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"Philosophy of Education"

2015 year, number 5

1.
NEW INTELLECTUAL TECHNOLOGIES OF TRAINING

V. I. Razumov1, V. P. Sizikov2
1F. M. Dostoevsky Omsk State University, 55-A, Mira Ave., Omsk, Russia, 644077
2Omsk State Transport University, 35, Marx Ave., Omsk, Russia, 644046
Keywords: Инсейфинг, интеллектоемкость, интеллектуальные технологии, категориальные схемы, кризис, линеаризация, наука и образование, новая эпоха, обучение, синтетическая картина мира, теория динамических информационных систем, Insafing, intellectual content, intellectual technologies, categorical schemes, crisis, linearization, science and education, new age, training, synthetic world view, theory of dynamic information systems

Abstract >>
The main topics of the article are the place and role of science and education in the global systemic crisis, caused by the mankind entering into a new era. The strategies for the development of civilization have to be changed from the extensive to intensive ones. It requires a radical improvement of intelligence. The type of intelligence formed from antiquity is focused linearization of thinking, writing and speech, the predominance of analysis over synthesis, material and power paradigm in the formation of the world view, disagreement of the semantic and mathematical methods for organizing knowledge and advanced development of automation of calculations in comparison with the automation of reasoning. The XXI century is characterized by stagnation of science and education, reduced creativity, growing bureaucratization of institutions, which lose their role of actors, generating human and social technologies. New Intellectual Technologies could help to solve this set of problems. Experiences of their creation are based on the Categorical System Methodology, the Theory of Dynamic Information Systems. New Intellectual Technologies are characterized by the visualized determined ways of constructing Categorical Schemes. There are four types of operations to work on Categorical Schemes: 1) categorization of the subject area; 2) the formation on the basis of categories of a directed graph of the class of Dynamic Information Systems; 3) defining a process of information functioning on Dynamic Information Systems; 4) the construction of a simulation model. The possibility is considered to implement new Intellectual Technologies already at the level of categorization and the construction of the digraph (operations 1, 2). The example shows how one can obtain significant heuristic effects when working on the selection of keywords relative to existing material. The transition to communications is the next level in the development of new Intellectual Technologies. On the basis of the Theory of Dynamic Information Systems, we developed an organizational-business game, Insafing. It provides a combination of fundamental theoretical framework with the ability to organize intellectual communication in the development of any scientific, educational themes of the project. The article describes the methodology of Insafing, as well as the opportunities for its practical usage in the aspects of research, training, design. The conclusion is made about the prospects of work on creation and introduction of new Intellectual Technologies with the formation of a synthetic world view, which is based on unification of philosophy, physics and mathematics. It will provide favorable prospects for the mankind entering a new era.



2.
PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE INFORMATIZATION TRENDS IN THE MODERN EDUCATIONAL SPACE

E. V. Aleksandrova
Samara State Transport University, 18, Pervy Bezymyanny Lane, Samara, Russia, 443066
Keywords: философское осмысление, информационно-коммуникационные технологии обучения, классическая система образования, инновационные процессы совершенствования качества, информатизация современного образовательного пространства, компаративный анализ, киберпространство, информационное общество, philosophical understanding, information-communication technologies of training, classical educational system, innovative processes of improving the training quality, informatization of the modern educational space, comparative analysis, cyberspace, information society

Abstract >>
The paper presents a possible approach to philosophical understanding of modern educational space and its transition to a new level. The author turns to the problem of transformation of the classical educational system, its adaptation to innovative process in the system of distance education. For better practical understanding of the trends in the modern educational space and training quality, it is necessary to understand its essence, regularities and perspectives, to recognize its role, meaning and origin in the human development. To solve this problem, we need to use a social-philosophical approach. The social-philosophical analysis of pedagogical activities and education shows us the strong dependence between educational development and the development of a new information society. The main idea is based on the fact that the modern model of education depends on info-communicational forms of education (distance education). The social-philosophical analysis of theory and praxis in the field of distance education represents its undoubted integration in the development of the modern human society. Philosophical understanding of the modern trends of informatization of modern educational space shows the close relationship between the development of modern education and the development of information and communication technologies in today's society.



3.
RUSSIAN UNIVERSITY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION: SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MANAGEMENT MODEL

V. S. Diev1,2
1Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090
2Institute of the Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaeva St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090
Keywords: управление, общество, образование, культура, принятие решений, высшая школа, management, society, education, culture, decision making, higher education institutions

Abstract >>
Globalization has significantly influenced the management model of the Russian higher education institutions, and not only of those universities that participate in the TOP-100 program. As a standard of management model of higher education institution it is currently used a model accepted in a large corporations. In many ways, it is justified because this approach has proven effectiveness within the global economy. At the same time, the implementation of such an approach raises a number of contradictory tendencies. As a positive trend we consider a gradual withdrawal from the elections of Rectors. As a negative trend we consider the increasing of the control over the universities by the Ministry of Education and Science, as well as a significant diminishment of the role of the Academic council of the university and the loss of faculty autonomy. Education and science in general have an international character, but in every country there is also a national specifics. Analyzing the management problems we presume that every management model is «placed» in the current culture and history of each country. Education in general and, first of all, the higher education can be one of the factors of the consolidation and the development of contemporary Russian society. Education can be an universal value and a landmark for the development of the country. We are justifying the thesis that for the more effective management of the education system it is necessary to turn back to Russian and Soviet practice and re-edify the Ministry of Education with the strong commitment to the issues of secondary education.



4.
POSSIBLE IMPLEMENTATIONS OF THE ACTIVITY APPROACH IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY

A. V. Isakov
Zabaikalsky State University, 30, Aleksandro-Zavodskaya St., Chita, Russia, 672039
Keywords: постнеклассическая рациональность, деятельностный подход, деятельность, социальность, субъект деятельности, коллективная деятельность, ценности, post-non-classical rationality, activity-based approach, activity, sociality, the subject of activity, collective activity, values

Abstract >>
This article deals with the implementation possibilities and prospects of the activity approach in social philosophy in the context of post-non-classical type of scientific rationality. It actualizes the axiological perspective. The categories of «sociality», «activity», «subject activity», «collective activity» are analyzed from this position; their content reveals the idea of developing all forms of public life and the person through active human nature as its generic essence. The author analyzes the ideas of modern social philosophy in the context of the interpretation of «sociality» as a poly-subject activity and mental activity approach, where the key to the use of the definition of «activity» is in the axiological perspective of goal-setting, realization and achievement activity. It is concluded that the problem of the activity-related relativity is connected with resolving the issues of personal identity and its anthropological authenticity as the rootedness of the person in the system of values of his/her nation. In the Russian context it can be productively resolved by incorporation of the ideas of Russian religious philosophy in the modern scientific knowledge. It is summarized that the activity approach currently aspires to become one of the leading explanatory principles in analysis, description, design and forecasting of social processes and social structures in postclassical rationality. It gives the opportunity to explore the social reality in accordance with axiological attitudes of a particular society. The implementation of the activity approach not only enriches the research base of social philosophy, allows realizing its recommendation and prognostic functions, but also provides an opportunity to design, to create social reality that is seen as extremely important in the conditions of globalization and transformation of values.



5.
HIERARCHIC LINKS AND A NATURAL-SCIENCE PICTURE OF THE WORLD

T. N. Gnitetskaya, Yu. E. Shutko, E. B. Ivanova, N. N. Kovalchuk
The Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Sukhanova St., Vladivostok, Russia, 690950
Keywords: естественнонаучная картина мира, иерархические связи, предметные связи, процесс обучения физике, natural-scientific picture of the world, hierarchical relations, inter-disciplinary links, process of teaching physics

Abstract >>
The article discusses the role and place of links in the natural-science picture of the world. It is found that the vectors of hierarchies of the inter-disciplinary connections in the structure of the worldview and in the content of the training material providing the formation of the students' worldview have opposite directions. The internal and external links not only provide connectivity of educational information of different disciplines of the natural-science, mathematical and social-economic cycles, but also contribute to the development of a holistic scientific picture of the world. The problem of determining the place of individual subjects in the education system, identifying the logical connections between basic and special disciplines, coordination and continuity in the presentation of educational material, methodological analysis of it - this problem is of a paramount importance for the effective implementation of intra- and inter-disciplinary links, whose contribution to the formation of scientific outlook cannot be overestimated. The development of a mechanism of using in the educational process of the intra- and inter-disciplinary links having a hierarchical structure is not only a task of practicing teachers, but also is of great methodological significance. The importance is revealed of the inter-disciplinary links in the joint mission of formation of a coherent scientific picture of the world. The modeling of these acquires a scientific character if it possesses a quantitative description. Analysis of the content of physical education, forms, methods and teaching processes carried out on the basis of studying the intra- and inter-disciplinary links cannot be complete if it is not supplemented with quantitative calculations. After all, it is exactly such an analysis that will enable to start the construction of an integrated science-based learning technology.



6.
WITTGENSTEIN ON THE NOTIONS OF «CRITERION» AND «SYMPTOM»

A. Loreti
Moscow State University, 1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, Russia, 119991
Keywords: Витгенштейн, критерий, симптом, верификационизм, «Философские исследования», Wittgenstein, criterion, symptom, verificationism, «Philosophical Investigations»

Abstract >>
This paper analyzes the concepts of «criterion» and «symptom» in the works of Ludwig Wittgenstein. The author discusses the theories of symptom and criterion set out in the «Blue Book», «Philosophical remarks» and «Philosophical Investigations». The author draws attention to the fact that in «Philosophical Remarks» Wittgenstein’s concepts of «symptom» and «criterion» were influenced by verificationism. The author also notes that the late Wittgenstein was convinced that the difference between criterion and symptom is vague, imprecise. The author analyzes the interpretation of the concept of identity both in the middle period of Wittgenstein’s career and in the later period. The author concludes that during the period of Wittgenstein’s philosophical activity we can observe a gradual convergence of the concept of «symptom» to the concept of «criterion» in the background of resolute rejection of the classical epistemological approach that distinguishes and isolates the subject from the object of cognition.



7.
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE ASSESSMENT OF THE PROGRAMS OF TRAINING OF THE EDUCATIONAL COMPLEX SPECIALISITS

R. G. Buyankina1, E.V. Zamiralova2, N. A. Knyazev3, M. V. Sokolovskaya1, O. M. Popova1
1Professor V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, 1, Partizana Zheleznyaka St., Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660022
2Siberian State Technological University, 82, Mira Ave., Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660049
3Academician M. F. Reshetnev Siberian State Space University, 31, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy Ave., Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660037
Keywords: качество образования, образовательная услуга, программы подготовки специалистов, показатели качества, quality of education, educational service, programs of specialist training, quality indicators

Abstract >>
The experience of theoretical comprehension of the problems of training of highly qualified personnel in higher education of the country forces to address more often to the concept of «quality of education». To a certain degree, this concept has begun to play a key role in solving the topical problems of the domestic education. The purpose of the article is to find an explicate criterion, which allows differentiating between what to be considered qualitative and what, quantitative, and determining a dividing side between them. The authors sought to expand the connection between the methodological potential of the concept of «quality of education» and the parameters of educational process that first need a strict and concrete measurement and transferring this measurement into estimation points. As the criterion allowing estimating the quality of education, we chose the programs of specialist training in which the main «foundation» of educational service is laid. Having carried out the analysis of the external and internal models used for assessing the quality of programs of specialist training, the authors developed a personified assessment model using as a basis the state standard GOST R 52113-2003 «Services to the population. Quality indicators». For an educational complex, as one of types of the educational organization, application of this standard is possible because it renders a complex of educational services which are realized within the programs of training specialists, regulated by the federal state educational standards. According to the structure of the standard and a number of normative documents, we constructed a tree of quality indicators which allowed observing interrelations of all its elements and formed the basis of a model of determining the quality of programs of specialist training. Transferring of the qualitative evaluation of the corresponding criteria of the model to a quantitative component was achieved using the technique of assessment «Determining the quality level of the programs of specialist training». Thus, the quality indicators of the obtained model act as the objects for measurement. The use of these innovative tools, which presuppose using the model «The Quality Tree of the Programs of Specialist Training», allows analyzing and revealing the weak points and making timely and competent management decisions.



8.
FRACTAL PEDAGOGY: THE NOUMENAL MENTALITY OF THE PERSON OF THE THIRD MILLENNIUM

A. G. Madzhuga, I. A. Sinitsina
Sterlitamak Branch of the Bashkir State University, 49, Lenina Ave., Sterlitamak, Russia, 453103
Keywords: ноумен, ноуменальная ментальность, фрактальная педагогика, фрактальный подход, принципы фрактальной педагогики, фрактальнось, культурно-феноменологический компонент фрактальной педагогики, полифоничная самость, noumenon, the noumenal mentality, fractal pedagogy, fractal approach, the fractal principles of pedagogy, fractality, cultural and phenomenological components of the fractal pedagogy, the polyphonic self

Abstract >>
The ideas about education as a way to translating knowledge cannot meet the challenges of modernity, because the methodological principles and practical didactic forms, methods and means are more consistent with the paradigm of classical and non-classical rationality, while the post-non-classical reality puts forward different goals and priorities. The authors theoretically justify the need for introduction into the categorical apparatus of modern social and humanitarian knowledge of the concept of «fractal pedagogy», which will allow integrating the scientific and social-humanitarian understanding of the person as a multidimensional phenomenon, to justify the choice of means providing revealing the actual and potential possibilities and the self-realization of the person. This article conceptualizes the ideas of fractal pedagogy within the noumenal mentality; for the first time the concept of «fractal pedagogy» is defined, its basic principles are examined, the historical retrospective of the evolutionary transformation of man from the standpoint of the theory of fractals are given. The authors summarize that the subject of the post-industrial society will be not a homo economicus, which is characteristic for the era of industrialism and whose inherent qualities are purpose-oriented rationality, the desire to minimize costs with a maximum results, etc., but a homo creator, a «creative person», who constructs different social relationships and their own identity, who aspires to «be» rather than «to have» (to realize the internal potential, instead of moving in the direction imposed by the external social environment). According to the authors, one of the kinds of homo creator is a «health-creative» person focused on the effective use, preservation and development of his/her own natural potential, motivated toward achieving physical and psychological comfort. Thus, the modern person is a complex self-organizing fractal, transforming the world and integrating within him/herself various derivative fractals: «intelligent person, which produces labor tools», «playing person», «a person of high technologies in the sphere of manufacturing, management and training», «a person of high humanitarian technologies», «homo economicus», «a creative person» and «health-creative person».



9.
CROSS-CULTURALNESS IN PHILOSOPHY AS THE BASIS OF CROSS-CULTURALNESS IN EDUCATION

E. A. Kostina
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28, Viluiskaya St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630126
Keywords: кросс-культурный подход, кросс-культурность, поликультурное образование, кросс-культурная грамотность, cross-cultural approach, cross-culturalness, polycultural education, cross-cultural literacy

Abstract >>
At present a new ideology of education development is being formed in pedagogy. The basis of this ideology is the world level of cultural development strengthening globalization processes. Taking into account the idea of the dialogue of culture, the importance is placed on the mechanism of cultural selection, which is a peaceful borrowing of progressive experience of different countries. To realize this task it is necessary to philosophically digest cross-culturalness, which will allow painless entrance of this phenomenon into the educational process of the Russian Federation’s higher education. The paper presents a brief review of some theories of cultural development of society (circle development, cultural pluralism, humanistic theories of personality, theory of local civilizations) emphasizing the dialogue merging into the polylogue of cultures. At the end of the XXth century the idea of universalization of world cultures was being actively discussed. This idea results from the theory of the equality of cultures of nations not only in a separate country but in the whole world. Such a thought reasonably worried the UNESCO ideologists, who stressed that the process of universalization of all cultures would lead to global stagnation. Today the aim of cooperation of nations can be defined as saving cultural diversity in the process of multi-faceted activity within the bounds of the polylogue of cultures with due regard for the principle of cross-culturalness. The author understands the principle of cross-culturalness as realization, acceptance and taking account of peculiarities of interworking cultures by participants of this interaction process. One should also follow the principle of cross-culturalness in the sphere of global education fulfilling the two main functions: formation of social basics of a person and formation of social community. The phenomenon of cross-culturalness has brought into existence the cross-cultural approach to the analysis of diverse processes initiated and progressing in different social layers, in the sphere of education in the first place. The characteristics of the cross-cultural approach in education are the following: polylogue of cultures; moral value of knowledge; interdisciplinary approach to teaching; upbringing teaching of culture. Formation of cross-cultural literacy of an individual is one of the most important tasks of polycultural education under modern context. To solve this task, the higher education institution should pay special attention to creating tolerant educational environment. At the same time, maintaining one’s own cultural identity is the criteria of a polycultural personality. One refers humanity, civic consciousness, cross-cultural literacy, communication culture and self-identity of a person to the traits of a holistic polycultural personality. Building a polycultural personality on the basis of the cross-cultural approach in education is a complex and multi-level but topical and necessary process under modern context of globalization.



10.
FORMATION OF PHILOSOPHICAL OUTLOOK OF THE STUDENTS IN MODERN EDUCATION

S. A. An1, E. V. Ushakova2, N. V. Nalivayko3,4
1Altai State Pedagogical University, 55, Molodezhnaya St., Barnaul, Russia, 656031
2Altai State Medical University, 40, Lenina Ave., Barnaul, Russia, 656038
3Institute of Philosophy and Law of the SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090
4Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28, Viluiskaya St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630126
Keywords: мировоззрение, философское мировоззрение, картина мира, детское философствование, специфика мировоззрения в образовательных культурах Запада и России, world outlook, philosophical outlook, world picture, children’s philosophizing, specifics of the world outlook in the educational cultures of the West and Russia

Abstract >>
The article examines the problem of the essence of holistic knowledge and philosophical outlook of the students in various periods of their life: from childhood to youth, and further transforming into adulthood; the world outlook of the person and society at different stages of development. Some analogies are drawn between philosophizing of children and adults. There is indicated an important role of philosophy of education in determining the socio-cultural aspects of the formation of philosophical outlook in terms of the information age of the XXI century. An analysis of the problem of formation of philosophical outlook with the help-means of pedagogical tools has revealed the specifics of approaches to education in the cultures of the West and Russia, in connection with which we can draw the following conclusion: there is no need (and it is even dangerous) to recklessly accept the other-culture’s Bologna postulates of education, which are foreign to our culture, the Russian mentality and Russian real living conditions of people in the beginning of the XXI century. Understanding of the social and cultural specifics of education in the modern world, especially in solving the problems of forming a holistic outlook of the person, does not lead to isolation of educational cultures, but, quite the contrary, can be of great help on the way to cooperation in the sphere of education with flexible interaction and mutual enrichment of cultures of Russia, the West and the East.



11.
TEACHING PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY USING THE METHOD OF INTER-SUBJECT CASES

E. B. Ivanova, N. N. Kovalchuk, Yu. E. Shutko, O. E. Grishay
8, Sukhanova St., Vladivostok, Russia, 690950
Keywords: образовательный процесс, модульное обучение, межпредметный кейс, разноуровневые задачи по физике, психологическое обоснование модульного обучения, educational process, modular education, inter-subject case, problems in physics of different levels of complexity, psychological substantiation of modular education

Abstract >>
The article addressed the issues of inter-subject teaching of physics and chemistry at the General Education School. An inter-subject cases method is developed on the basis of the Modular teaching technology. The peculiarity of the method lies in the uniformity of tutorial manner used for teaching both physics and chemistry. It means that a package of educational materials (inter-subject case) is issued to students at the beginning of study of each module of physics and chemistry. The package includes a questionnaire (plan), a suggested reading list, a typical problem and a list of individual problems and tasks. An inter-subject case in physics also includes semantic structures of inter-subject contents in chemistry and vice versa, the module cases for studying chemistry contain semantic structures of inter-subject contents in physics. The psychological grounds for applying the method of inter-subject cases to the education process are developed in the article. Coordination of the inter-subject cases method with the theory of gradual forming of intellectual actions, as well as correspondence of the method with the factors of educative process efficiency are introduced in the article. Special tests have been developed and carried out by the authors, which included inter-subject tests and tasks. The test results have shown a high level of knowledge of inter-subject connections by the students who were taught by the method of inter-subject cases. For acknowledgement of correctness of evaluation, a method suggested by I.A. Kulak at the end of the last century was used. The final grades of the students obtained by them for the inter-subject tests were compared with the marks calculated using the method of I.A. Kulak. The marks had coincided in 99 cases out of 100. In such a way, the usage of the inter-subject cases method in the course of teaching physics and chemistry at General Education School is substantiated.



12.
LEADERSHIP IN THE CLASSROOM AND MORALITY

T. N. Gnitetskaya, N. N. Kovalchuk, Yu. E. Shutko, E. B. Ivanova
Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Sukhanova St., Vladivostok, Russia, 690950
Keywords: управление обучением, ситуационная матрица, лидерство, нравственность, уроки физики, management of learning, situational matrix, leadership, morality, physics lessons

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the topical issue for today, concerning the class management. In the process of class management, one should lean upon specially selected and trained leaders. We propose morality as a selection criterion; to measure it, we suggest checking the reaction of students to the proverbs-situations. We present a method of situational matrix, proposed by the authors. This matrix was realized in the process of studying physics by the students of the 10-th grade. The results of its testing are given. The distribution of the moral background in the classroom is shown. The situational matrix allows the teacher to get an idea about the behavior of students in different situations, makes it possible to predict the behavior of pupils in group activities. This facilitates the management of the class and contributes to finding ways to motivate the study of complex material in physics. The picture of moral values of the class outlined by using the elements of the situational matrix can help the teacher to determine a group of students with a high level of morality, who can be considered as potential leaders. Of course, not all students in this group are apparent leaders. But, as practice shows, high moral principles are characteristic of strong personalities capable to disregard their own interests for the benefit of others. Therefore, we hypothesized that extra boosting by the teacher of the authority of these guys in the class, which is set for competition, will foster the establishment of the required psychological «climate» in which there occurs the natural distribution of leaders in the teams. We established a fact of coincidence of morality distributions in two 10-grade classes. A correlation between morality and academic progress has not been revealed. The search for additional resources in the areas of morality and values that can be used in the management of the class is justified and efficient. These resources can contribute to the solution of the problem of increasing the efficiency of teaching physics in modern conditions.



13.
FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEALTH AND FITNESS ACTIVITY IN EDUCATION

A. A. Artemiev, I. L. Levina
Kemerovo State University, 23, Tsiolkovsky St., Novokuznetsk, Russia, 654041
Keywords: физическая культура, спорт, физкультурно-оздоровительная деятельность, оздоровление, здоровый образ жизни, physical culture, sport, health and fitness activity, health improvement, healthy lifestyle

Abstract >>
Human perceptions regarding health have been changing during almost all stages of formation and development of mankind. Along with that one can note the multidirectionality of conceptions of teaching and education of all-round, sound person, and the basis of these conceptions is the process of physical development and physical improvement. The evolution of pedagogical idea, starting from the epoch of Antiquity, shows us the multidirectionality of approaches to organization of physical education of the younger generation. For example, in the age of antiquity in the Greek policies there were used two systems of education, Spartan and Athenian. The main aim of Sparta was the education of the rising generation that could win the war under any circumstances. In the Middle Ages not much attention was paid to the preservation of health and longevity. The Christian religion, which played a huge role in the life of a medieval community, established its dominance in the field of training and education. Preaching «austerity» and the sinful character of care for the body, the religion called to care only about the salvation of souls and to prepare for the afterlife. The Renaissance was marked by the struggle against scholasticism, including in the field of education and training. Emerging bourgeoisie could not be satisfied with a religious philosophy and medieval culture, to put up with the ideas of asceticism and contemptuous attitude toward physical development. In the early and developed feudalism there came to the fore the system of military physical training of the Knights, the main features of which is military orientation and class character. The situation began to change in the late feudalism with the emerging bourgeois culture and physical culture and sports becoming its integral part. At this time there appeared humanist, socialist theories of physical education. The beginning of the era of modern times was accompanied by a struggle against medieval traditions and rethinking of human values, which inevitably affected the development of the educational thought of the period. A similar trend of transition from one value to another existed until the early twentieth century. In summary, all the thoughts and ideas of eminent philosophers and teachers can be differentiated on two grounds: the orientation of the personality and orientation system. The essence of the approach that is driven by the system, is that the process of health improvement of children was organized in order to form the individual student in the public interest. In turn, the approach that focuses on the personality of the student presupposes the organization of the process of sports and recreational activities in the interests of the individual child, taking into account his/her inclinations and capabilities.



14.
CRITERIA OF ASSESSMENT OF THE STUDENT WORK IN THE COURSE OF TRAINING IN THE ACADEMIC DRAWING

K. A. Kravchenko1, I. D. Shchetinin2
1Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28, Viluiskaya St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630126
2Tyumen State University, 6, Volodarskogo Street, Tyumen, Russia, 625003
Keywords: академический рисунок, критерии оценки, профессиональные компетенции, замысел, гармония и выразительность, художественный образ, academic drawing, criteria of assessment, professional competences, plan, harmony and expressiveness, artistic image

Abstract >>
The authors note that, to determine the level of professional training of students in the system of art pedagogical education, it is necessary to define the main criteria of assessment of student work in academic drawing, which are based on objective regularities of creation of a graphic representation on a sheet of paper. According to the logic of the process of training in the academic drawing, the criteria of assessment of the student work have to be developed on the basis of purposes and problems of training in the academic drawing that lays the foundation for the development of professional art perception and thinking. Also, the assessment criteria should reflect and direct the development of the abilities of students to vigorous educational and creative activity. The process of training in the academic drawing is an integral system which includes: the purpose, tasks, theoretical material, and also methods of formation and development of professional competences of the draftsman in students taking into account their future art and pedagogical activity. Therefore, the planned result of educational activity is the formed professional competence of students in the field of the academic drawing. For successful and high-quality vocational training of students in the system of art pedagogical education, it is necessary to fulfill not only the well-known tasks of training in the academic drawing, but also to focus attention on more complex analytical challenges allowing to reveal spatial and rhythmic communications in natural statement, and also the creative component of graphic activity. In the methodological dimension, this process is considered in two aspects, namely: as a process of mental analysis of natural setting, including its spatial and rhythmic connections, and as a process of material embodiment on the graphic plane. In this context the necessary qualities of vocational training of students in the academic drawing are distinguished: the ability to the analysis and synthesis, the ability to make an emphasis on the internal spatial and rhythmic communications allowing to reach the proportional accuracy, to strengthen dynamics of a form, and also a harmony and expressiveness of an image, ability to schematization, simplification. The authors note that it is necessary to differentiate accurately the content of training during the first years and the senior years, placing accents in compliance with tasks: during the first years the students comprehend an analytical component of the academic drawing, during the senior years they develop more difficult and deep relation to nature and the process of the creating an image. At the final stage, the training is directed on creative mastering of system of imaging which contains a certain complex of interconnected tasks including the graphic and expressive beginnings, whose content in the concrete image assumes harmonization and art integrity of the image.



15.
UPBRINGING AS A FACTOR OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIETY: METHODOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE PROBLEM

N. N. Vlasyuk, T. S. Kosenko, S. V. Kamashev
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28, Viluiskaya St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630126
Keywords: воспитание, концепция устойчивого развития общества, образование, философия образования, upbringing, education, the concept of sustainable development of the society, philosophy of education

Abstract >>
The article presents the basic views of the authors on the problem of social and philosophical research of upbringing as a factor of sustainable development of the society. The importance is emphasized of searching for alternative ways of social development and problem of understanding of the role of upbringing in this process. The concept of sustainable development of the society is considered by many scientists as, perhaps, the only real possibility of stable development of humanity in the context of modern challenges and crises. Despite the existence of a significant number of deep papers devoted to the sphere of upbringing and the concept of sustainable development, so far no systematic philosophical study has been carried out of upbringing as a factor of sustainable development of society, especially in the context of the Russian transformation processes. The works devoted to these problems are rare and mostly have the character of formulating the problems. The insufficient level of investigation of certain philosophical, methodological and social aspects of the research topic requires integral studying all sides of the formulated problem: the analysis of upbringing as a factor of sustainable development of the society. In our opinion, in studying the indicated problem it is necessary to widely use the methodology of social philosophy (the general), as well as the methodology of philosophy of education (the special). The philosophy of education is a methodological platform of reflection concerning the upbringing concepts. The philosophy of education is a form of philosophical conceptualization of knowledge about education and upbringing, integrating all knowledge that, in one way or another, deals with upbringing. The philosophy of education as an interdisciplinary field allows carrying out a holistic analysis of upbringing as a factor of sustainable development of the society.



16.
FEATURES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION OF THE PERSONALITIES OF DIFFERENT GENDER TYPES

N. M. Manturova
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28, Viluiskaya St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630126
Keywords: самоактуализация личности, социализация, гендер, гендерный тип личности, гендерная роль, маскулинность, фемининность и андрогинность, self-actualization, socialization, gender, gender personality type, gender role, masculinity, femininity and androgyny

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The article deals with the concepts of gender, gender roles and self-actualization of the person, distinguishes their main characteristics. The self-actualization conditions of women and men in modern society are considered. The results are presented of empirical research concerning the gender features of self-actualization of the employees of some pre-school educational institutions of the Siberian Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk. The sample included the teaching staff of preschool educational institutions, altogether 90 people. There is presented a comparative analysis of the parameters of self-actualization between the masculine and feminine personality types; between the masculine and androgynous personality types and between the feminine and androgynous types. In comparing the indexes between the masculine and feminine personality types there were received 23 significant differences in the parameters of self-actualization. The respondents with a pronounced feminine type have significantly higher the following parameters of self-actualization: «flexibility in communicating», «scale of behavior flexibility», «scale of ideas about human nature». In comparing the parameters of self-actualization between masculine and androgynous personality types, there were found 17 significant differences, whereas between feminine and androgynous types there were revealed 8 significant differences. As a result of empirical research, the hypothesis has been confirmed that a higher level of self-actualization is prevalent with the teaching staff with the strong masculine personality type rather than that for the respondents with the feminine and androgynous personality type.



17.
THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTEERING IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD: A SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS

E. V. Shtark, N. V. Komova, M. M. Anisimov
Professor V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, 1, Partizana Zheleznyaka St., Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660022
Keywords: добровольчество, волонтерство, альтруизм, народничество, подвижничество, добро, благо, взаимопомощь, нравственность, сострадание, бескорыстие, благотворительность, volunteering, volunteering, altruism, populism, spiritual, good, benefit, mutual aid, moral, compassion, unselfishness, charity

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The article is devoted to the study of the history of the origin and development of volunteering in Russia and abroad. The authors raise a very relevant to the present day problem. Modern society is experiencing an acute need for teamwork, mutual aid, compassion, selfless help to others - all these qualities are an integral part of volunteering. Volunteering at the present time is one of the most popular types of volunteer work. Selfless service to the humane interests of the people takes many forms, is manifested as an aid at the local, national and international levels. Today, the volunteer organizations exist in over 80 countries. In the nineties of the XX century, in this activity there was involved nearly half of the citizens in the United States and European countries. To date, the total number of volunteers in Russia accounts for only 2% of the population; however, volunteering in Russia is being reborn. The article gives a comparative analysis of the development of volunteerism in Russia and the world, the concept of «volunteering», specifics, significance and problems of development of this phenomenon in Russia. The authors consider the volunteer activities necessary for a full spiritual development of modern society.



18.
PHILOSOPHY AND ARCHITECTURE: THE ORIGINS OF AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH IN THE RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURAL SCHOOL IN THE SECOND HALF OF 18 TH - THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19 TH CENTURY

A. N. Zhurin
Novosibirsk State Academy of Architecture and Art, 38, Krasny Prospekt, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630099
Keywords: интердисциплинарность, философия, архитектура, ранняя эклектика, Ф. В. Шеллинг, Н. И. Надеждин, современная архитектурная школа, interdisciplinarity, philosophy, architecture, early eclectics, N. I. Nadezhdin, F. W. Schelling, modern architectural school

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The article deals with an interdisciplinary approach uniting architecture and philosophy of the age of Enlightenment and the Romantic Era. The philosophical foundations of interdisciplinary approach can already be seen in antiquity as an ideal of unity of knowledge, in modernity, in an effort to overcome the Cartesian dualism and the opposition of real and ideal by the representatives of German classical and romantic philosophy. In order to reveal the integration of philosophy and architecture, it is important to study the periods of paradigmatic shifts in culture, when close relationship between different areas of culture and similarities between categorical apparatus of the two disciplines can be observed. The origins of interdisciplinarity in Russia since the middle of the 18 th century are connected with the desire to develop the whole, enlightened, fully harmonious personality. The opening of the Academy of Arts chronologically coincided with the period of transition from baroque to classicism, which involved a new view on the combination of professional and general scientific disciplines. The transition from classicism to eclecticism in the first half of the 19 th century also coincided with a qualitatively new stage in the development of architectural education, philosophical and aesthetic thought. The development of Russian aesthetics of this period, the idea of union of art and philosophy was greatly influenced by the German classical and romantic philosophy, particularly by the ideas of F. W. Schelling. In the context of philosophical and aesthetic views of F. W. Schelling concerning the unity of ideal and real, professor of Мoscow University N. I. Nadezhdin creatively developed the idea of a union of the classical and romantic art. A philosophical orientation, the desire to understand the role of their profession, to respond to major, fundamental questions of the architectural theory were successfully implemented in the Moscow Palace Architectural School. A certain correspondence was found between the critical works on architecture by N. I. Nadezhdin and essay themes which were given to the students. The article considers the possibility of using the results of the research in the educational process in modern architectural school.



19.
EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL POLITICS OF THE BUDDHIST CHURCH IN BURYATIA IN THE 1990S: HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS

V. V. Lygdenova1, O. B. Dashinamzhilov2
1Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the SB RAS, 17, Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090
2Institute of History of the SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090
Keywords: образование, культура, национальная политика, традиции, социальная философия, буддийская философия, этнография, история Бурятии, education, culture, national politics, traditions, social philosophy, Buddhist philosophy, ethnography, history of Buryatia

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The present interdisciplinary research is dedicated to the major problems that the Buddhist church faced with in the Post-Soviet period. We analyze the large-scale transformations in its structure and activities that started in 1990-s and continued during the entire transitional period. This seems to be the most important because on the basis of the findings it is necessary to adjust the taken actions of resolving the issues and to define a strategy for the further development of the church. In addition, it is topical to identify the main problems that are faced by the leadership of the Buddhist Sangha in the period and to evaluate the ways of their solving. At the same time, a problem is set to consider the value foundations of Buddhist philosophy, which is apparent in the strategic management actions at the time, and to determine their role in the transformation process. From the philosophical point of view, we identify the axiological foundations of Tibet Buddhism which can be seen in the educational, local and international politics and in the revival of national culture. The most significant results of these changes are creation of the Buddhist educational institute «Dashi Choinkhorlin», increase of interest to Buddhism among the Russian population, formation of positive relations with the local and central government, and also the integration of buddhists of Buryatia, India, Mongolia and other countries.



20.
SOCIOCULTURAL ROOTS OF THE PROBLEM OF PRESERVING THE STUDENT BODY OF THE CHILDREN’S MUSIC SCHOOLS

E. V. Shcheglova
Children musical school No.1, 111, Kabanbay Batyr St., Ust'-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan, 070000
Keywords: интернет-форумы, мониторинг, обучающийся контингент, предпрофессиональное музыкальное образование детей, социокультурные реалии, социокультурные условия, информационно-компьютерные технологии в музыкальном образовании, формирование и развитие личности, развитие способностей, профессионализм педагогических кадров, аттестация, preserving the student body of children’s music schools, Internet-forums, prevocational music training of children, sociocultural realities and sociocultural conditions, "school - specialized school - higher educational institution" system, information and computer technologies in music education, formation and development of personality, development of abilities, professionalism of pedagogues, certification procedure

Abstract >>
The author of the article considers a topical problem of preserving the student body of the children’s music schools as a social problem and offers to use Internet-forums as a way of conducting polls and one of the methods of monitoring of the public attitudes towards music education and its quality. The historical succession, interconnection of the aims and goals of children’s music education during the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, their direct dependence on the social, economic and cultural realities are traced in the article. From this point of view we analyze the relation of the music school to the pupils, a changing role of the pupil in the education process, the interrelations in the triangle «school - family - pupil», the problem of formation of highly professional stuff, their aspiration for self-education and the issue of engaging the young specialists.