problem in the vocational education. The aim of this paper is to form a complete historical and methodological picture of the development of reflection problem. Methodology and methods of the research. Theoretical and methodological basis of this work includes: fundamental principle of the reflection phenomenon in philosophy, basic research in pedagogical knowledge. Such methods as analysis, data systematization, generalization of philosophical, pedagogical background were used. The results of the research. The main historical ways of forming ideas about the reflection phenomenon are consistently considered in this paper (from antiquity to modern times). Further, the leading psychological approaches to the study of this phenomenon are determined. There are the rationalistic and the system-differential approaches, the last one is more significant in the context of modern determination of the reflection problem. Then the interdisciplinary status of the considered problem and its applications in the professional education sphere are revealed. As a result, the topical direction of research (socio-cultural development of the individual) is established. Conclusion. The novelty of the study is systematization of the results of the reflection problem development in Russian pedagogical studies based on doctoral (candidate) scientific researches of the 21st century, classification of their basic concepts and implementation areas: the education management, the educational process management, the intellectual, mental, socio-cultural, professional development of a person.
																								



3.
POST-GRADUATE STUDIES IN THE POST-SOVIET RUSSIA:COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS (part 2)

A. M. Ablazhey1,2
1nstitute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: аспиранты, академические институты, реформа, задачи аспирантуры, диссертация, эффективность, научная карьера, graduate students, academic institutions, reform, the tasks of graduate school, dissertation, efficiency, scientific career

Abstract >>
Introduction. The paper analyzes the results of a mass sociological survey of postgraduate students in the research institutes of the Novosibirsk Academgorodok. The task was to identify the main social characteristics of postgraduate students, primarily the reasons for entering the postgraduate studies, their assessment of the current state of the basic elements of scientific activity, ideas about the future and scientific career, in particular, the criteria and factors for its success/failure. A separate task was to identify the dynamics of these characteristics compared with the previous similar study in 2005. Methodology and methods of the research. The study used the method of mass sociological survey; the data obtained were processed with the help of the SPSS program; simple distributions were used for the initial analysis. For identifying the dynamics of the basic indicators, the methodology of comparative analysis was applied. The results of the research: 1) for majority of postgraduate students, the path to science began already at school; 2) the vast majority of them are not new to science (they have experience in conducting research, including grants, participated in scientific conferences, have scientific publications); 3) among the negative trends that are manifested today in the institutes of Academgorodok, the main ones are low wages of research workers and weak financial and instrumental-material security of research; 4) deciding to choice a scientific career the main role is still playing such factors as the craving for knowledge and creativity; 5) a substantial part of the interviewed graduate students still plan to make a career in the field of science and high technology. Conclusion. A persistent nature of the professional ethos of Russian scientists is observed: this primarily concerns strategies for building a scientific career and the choice of criteria for its success.
																								



4.
LIMITING FACTORS OF THE SOCIAL POTENTIAL FORMATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF SYSTEM TRANSFORMATION

V. V. Petrov1,2
1Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: educational potential, higher education system, social structure, social institutions

Abstract >>
Introduction. The transition of mankind to the values of information civilization has had a significant impact on the scientific and educational space, which has become much more complicated as a result of sociocultural transformations that took place at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. The work draws attention to the fact that the transition of science and education to a qualitatively new level should contribute to an increase in the aggregate social potential, but its growth is not observed in Russian realities. To eliminate the contradiction that has arisen, the author proposes to turn to the interaction of social institutions, to identify their interdependence and mutual influence in the formation of the aggregate social potential. Methodology and methods of the research. The cultural and anthropological approach used by the author made it possible to identify the role of the education system in the development of the aggregate social potential and overcome the fragmented approaches to its study; as a methodological basis, the author took advantage of formational and civilizational approaches to the structuring of society. The results of the research. The paper shows that the total social potential is determined by the interaction of the potentials of the main spheres of social life, social institutions, social production and social structure. It is substantiated that from the point of view of the aggregate social potential of society, educational potential is fundamental and is expressed primarily in the level of education as a result of previous educational activities. Conclusion. As a result of this work, it was concluded that social potential is extremely dependent on the activities of higher education, its axiological and epistemological attitudes. The analysis made it possible to identify the factors hindering the development of educational potential, which leads to a reduction in the aggregate social potential in general.
																								



5.
STUDY OF THE CAREER GUIDANCE FOR YOUNG PEOPLE AND THE POSSIBILITY OF HARMONIZATION OF THE PERSONAL LIFE CYCLE

Y. I. Molotkov1, I. P. Riabchun2
1Siberian Management Institute of Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Krasnodar Air Force Academy n. a. the Hero of the Soviet Union A. K. Serov, Krasnodar, Russia
Keywords: профориентация, профессиональная склонность, эффективность тестирования, волевой потенциал, уровень интеллекта, профессиональное развитие, career guidance, career aptitude, testing efficiency, will potential, intelligence level, professional development

Abstract >>
Introduction. Nowadays a problem of career guidance for the school youth is rather urgent, since, on one hand, the contemporary social and economic environment does not provide necessary conditions for personal development; on the other hand, social inequality and unemployment are increasing because material production has been ruined. This negatively impacts the young generation, especially high school graduates who must choose a career. According to data of the Russian Federal Employment Office, the amount of unemployed people will not exceed 3.6 million in 2019-2021, while school, college and university graduates are one of the most vulnerable social groups because they are not sufficiently adapted to the market economy, which has been proven by the author’s research. Formation of vocational guidance of youth, taking into account the role and place of Russia in the world of globalization and joining the sixth technological structures is an important aspect of successful harmonization of identity, employment and their future development and development of the country. Methodology and methods of the research. In order to study the career guidance problem, a methodology of career personal testing for school students was used. In order to investigate personal qualities related to general intelligence, J. Raven’s test was used; E.A. Klimov’s method was used regarding a choice of career path, and the method of N. P. Fetiskin, V. V. Kozlov and G. M. Manuilov was used to measure personal will characteristics. Efficiency of the methods was controlled using unified national exam results. Only the school students who chose either the person-technology or the person-sign system types were tested, because the authors could estimate their knowledge of mathematics, physics and information technology. The results of the research. Testing of the Krasnodar schools’ graduates and its results show that the testing methods of J. Raven, E. A. Klimov, N. P. Fetiskin, V. V. Kozlov and G. M. Manuilov allow specifying career aptitude of school students, and the results of enrollment into state universities confirm aptitude levels of the person-technology or the person-sign system types. The correlation rates fall within such range that indicates that a total score of the unified national exam strongly depends on intelligence and the will potential. Control of the correlation relationship between general intelligence and will potential found no connection between them; and the calculated value of K-correlation clearly and decisively showed that the research tests give quality results for determination of career guidance for school students. Conclusion. A solution for career guidance for school students mainly depends on the work of organizations that provide it. Career guidance implemented by all participants, testing students and identifying their aptitude have not yielded proper results yet, as there is no systematic approach and effective collaboration of schools and career guiding institutions regarding planning and organization of career guidance for school students; they do not have a general career guidance program. This indicates that it is necessary to build a system of career guidance in schools using the whole potential of organizations, parents, employers, universities and colleges offering this service.
																								



6.
CONSTITUTIONAL TRADITIONALISM AND ANTI-TRADITIONALISM IN THE SYSTEM OF RUSSIAN LAW AND LEGAL EDUCATION

M. N. Kokina
Altai State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia, Barnaul, Russia
Keywords: конституционализм, правовая и конституционная традиция, правовая и конституционная культура, традиционализм и антитрадиционализм, конституционный традиционализм, конституционный антитрадиционализм, мера конституционно-правовых заимствований, правовое образование, constitutionalism, legal and constitutional tradition and culture, traditionalism and anti-traditionalism, constitutional traditionalism and constitutional anti-traditionalism, measure of constitutional and legal borrowing, legal education

Abstract >>
Introduction. In the era of globalization, there is an ever closer interaction of cultures of mankind, including constitutional and legal cultures of different countries. The constitutionalism that arose in the 20th century as theoretical, methodological and socio-cultural knowledge about the formation, development, as well as modern forms of the constitutional system, constitutional law in different states, examines the current urgent problem of the specifics of constitutionalism in different socio-legal cultures. Researchers in this field determine the specifics of the constitutional system, constitutional law and constitutionalism of different countries and cultures, including Western and Russian. From the conclusion that there are socio-cultural and cultural-legal features of constitutionalism, the problem arises of its study from the standpoint of traditionalism and anti-traditionalism, which is the subject of this paper. Methodology and methods of the research. Dialectical methodology, systematic approach, axiological approach, methods of interrelation of historical and logical, induction and deduction, comparative studies in constitutional law and philosophy of education. The results of the research. A comprehensive approach to the study of constitutionalism based on a systemic-dialectical examination of Western and Russian constitutional and legal cultures in philosophy and legal education is proposed. The basis of the review is an epistemological analysis of the problem using a dialectic pair of categories «traditionalism - anti-traditionalism». The author’s definition of traditionalism and anti-traditionalism is proposed in relation to the issues of modern constitutionalism. The use of axiological and comparative approaches made it possible to identify differences in the content and essence of constitutional traditionalism and constitutional anti-traditionalism in different constitutional and legal cultures. The question of the measure of foreign cultural borrowing in the processes of global transformation of constitutionalism in different countries, including the Russian one, has been raised. It is substantiated that the acquired innovative knowledge should be included in the relevant academic disciplines of professional legal education. Conclusion. In the 21st century, in the era of globalization, in the context of growing ambiguous interactions of the constitutional and legal reality of different countries, the study of legal and constitutional cultures, constitutionalism from the standpoint of paired categories of traditionalism and anti-traditionalism acquires important epistemological, axiological, praxeological and pedagogical significance. The main scientific and philosophical conclusions should be included in the relevant programs of legal education in the process of its modernization.
																								



7.
TRADITION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE POSTNONCLASSICAL APPROACH: THE PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT

I. A. Leskova
Volgograd State Social Pedagogical University, Volgograd, Russia
Keywords: традиция, образовательные парадигмы, концептуальная неопределенность, содержание образования, ценностное основание, холизм, оптика видения, tradition, educational paradigms, conceptual uncertainty, content of education, value basis, holism, optics of vision

Abstract >>
Introduction. The relevance of the topic investigation is due to a number of factors, one of which is the problem of the choice of the value orientations for the development of education. It is generated by the situation of conceptual uncertainty caused by the simultaneous action in the domestic and world educational space of two paradigms: the conservative (traditionalist) one and the liberal one. Methodology and methods of the research. The methodological basis of the study is a post-non-classical approach. During research, the following theoretical methods have been used: the analysis of philosophical, pedagogical literature; generalization; the method of modeling of pedagogical systems and processes. The results of the research. Based on the analysis of the traditionalist and liberal educational paradigms, the influence of the idea of the tradition as an element of the value foundation of education on the value content and basic characteristics of learning is revealed. It is shown that both paradigms do not have the potential to solve the problems facing modern higher education. The interpretation of the idea of tradition in the context of the post-non-classical paradigm is proposed. Possible changes in the systemic organization of the content of higher education in accordance with this value and paradigmatic basis are shown in general terms. Figuratively, these changes can be represented as a transition from the educational content as a mosaic picture collected in the learning process from the elements of “available” knowledge and types of experience necessary for their reproduction to the educational content as an action material to be analyzed, understood, transformed. Conclusion. A new design of higher education content is proposed and described in a general way, removing the opposition of the traditionalist and liberal educational paradigms, contributing to the elimination of conceptual uncertainty inherent in modern education.
																								



8.
FORMATION OF CULTURAL ELITE AS A STRATEGIC GOAL OF EDUCATION

V. B. Gukhman
Tver State University, Tver, Russia
Keywords: культурная элита, культ знаний, информационная культура, общество знания, самообразование, языки объяснения и понимания, элитология, cultural elite, cult of knowledge, information culture, knowledge society, self-education, languages of explanation and understanding

Abstract >>
Introduction. The problem of formation of the Russian professional cultural elite is considered. The goal of the paper is to substantiate the necessity of transforming the domestic system of mass vocational education into a personal (elite) one and give appropriate recommendations concerning the upbringing of productive cultural elite as a driving social force of the post-industrial knowledge society. In the scientific and philosophical literature, recommendations are given concerning the use of the existing cultural elite, but not about its practical formation in modern conditions. Methodology and methods of the research. As part of the system-activity philosophical methodology, system analysis methods of socio-technical systems are used in relation to the problem of upbringing of Russian professional cultural elite in all areas of technical, economic, social and humanitarian activity. The results of the research. The formation of professional cultural elite requires the solution of four pressing problems: lack of the cult of knowledge among students; low quality of the general secondary education; underdevelopment of information and technical infrastructure of educational institutions; incapacity of the education legislation. Search of native talents is chosen (by means of reasonable selection criterion) as priority from three alternative ways of the research goal achievement. Methods for such a search are proposed. The expediency of inclusion in the elite educational programs (regardless of their professional orientation) philosophy, humanitarian disciplines, and systems analysis is substantiated. It is suggested that the computerized form of education should be combined with the higher priority traditional live form of the teachers and students communication. The necessity of introducing into the pedagogical practice of the understanding language, operating with the meanings of the objects and phenomena, is grounded. Conclusion. The necessity of transformation of the mass vocational education in Russia into the personal (elite) education (in the interests of social progress) is substantiated. The corresponding practical recommendations are given. The novelty of the study, according to the author, is to use system analysis in elitology.
																								



9.
PUBLIC EXPERTISE IN THE INTEGRATIVE-COMMUNICATIVE MODEL OF ETHNO-SOCIAL PROCESSES REGULATION: THE MOTHER TONGUE DILEMMA

E. A. Erokhina
Institute of Philosophy and Law of the SB of RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: проекты человеческого развития, этносоциальные процессы, модель регулирования, общественная экспертиза, дилемма родного языка, межэтническое сообщество, human development projects, ethno-social processes, regulatory model, public expertise, native language dilemma, interethnic community

Abstract >>
Introduction. The modern world is unthinkable without innovation implementation and the emergence of social mechanisms of their support and promotion. However, their implementation is associated with certain risks of social development. Along with the changing conditions, prerequisites emerge for formation of new management models that suggest involving new subjects to decision making process - actors interested in social innovations. Their role is great in human development projects, including education where influence of public expert institutes is especially strong. Public expertise is an element of integrative-communicative model of ethno-social processes regulation. The experience of social mobilization for the legislative resolution of the problem of native language in the system of secondary education is presented in this paper as a case illustrating its capabilities. Methodology and methods of the research. The foundation of methodological basis of the research is a critical approach proposed in the philosophical and sociological concepts of M. Horkheimer, Y. Adorno, G. Marcuse, J. Habermas and other representatives of Frankfurt school who spoke from the standpoint of criticism of technocracy. The research is based on analytical method, analysis of legislation in the field of language policy, national policy, policy in the field of the rights of indigenous people, and personal observations. The results of the research. The education is the sphere of reproduction of the public goods. The contradiction between humanistic content of educational process and managerial practices of its administering has a negative impact on those subject areas that are responsible for the reproduction of personality integrity. These are all humanities, and especially the native language and the native literature. The tool for the removal of this contradiction is a public expertise that engages representatives of pedagogical and parent communities of national subjects of Russian Federation to activity in assessment of states of Russia’s people languages development, and conditions of their reproduction in inter-ethnic communities. Participation of the “man from the street” in management who is directly interested in that important issues directly impacting him will be solved by him together with officials and scientists is an authentically innovative element of social life. Conclusion. Orientation point of integrative-communication model remains the integration without assimilation on the base of human rights respect, including the right to preserve and develop the native language, the flexible accounting of ethno-cultural specifics of interethnic communities, the active interaction of the State with non-state actors of its implementation, with expert community, and civil society institutes. As this was shown in the case that illustrated the role of public participation in the legislative solution of the dilemma of native language, this model is quite realizable in expert practices with the participation of teachers, the lowest echelon of educational vertical.
																								



10.
DESIGNING INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR GIFTED STUDENTS BASED ON ANTHROPO-PRACTICAL APPROACH

A. A. Popov1,2,3,4, P. P. Glukhov2,5, M. S. Averkov4
1Federal Institute for education development of the Russian Academy of national economy and public administration, Moscow, Russia
2MSPU, Moscow, Russia
3Autonomous non-profit organization of additional professional education В«Open education Academy», Krasnoyarsk, Russia
4Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
5LLC В«Agency of humanitarian technologies "Development Policy"», Moscow, Russia
Keywords: инклюзивное образование, одаренные обучающиеся, антропопрактика, ценностно организованное образование, продуктивное образование, inclusive education, gifted students, anthropo-practices, value organized education, productive education

Abstract >>
Introduction. The paper shows that the optimal form of inclusion when working with gifted children is their inclusion in anthropo-practices as a form of activity, involving both the reconstruction of personal values and their embodiment in a joint productive action. Methodology and methods of the research. The study combined the following methodological approaches: comparative, system-activity, system-genetic. As part of the comparative approach, different practices of educational inclusion and different views on the best measures of pedagogical support of giftedness were considered. Within the framework of the system-activity approach, the optimal forms of using pedagogical inclusion in work with gifted children were reconstructed. The system-genetic approach made it possible to simultaneously determine the sources of anthropo-practices as a form of educational inclusion for gifted children, and the conditions for its successful application in specific situations. As specific methods of research were used: participant observation in specific educational activities of the inclusive nature; detailed expert interviews allowing evaluating the capabilities and limitations of different approaches to inclusion; systemic modeling of possible variants of realization of anthropo-practices of inclusion for gifted students. The result of the research. The concept of «inclusive education» is clarified, its main types, their opportunities and limitations are highlighted; the features of inclusive education in the work with gifted children are shown; the definition of «anthropo-practices» is given and their value as a pedagogical tool forming the substantive position of the pupil is demonstrated; the value of anthropo-practices as a form of implementation of inclusive education for gifted students is justified; the key content and organizational types anthropopractice as a form of inclusion for gifted children is described. Conclusion. Inclusive education of gifted children requires cooperation related to the achievement of value-based goals and the construction of life strategies and trajectories emanating from these goals.
																								



11.
INCREASING MOTIVATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF INFORMATIZATION OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION

E. A. Krutko1, Z. I. Aksyanova2, Yu. S. Ostrovaya2
1Siberian Institute of Management, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: иностранный язык, информатизация образования, внутренняя мотивация, внешняя мотивация, субъект обучения, foreign language, informatization of education, internal motivation, external motivation, subject of learning

Abstract >>
Introduction. Formation of a personality capable of applying its capabilities in any field should be promoted by innovations in education. The informatization of modern education becomes an integral part of the educational process, which entails a change in traditional approaches, methods and organizational forms of learning and in learning foreign languages. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the methods and approaches of motivation activation in the conditions of informatization in the study of foreign languages from different points of view - from educational and cognitive work through teaching and research to educational and professional. A review of Russian and foreign scientific literature shows that the formation of the worldview of a modern person takes place through a special environment of interactive, mobile communication of various stakeholders and information exchange is carried out. Methodology and methods of the research. The studies examining ways to increase motivation from different points of view - psychological, pedagogical, sociological - Russian and foreign scientists served as a theoretical and methodological basis, and numerous methods of teaching a foreign language in a non-linguistic university (for example, Task-based learning and teaching, Case Study, Project based learning, Edutainment and other), as a result, helped to identify effective methods that motivate students to learn new material. The results of the research. The teacher today has to use the mechanisms of intrinsic motivation for the implementation of educational and cognitive work, which is based on the interest of the individual in solving a task or performing the proposed activity. The leading principle of modern higher education, namely, the principle of student autonomy is used to implement teaching and research activities, and teaching and professional activities in teaching a foreign language should be planned as a means of achieving external goals. The paper shows a set of basic pedagogical conditions for the actualization of motivation in teaching a foreign language in the modern educational paradigm, the mechanisms of internal and external motivation through information and communication technologies that create objective opportunities for the implementation of many relevant educational tasks. Conclusion. Conclusions are made that learning should be differentiated and individualized in order to better motivate all subjects of learning. This contributes to the achievement of an important element - understanding the meaning of the implementation of learning activities by the students themselves; thus, foreign language teachers have a primary task - to develop approaches that enhance the motivation of subjects of learning, as well as determine the success of the learning process in mastering a foreign language.