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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2004 year, number 2

Molecular genetic approach to the investigation of processes of plasmid spreading over natural microbe populations


Abstract >>
Molecular-ecological aspects of investigation and monitoring of transgenic microorganisms under their purposeful or accidental introduction into environment are discussed. Special attention is paid to the problems connected with the attachment of recombinant plasmids in the link of aboriginal microorganisms. The problem concerning the possibility to attach natural plasmids in the cells of transgenic microorganisms is also discussed. A methodological approach, which includes microbiological, genetic and molecular aspects, is proposed for experimental estimations of the potential risk of the spreading of recombinant plasmids and transgenic microorganisms in natural ecosystems.

In vitro Cell Culture in Use for the Study of Genetic Diversity of Pinus sibirica Du Tour in Seed Plantation


Abstract >>
The characteristics of callus formation of Pinus sibirica trees under use for work on seed plantation were studied. The results obtained in the investigation allowed us to divide the P. sibirica samples under investigation into two groups. In the I group, callus was formed both on bud and on needles, while in the II group it was formed mainly on buds. Callus obtained from the trees of the I group were characterized by higher growth rate. Necrotic regions on callus in the I group appeared after cultivation for six months as a mean, while in the II group they appeared after four months. Total viability of callus in the studied genotypes is correlated with the ability of callus formation on two types of explants (buds and needles). It is concluded that callusogenesis characteristics may be used to differentiate the genotypes of P. sibirica.

Bacterial Reduction of Sulphates in the Bottom Sediments of South Baikal


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The number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria, the amount of sulphides and sulphates in the bottom sediments of lake Baikal are presented. The number of sulphate-reducing bacteria ranged from 100 to 15000 cells per 1g of wet sediment, the rate of sulphate reduction - from 0.1 to 3.4 mkg S x kg-1.24-1, the amount of sulphides - from 0 to 44.7 mg S per 1 kg. The research results demonstrate that anthropogenic pollution of water causes an increase in the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria and degradation of water quality of Baikal lake.

Isolation and Selection of Thermophilic Strains of Microorganisms for Fermentation of Solid Domestic Waste


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More than 100 thermophilic strains of microorganisms were selected. The generation of lipase and cellulase enzymes was investigated in dynamics for 28 most active strains. Fermentation of model mixtures of solid domestic wastes was carried out using the most active strains. A decrease in C/N was observed in the model substrates of SDW during fermentation. It was revealed in estimation of the toxicity of mixtures and their water extracts that the toxicity of all the tested mixtures for red California worms decreased after fermentation in al the tested mixtures. The results obtained can be used to develop the technology of solid-phase fermentation of solid domestic wastes.

Biodegradation of the Hydrolysis Lignin by Microbial Association


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It is established that solid-phase fermentation of the hydrolysis lignin with the participation of microorganisms results at first in the accumulation of low-molecular compounds soluble in dioxan, and then simple water-soluble aromatic compounds. It is revealed that the destruction of lignin occurs under the action of ligninolytic fungi due to the cleavage of the benzene ring, C—O—C and C—C bonds, which causes functionalization of the remaining lignin and the formation of low-molecular compounds: oxy- and dicarboxylic, phenolic and fatty acids, which are not toxic for plant growth.
It is shown that the decomposition of the hydrolysis lignin proceeds consecutively and more efficiently under the action of microbial association than with the participation of one of the most active ligninolytic cultures. An artificial association is considered as a consortium and the basis for compost starter.

Ecological Genetic Analysis of the Productivity Indices of F1 and F2 Hybrids from Interbreeding the Flax Varieties with Different Qualities


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New experimental data on the analysis of hereditary indices of productivity and adaptively important characteristics of the varieties and hybrids of flax of different qualities, grown under different soil-climatic conditions in order to reveal the scope of variability, are reported. The analysis of biologically valuable characteristics of the varieties and the obtained hybrids is carried out; their technical indices of productivity are estimated. The differences in productivity indices between the parent varieties and the hybrids are shown with respect to the vegetation site.

Clonal Structure and Variability of Siberian Spruce (Picea obovata Ledeb.) in Isolated Populations at the Very North Limit of Habitat


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The Data on the Island Habitats of Siberian Spruce (Picea obovata) are presented for the Territory of the Bolshaya Zemlya Tundra (the basins of the Ortina and the More-Yu rivers) and the Malaya Zemlya Tundra (the basin of the Neruta river), which exist during the last 3500-4000 years under isolation from the main habitat. The genetic uniformity of the morphologically solitary spruce groups in relic islands is shown. These groups are cloning. It is shown using polymorphous peroxidase locus that lengthy isolation of spruce caused a decrease in heterozygosity in the tundra populations situated in the basins of the Neruta and Ortina rivers, in comparison with the forest-tundra population in the Basin of Kharayakha River, which has not lost a connection with the main spruce habitat. However, heterozyigosity level calculated using three polymorphous PER locuses for the tundra island of More-Yu turned out to be the same as that in the forest-tundra population. The tundra population of More-Yu also exhibited closer similarity with the forest-tundra population of the Kharayakha with respect to the Zhivotovsky phenetic similarity index calculated on the basis of EF spectra of superoxide dismutase, esterases and peroxidases.

The Electrophoretic Studies of Mitochondrial Proteins in Some Elymus Sibiricus Populations and Their Comparison with Wheat and Maize Mitochondrial Proteins


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The comparative study of four native populations of Elymus sibiricus L., maize (Zea maiz L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mitochondrial proteins was performed by one-dimensional SDS-PAAG electrophoresis. The spectra of the mitochondrial proteins in the studied populations of E. sibiricus were found to be almost identical to each other but differ from that of maize by the presence of additional polypeptides. Some differences in the polypeptide composition of E. sibiricus and wheat were detected.

Some features of reproduction of the species of Allium L. genus in nature


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Propagation by seeds and vegetative reproduction of the SPECIES OF Allium L. genus were studied under different habitation conditions in Siberia, Kazakhstan and Middle Asia. Potential and real seed productivities of the individuals of 40 species were determined. It was shown that these values depend on plant species, ontogenetic state and habitation conditions. The association of the way of propagation and type of ontogenesis was established. Types of self-preservation of the coe-nopopulations of the species studied are described.

Leave Growth and Tillering of Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (Poaceae) in the First Year of Life Cycle


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Growth of the leaves of the main shoot and tillering features of Festuca arundinacea Schreb. in the first year of life cycle when introduced in Novosibirsk region (forest

Ecological-Geographical Aspect of Introduction of Ornamental Annuals

E.V. Baikova

Abstract >>
The results of introduction of ornamental annual plants in the Central Siberian Botanical Garden are summed up; 209 species of 43 families were tested, among which the representatives of Asteraceae, Scrophulariaceae and Lamiaceae are predominant. The introduction potential of the tested species is determined by their origin, ecological features, ability to bearing and life cycle termination under new conditions, stability to frost. In accordance with ecological-biological characteristics of the annuals, five groups of them were established. Introduction of the species from moderate areas of Europe and Asia, as well as North America and Mediterranean coast is revealed to be promising. The major part of annuals originating from Central America and South Africa can be cultivated in West Siberia only with the seedling agrotechnics.

Form Diversity of Erysimum cheiranthoides L. in cultivated populations


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The phenopool of natural populations is realized in the cultivated populations of Erysimum cheiranthoides L. Four morphological forms are distinguished: acro-, meso-, basiton and non-branching. The frequency of form occurrence varies in the populations of different years. The acroton form in the populations turned out to be the most stable one. With respect to the key features, the individuals of non-branching form turned out to be the most deviated from the typical acroton form. It was established on the basis of the analysis of correlation matrices and the construction of correlation pleiads that the longer does the cultivated population exist, the closer links are elaborated between the productive indices of the species.

Daily Rhythm of Flowering of Festuca Arundinacea Schreb. (Poaceae)


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The results of investigation of the daily rhythm of flowering of the selected population of Festuca arundinacea, native to Byelorussia, in the forest-steppe zone of West Siberia in 1988

The Features of Moss Habitat Conditions in Oligotrophic Bogs


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The experimental data on the ecological features of moss habitat conditions in oligotrophic bogs are presented. The analysis of moss species composition and distribution on the microrelief elements was carried out. The density of moss stalks in different moss species mats was investigated. The vertical variability of air humidity in various layers of the moss mats was determined.

The Soil Resource of Seeds and Spores of Ferns in Suburban Birch Woods of Park Type


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It is demonstrated that the forestland of suburban regions can be transformed under recreation load into the park-type forests. The latter are characterized by relative rarefaction of the forest canopy, low plenitude of the stand, almost absolute absence of natural renewal, and an increase in the fraction of forest-meadow and weed plants in the structure of herbage. However, in spite of noticeable anthropogenic impact, the soil of such forestlands keep in reserve substantial amount of viable diasporas representing active and potential soil banks. It is established that the soil of the forest phytocenosis under examination contains about 50 thousand /m2 viable fern spores and more than 8 thousand /m2 seeds of vascular plants. The major part of seeds present in soil is accumulated in soil bedding (73 %), while fern spores are accumulated in the mineral layer of soil.

Dynamic Aspects of Development of Agricultural Systems of Altai Territory


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The dynamics of changes in the volume of the arable lands and sowing areas of the Altai territory for XIX