Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia

Advanced Search

Region: Economics and Sociology

2017 year, number 3

A new interdisciplinary area of study: arctic regional science

1Geography at Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 1, Oficial Muni cipal Post No. 1, Moscow, 119991, Russia
2Center for Northern and Arctic Economies, Council for the Study of Productive Forces, Vavilov st., 7, Official Municipal Post No. 7, Moscow, 117997, Russia
Keywords: арктическая региональная наука, экономический мейнстрим, провалы рынка, арктическая отдаленность, Arctic regional science, economic mainstream, market failures, Arctic remoteness

Abstract >>
The article proves the expediency of shaping Arctic regional science as a new interdisciplinary area of study. The existing realities of the economic development in the Arctic territories cannot always be explained through the economic mainstream theories designed for high-density areas within the temperate zone. What looks like a rare anomaly for the temperate zone, pushed back to the research periphery, becomes the norm in the Arctic and can no longer be ignored. The fundamental specific feature of the Arctic regional science phenomenon is that it deals with an extremely dynamic, ultimately nonstationary, and economically enclave object, pulsating in space and time with a giant amplitude, remote from the main developed centers, and dominated not by competition forces but by monopolies of different types and sizes. The transformation of the original conceptual blocks established by the «mother science» regionalistics is so great in the Arctic and takes us so far away from the initial theoretical notions that it should be reasonable to talk of a radical paradigm shift rather than gradually drive the former ideas to the conditions of the polar regions. It is the first way, according to the article, which will provide the maximum explanatory power to the developed hypotheses and concepts and will ensure their successful integration with the unique realities of the Arctic.

Methods for the State Regulation of the Russian Economy in Various Socio-Economic Formations

Institute of History, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nikolaev st., 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Россия, государственное управление, экономическое развитие, централизация, планирование, исторический опыт, Russia, state administration, economic development, centralization, planning, historical experience

Abstract >>
The article examines the problems associated with the state regulation of the Russian economy in various socio-economic systems. We show how the organization of the national economic planning has evolved: a centralized form of state administration existed back in tsarist Russia and was actively used in Soviet Russia. It is concluded that the experience of state regulation can be largely applied in the contemporary economic practices of the Russian Federation.

Russian Regions in the System of Global Workforce Productivity Trends

1Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marx av., 20, Novosibirsk, 630092, Russia
2Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: регион, экономическая динамика, производительность труда, среднемировая оценка, region, economic dynamics, workforce productivity, world average estimate

Abstract >>
The article analyzes characteristics of the economic development of Russian regions for the post-Soviet period, both internally and internationally. It demonstrates that the economic space configuration, i.e. its regional structure, is very conservative and not amenable to noticeable changes. A weak downward trend in the spread of workforce productivity indicators and per capita GRP has been evident since the mid2000’s. In the last 15-20 years, most of the regions have shown dominating dynamics when compared to the world average. As a result, the productivity level of all the Russian regions surpassed the global average by 103.5% in 2000, 125.1% in 2005, and 136.1% in 2010. Under certain assumptions, a 1.5-fold excess of productivity index for Russia over the world average estimate by 2025 is premised on the 2.6% average annual growth rate in the Russian Federation during the period between 2011-2025.

Economic Growth and Urbanization of Russian Regions

Economic Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tikhookeanskaya st., 153, Khabarovsk, 680042, Russia
Keywords: урбанизация, экономический рост, численность населения, миграция, регион, город, Россия, urbanization, economic growth, population, migration, region, urban area, Russia

Abstract >>
The article shows that the level of urbanization in Russia is trending upward. Within the period under study (1992-2014), the size of Russia’s urban population changed due to natural population growth and migration, as well as administrative and territorial transformations. The evaluation of urbanization factors indicates the relocation of Russian economic activity to the biggest cities. We have found a distortion of a long-term positive impact of economic growth on the level of urbanization in the existing spatial structure of the Russian economy, defined by a large diversity of regional socio-economic systems. The article demonstrates a statistically significant positive effect of economic growth on the level of urbanization over a long-term period, provided that we exclude regions with a high mining share in the gross added value from the data pool.

Reindustrialization of Agro-Industrial Complex as the Food Security Basis for Russian Regions

Siberian Research Institute of Agricultural Economics, Krasnoobsk, 630501, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia
Keywords: продовольственная безопасность, АПК, регион, Сибирь, Россия, Новосибирская область, импортозамещение, реиндустриализация, food security, agro-industrial complex, region, Siberia, Russia, Novosibirsk Oblast, import substitution, reindustrialization

Abstract >>
The article identifies problems and prospects associated with substituting the import of agricultural products and increasing their competitiveness through reindustrialization. We define the main directions, goals, tasks, principles, measures, and potential results of reindustrialization that will ensure food security in Siberian regions, in view of their specific features. Using the agro-industrial complex of Novosibirsk Oblast as an example, we mention projects on reindustrialization and self-sufficiency in basic products.

Reindustrialization of the Rural Economy in Transbaikal: Traps and Opportunities

1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogov st., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nedorezov st., 16a, Chita, 672014, Russia
4Transbaikal State University, Aleksandro-Zavodskaya st., 30, Chita, 672039, Russia
Keywords: Забайкальский край, реиндустриализация, агропродовольственный комплекс, малый агробизнес, сельское развитие, трансграничные отношения, Zabaykalskiy Krai, reindustrialization, agri-food sector, small agribusiness, rural development, cross-border relations

Abstract >>
The article considers the conditions, peculiarities, and opportunities for the reindustrialization (new industrialization) of the rural economy in Zabaykalskiy Krai (Transbaikal). We analyze the effects of the collapse of the Soviet agrarian development model in remote Russian regions, which, inter alia, led to a de-graded Transbaikal agri-food sector and chronic losses for local agricultural producers. The article describes the traps standing in the way of sustainable rural development associated with the lack of efficient overcoming mechanisms, regularly arising negative natural and climatic phenomena, investment activity encouragement, and competitive advantages. Based on a sociological survey, we present a spectrum of agribusiness community’s opinions on the existing problems of the agricultural sector, urgent trends, ways for its improvement, and reforming organizational and financial conditions that would give impetus to agribusiness development in Zabaykalskiy Krai. The article contemplates two approaches to the reindustrialization of the agro-industrial complex in Transbaikal. The first approach presupposes an emphasis on attracting large producers, capable of carrying out «industrialization-type» investment pro-jects, which reduce the dependence on unfavorable natural conditions, at their own expense and with state support. The second approach relies on the advan-tages of a multi-structural economy and the creation of mechanisms for the integ-ration of agro-industrial enterprises of various levels and sizes (small, medium, and large) into economic (internal and external) space.

Classification of Russian Regions by Age-Specific Natality Models

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, bld. D, 1, Moscow, 119234, Russia
Keywords: рождаемость, группы регионов, второй демографический переход, постарение рождаемости, региональная дифференциация, birthrate, region groups, the second demographic transition, advancement of maternal age, regional differentiation

Abstract >>
The article uses age-related demographic indicators depending on birth order to determine groups of regions with various demographic patterns. We show that regions require differentiated family and demographic policies. Natality model characteristics may be considered when predicting population size and developing measures to stimulate birth rate in different age groups comprising women of fertile age.

A Change in Demand for Travel Services in Russia under Sanctions

Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Stremyanny ln., 36, Moscow, 117997, Russia
Keywords: трансформация спроса, туристские поездки, гостиничные услуги, кластеризация регионов, санкции, change in demand, tourist trips, hotel services, clustering of regions, sanctions

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the dynamics of demand for tourist services in Russian regions under the current Western sanctions regime. We identify groups of regions that reflect a change in demand for tourist services by using the Statgraphics Centurion package. Regions were grouped according to the rate of growth in the number of placed tourists and the rate of growth in the amount of paid hotel services provided to the population. We have concluded that there are regions capable of steadily attracting tourists under sanctions.

Fundraisers and Their Motivation (Case of Public Social Service Agencies in Omsk Oblast)

College of Social Workers, Moscow Department of Labor and Social Protection, B. Novodmitrovskaya st., 63, Moscow, 127015, Russia
Keywords: государственные учреждения социального обслуживания населения, Омская область, фандрейзинг, фандрейзер, мотивация, public social service agencies, Omsk Oblast, fundraising, fundraiser, motivation

Abstract >>
By using sociological methods, the article examines fundraising activities in public social service agencies of Omsk Oblast. We give characteristics to the regional system of social services and provide rationale for choosing it as our research base. The article builds a fundraiser’s sociological profile and explo- res the main components of his motivational frame. The study depicts motives for attracting additional resources and special features of fundraisers. We show that there is a need to professionalize fundraising in social service institutions, train fundraisers, and prevent their emotional burnout. A revealed specificity of fundraising activity makes it possible to view it as intermittent work, which has signs of both wage and volunteer labor; thus, this matter demands further economic and sociological study.

Spatial Development Features of Oil and Gas Services: Global Trends and Lessons for Russia

Institute of Economics and Indust rial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: регион, нефтегазовый сервис, инновации, социально-экономическое развитие, локальные и глобальные знания, region, oil and gas services, innovation, socio-economic deve- lopment, local and global knowledge

Abstract >>
The article shows that the global spatial organization of oil and gas services is largely determined by the features of mineral resource assets, while Russian service companies are still referred to as regional-level actors. The analysis establishes the key role of oil services in the innovative processes ongoing within the oil and gas sector. Knowledge-intensive services can significantly reduce the unit cost of incremental reserves and production costs. The processes of shaping and cultivating the oil-and-gas component of regional innovation systems are summarized in endogenous, network, and exogenous base models. There cannot be a single model of innovative development for the needs of the oil and gas sector in resource regions. It is expedient to form and develop such models with due account for a wide range of regional peculiarities. The results obtained demonstrate a need to strengthen the role of resource regions in regulating oil and gas services and innovative processes in the oil and gas sector. The study is oriented towards developing a methodology to study innovative processes within the framework of regional socio-economic systems, as well as towards elaborating practical recommendations on the development of oil and gas services in Russian resource regions.

Using the OMMM-TEK Information-Program-Model Complex in Scenario Analysis of the Development of the Fuel and Energy Sector in Regions: Methodical Aspects

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: ОМММ-ТЭК, экспорт угля и газа, импортозамещение, машиностроение, OMMM-TEK, coal and gas exports, import substitution, me- chanical engineering

Abstract >>
The article describes an interregional input-output optimization model for the fuel and energy sector (OMMM-TEK model complex), experience of its use, and functioning scheme. From the methodological point of view, we show how its application allows modeling and analyzing macroeconomic consequences of reducing coal and gas exports to Europe, presented as various scenarios. The article examines previous experience of OMMM-assisted gas exports modeling and reproduces it in experimental calculations. We compare it with the analysis concerning the ratios between specific coal and gas exports and imports of products with high added value based on input-output tables. In calculations, we use a method of linking negative incremental values of regional coal and gas exports to the national imports of engineering products in certain quantitative proportions. We draw a distinction between the concepts of a national economic scenario and situational scenarios. Options for expor- ting fuel and energy resources are built upon parametric analysis within the given national economic scenario. The article shows that potential GDP (GRP) losses following a reduction in coal and gas exports and in the imports of engineering products may be rather significant. However, they can be largely compensated by import substitution.

The Irtysh River Transboundary Basin: Problems and Solutions

Institute for Water and Environ mental Problems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Molodezhnaya st., 1, Barnaul, 656038, Russia
Keywords: трансграничный бассейн р. Иртыш, страны-водопользователи, международное сотрудничество, Irtysh River transboundary basin, water-using countries, international cooperation

Abstract >>
The article analyzes current issues of water use in the Irtysh River transboundary basin and their solutions. We examine consequences following the implementation of inter- and intra-basin projects on transferring a part of riverstreamflow to mitigate water deficit problems in countries grav itating towards the catchment area of the Irtysh.

Climate and Reported Subjective Well-Being of Russia’s Households

Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogova st., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: климат, изменение климата, счастье, субъективные оценки благосостояния, Россия, эконометрический анализ, climate, climate change, happiness, subjective well-being valuations, Russia, econometric analysis

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the impact of climate change on the overall well-being of households. It provides quantitative estimates of the dependence of subjective well-being valuations on regional climate parameters. As a hypothesis, it is assumed that subjective happiness estimates recovered via panel surveys reflect rational individual preferences that may be represented by a utility function while its parameters can be assessed with an econometric model. We conduct an econometric estimation of the parameter values of a happiness function using an ordered probit regression model. The model is built on the data provided by the Rosstat statistical agency and the primary data of the Russian Longitude Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE). We show that the climate factor has a highly significant effect on a respondents’ self-reported life quality valuation; as significant as the impact of other, more common factors such as money income, employment status, health condition, the quality of drinking water and air, etc. The findings may be used in the economic valuation of climate change consequences, as well as the development of policies aimed at preventing climate change.

High-Tech Leaders: Sustainability of Their Market Positions, Sectoral and Regional Characteristics

1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogov st., 1, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: высокотехнологичный бизнес, устойчивость и стабильность рыночных позиций, рыночное лидерство, high-tech business, sustainability and stability of market positions, market leadership

Abstract >>
The article proposes an approach to estimating sustainability and stability of company leadership, applied to analyze leading Russian high-tech firms’ positions. As an empirical basis, we use data from the RBC rating of 50 largest technology companies and the TechUp National Rating. According to the article, high-tech business is characterized by large uncertainty. We justify and calculate indicators suggestive of the emergence of several stable core leaders in the short term. Stability indicators do not show any positive trends. Com- panies that could potentially form the leadership core will not be able to maintain their positions if developing independently; they need support and encouragement. We identify a few regions (including Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, the Republic of Tatarstan, and others) and industries (biotechnology, pharmaceutics, IT, engineering, and others) that are key to the development of high-tech business.

The Practice of Evaluating Strategies of Municipal Districts

Resource Center for Strategic Planning, 7th Krasnoarmeyskaya st., 25A, Saint-Petersburg, 190005, Russia
Keywords: стратегическое планирование, муниципальное управление, стратегии, социально-экономическое развитие, конкурс, strategic planning, municipal administration, strategies, socio-economic development, contest

Abstract >>
The article considers a procedure for running a contest of strategies for municipal districts development and its results. The contest took place in 2016 and was meant to stimulate strategic planning at the municipal level and disseminate best practices in this sphere.

Tatyana Ivanovna Zaslavskaya: Life in the Union of Economics and Sociology

1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogov st., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia