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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2013 year, number 3

Viability and Virulence of the Siberian Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals-Griv.) Vuill. Depending on Storage Time at Positive Temperatures

Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunse str., 11
Keywords: Beauveria bassian, viability, virulence, test insects

Abstract >>
The studies of the Siberian isolates of Beauveria bassian (Bals-Griv.) Vuill. fungus revealed that their viability and virulence were dependent on storage time at positive temperatures (8 C or 18 C ). It was proved that only at 8 C the isolates kept their viability and virulence during 3 years. According to correlation anlysis data, the virulence of the investigated fungus isolates at 18 C depended mainly on storage time (5772 %) and to a less degree on other uncontrolled factors (2843 %).

Effect of Environmental Factors on the Structure and Functioning of Biocoenoses of Hyperhaline Water Reservoirs in the South of West Siberia

FSUE Gosrybcenter, FSEE HPE Tyumen State Agricultural Academy, 625023, Tyumen, Odesskaya str., 33
Keywords: biocoenosis of hyperhaline water reservoir, artemia, salinity, temperature

Abstract >>
On the basis of perennial monitoring (19952010) of hyperhaline water reservoirs of the south of West Siberia with salinity 28 to 417 g/l, four seasons in the development of biocoenoses were distinguished, integrating results of the investigation of the effect of environmental factors on the species composition and productivity of biocoenoses were presented. The decisive effects of temperature on the seasonal cycles of hydrocole development, salinity on the productivity and composition of biocoenoses were revealed. The highest species diversity was observed in summer at temperatures above 12 C; at negative temperatures the fauna is represented only by artemia cysts. With an increase of salinity from 28 to 100 g/l the number of species decreases. For salinity 100 g/l, the fauna is represented mainly by gill-footed Artemia crustaceans artemias. Hyperhaline biocoenoses are the most productive at salinity 150180 g/l.

Influence of Ecological Factors on the Growth of Crustaceans of Artemia genus in Ural and Siberian Populations

FSEE HPE Tyumen State Agricultural Academy, FSUE Gosrybcenter, 625023, Tyumen, Odesskaya str., 33
Keywords: artemia, morphometric anlysis, fluctuating asymmetry

Abstract >>
Morphometric analysis of the crustaceans of Artemia genus in nine Siberian populations was carried out. The effects of total mineralization of water reservoirs and some ions on the characteristics of Artemia growth were revealed. The number of setae on furca and its length are the most affected by the factors under consideration. A trend to decrease the manifestation of fluctuating asymmetry with an increase in total mineralization of water reservoirs was observed.

The Structure of Phytoplankton and Physicochemical Characteristics of the Kolyma River (Northeastern Siberia) in Summer

Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone SB RAS, 677980, Yakutsk, Lenin ve., 41
Keywords: the Kolyma River, northeastern Siberia, phytoplankton, physicochemical characteristics, water quality

Abstract >>
The first results of the study of phytoplankton and chemical composition of water of the entire Kolyma River are reported. The study revealed spatial structure of the phytoplankton communities in river sections with various hydrologic conditions. High diversity of phytoplankton in the Kolyma river was established. It was established that the physicochemical characteristics of water are determined by environmental factors, mainly permafrost soils. Water quality was estimated from phytoplankton bioindicators and chemical characteristics of water.

Spatial and Typological Arrangement of the Winter Bird Population in Central Altay

1Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology SB RAS, 656049, Barnul, Nikitin str., 111
2State Natural Reserve Tigireksky
3Gorno-Altaysk State University, 649000, Gorno-Altaysk, Lenkin str., 1
Keywords: bird population, classification, spatial-typological structure, Central Altay

Abstract >>
On the basis of the results of winter route censuses of birds at the territory of Central Altay, an hierarchical classification of bird species was filed with the help of multidimensional factor analysis on the basis of similarity in distribution, classification of population; the spatial-typological organization was described. Major environmental factors that determine non-uniformity of bird distribution were revealed. It was demonstrated that the classification of bird species and population in the Central Altay province and the Altay in general, similarly to its separate provinces, as well as the mountains of Southern Siberia, is similar. The structure of winter population depicts the arched character of differences in the main row, which is characteristic of the mountains in the south of Siberia in general, though somewhat less than for the summer period. The system of environmental factors approximating the spatial non-uniformity of ornithocomplexes is close both to the system revealed previously for the Altay in general and to its separate provinces and mountains of southern Siberia. Bird distribution coincides first of all with the forestation and anthropogenic impact on a territory. These factors mainly determine the food and shelter capacity of habitats.

Distribution of Rheophil Benthos in the Mountainous Rivers of Tuva with Subaerial Deltas

1Tuva Institute of Integrated Development of Natural Resources SB RAS, 667007, Kyzyl, Interntsionlnya str., 117
2Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk, Pirogov str., 2
Keywords: rheophil benthos, population, amphibiotic insects, mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera)

Abstract >>
Features of the formation and existence of the benthos population of amphibiotic insects, mainly mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and stoneflies (Plecoptera), in small rivers with subaerial deltas were studied in Central Tuva as example. The life of biota, first of all benthos, was revealed to be a complicated combination of migration, drift and re-drift of the uneven-aged larva of amphibiotic insects, which exhibit definite seasonal confinement to different parts of these rivers along their channels, coinciding with the seasonal dynamics of watering and food capacity.

Phytophilic Zoocoenoses of Lake Teletskoe

Institute for Water and Environmental Problems SB RAS, 656038, Barnul, Molodezhnya str., 1
Keywords: phytophilic macroinvertebrates, diversity, spatial distribution, Lake Teletskoe

Abstract >>
Composition, structure and spatial distribution of zoobenthos and zooperiphyton at plant-filled regions of the littoral of Lake Teletskoe were analyzed. A dependence of the taxonomic composition, number and biomass of zoobenthos on vegetation type was discovered. A multilevel character of the distribution of invertebrates in macrophyte overgrowth was showed. Anlysis of the trophic structure of the communities of macro-invertebrates revealed predominance of algodetritophagous animals in zooperiphyton. The role of plant overgrowth as a «life concentrator in oligotrophic lake was revealed.

Lepidoptera of the Lower Amur Region: Barriers of Fauna Change

Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
Keywords: faunistic barrier, border, Lepidoptera, the Amur region

Abstract >>
Changes in Lepidoptera fauna (without micromoths) from Southern Primorye to the Amur River mouth is analyzed. The most significant change in south-to-north direction is recorded on the northern border of rich broad-leaved forests. This line is suggested to be considered as the north-eastern border of the Amur-Manchurian (Stenopean of Palaearchaearctic) choron. An additional barrier is recorded along the river Gur. In the opposite direction, the faunal change is gradual and insignificant. The territory to the north from this border, at the Amur River mouth, is inhabited by transitional fauna with a significant share of nemoral species. The main faunistic barriers for different phenological complexes (spring, summer and autumn) differ by their positions: for the summer complex the barrier goes along the rich broad-leaved forest border; for the spring complex between Khabarovsk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur, for the autumn complex between Southern Primorye and Komsomolsk-on-Amur. All these regularities were registered in all Lepidoptera groups studied.

Studies of the Distribution of Mustelids over the Southern Urals with the Help of Noninvasive Methods

1V. I. Lenin Ilmen State Reserve UrB RAS, 456317, Miass, Chelyabinsk Region
2A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, 119071, Moscow, Leninsky ave., 33
Keywords: noninvasive methods, the Southern Urals, American mink, common marten, spatial arrangement, photo captures

Abstract >>
Noninvasive methods (polling, collection of excrements, DNA analysis, photo capturing) allowed us to reveal the most widespread mustelid species and evaluate the character of their distribution over the territory of the region. Two mustelid species American mink and common marten are most usual in the Southern Urals. American mink during the summer and autumn season tends to brooks flowing into large rivers, while common marten more frequently occurs at the banks of forest brooks and rivers with channel width not more than 3 m. Under usual conditions, there is a trend of space separation between different mustelid species, while under the critical conditions multi-species communities are formed on the banks of water flows. Mutual avoidance is achieved in these communities through the separation of diurnal activity.

Ecology of Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava L. n the Forest-Tundra of West Siberia and the Factors Limiting the Expansion of its Range to the North

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UrB RAS, 620144, Ekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: Subarctic, yellow wagtail, ecology, range borders

Abstract >>
On the basis of long-term studies of the ecology of yellow wagtail in the nature of the Lower Ob region and the results of experimental research, the factors determining the penetration of the species into the tundra of Yamal peninsula are analyzed.

Bird Population in the Forests of the Southern Urals under the Conditions of Industrial Pollution. Communication 1. Reactions of Species and the Community

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UrB RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: bird population, industrial pollution, the Southern Urals

Abstract >>
Changes in the summer bird population of birch forests in the gradient of pollution with the emissions from the Karabash copper smelter (Chelyabinsk Region) were studied in 2009 by means of point counts. With increasing pollution, total density, species richness and diversity of bird population decrease, the fraction of hole-nesters in the community decreases, while the fraction of species nesting on ground and in the upper layer of forest increases. Changes in the majority of characteristics of bird population are limited to a local territory (at a distance of 68 km from the plant).

Bird Population in the Forests of the Southern Urals under the Conditions of Industrial Pollution. Communication 2. A Connection with Habitat Variables

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UrB RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: industrial pollution, the Southern Urals, birds, vegetation, invertebrates

Abstract >>
Changes in environmental variables were analyzed according to the data obtained in 2009 at 10 sites in the gradient of pollution with emissions from the Karabash copper smelter (Chelyabinsk Region): pollution level, basic structural characteristics of phytocoenosis, abundance of invertebrate phyllophages and ground-living invertebrates. The height of the top canopy, stand basal area, cover of all forest layers, biomass of ground-living invertebrates decrease with an increasing pollution. The damage of birch leaves (an index of the abundance of phyllophages) changes only insignificantly. It appears impossible to separate the contributions from abiotic and biotic variables into the formation of bird population in the region under study because of a close correlation between them. Pollution seems to affect bird population indirectly, through changes of habitat.

Care of Young and the Effect of Male Presence on the Parental Behaviour of Common Vole ( Microtus arvalis) in captivity

A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution RAS, 119071, Moscow, Leninsky ave., 33
Keywords: common vole, parental behaviour, tactile stimulation

Abstract >>
Care of young in males and females of the common voles reared by both parents (complete families, the control group) or by females only (incomplete families, the experimental group) was studied under laboratory conditions. In the control group, there were no significant sex differences in nest attendance, but females licked pups for a longer time. As for the experimental group, nest-residence in males was shortened by 29.9 % in average, compared with the control group. In females, the nest-residence without the male mates averaged 22.7 min against 9.1 min in the control group. The present findings show that the absence of the male in the family group leading to the reduction of the care of young (mainly of tactile stimulation) negatively affects pair-bonding and subsequent parental activities in male offspring.

Chlorinated Pesticides in Tissues and Organs of Spotted Seal ( Phocalargha Pallas, 1811) from the Sea of Japan

M. Trukhin1, M. D. Boyarova2
1V. I. Ilyichev Pacific Oceanological Institute FEB RAS, 690041, Vladivostok, Baltiyskaya str., 43
2Paific State Economics University, 690091, Vladivostok, Okeanskiy ave., 19
Keywords: pollution, toxic substances, chlorinated organic pesticides, HCCH, DDT, spotted seal, the Sea of Japan

Abstract >>
Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons and their derivatives in the organs of spotted seals captured in the Sea of Japan were determined. The isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCCH) and metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloromethylmethane (DDT) were detected in all the studied animals in al samples but the highest concentrations were detected in adipose tissue, which is a peculiar depot in which toxins are accumulated. Substantial differences in the extent of damage by toxins were discovered in the seals of different populations, which is due to different intensities of the action of technogenic load on separate water areas. The level of accumulation of lipophil xenobiotics in the tissues and organs of spotted seals from the Sea of Japan, in particular from the Gulf of Peter the Great, turned out to be very high, several orders of magnitude higher than that in spotted seals from the Tatar Strait and the coastal region of Hokkaido. Such a high level of chlorinated organics have not yet been detected in any Pinnipeds inhabiting the northern part of the Pacific ocean. The results of our studies allow us to state that chlorinated organics are present in the ecosystem of the Sea of Japan for a long time and have undergone substantial transformation.

Role of Food Resource in the Number of Cabbage Phytophages and Their Biocontrol

1Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, 630039, Novosibirsk, Dobrolyubov str., 160
2Kemerovo State Agricultural Institute, 650056, Kemerovo, Markovtsev str., 5
3Siberian Research Institute of Plant Cultivation and Selection Russian Agricultural Academy, 630501, Novosibirsk Region, Krasnoobsk
Keywords: phytophagous insects, number, food resource, cabbage subspecies and cultivars, entomopathogenic preparation, biological efficacy, survival, biocontrol

Abstract >>
The influence of host plant on the number of Lepidopteran phytophagous insects and their susceptibility to the biological preparation on cabbage subspecies and cultivars was studied. Under the field conditions, red and write cabbage subspecies were preferable for diamondback moth larvae, whereas cauliflower and white cabbage were preferable for large white butterflies larvae. The differences is the efficacy of bacterial entomopathogenic preparation used for phytophage biocontrol depending on cabbage subspecies were discovered. Biocontrol efficacy was higher on host plants that showed better resistance to phytophagous insects.