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2015 year, number 2

1.
Philosophy of education as a special learning project

N. A. Knyazev1, R. G. Buyankina2
1Acad. M. F. Reshetnev Siberian State Space University, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy Ave., 31, Krasnoyarsk, 660014, Russia
2Prof. V. F. Voino-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Guerrilla Zheleznyak, 1, Krasnoyarsk, 660022, Russia
Keywords: education philosophy, methodology, general scientific knowledge, an array of publications, innovative knowledge, the praktiko-focused training, the competence-based principle

Abstract >>
The philosophy of education represents unique research space in which all the world of events, widest in the subject relation, and problems of domestic and world education concentrates, generalized and brought under certain scientific bases. The philosophy of education feels special need for directing modern philosophical and general scientific knowledge on studying of regularities of development of the philosophy of education, on disclosure of yet not studied its subject and methodological uniqueness, on detection of its historically unique features. It is still a little told about role of this sort of large-scale informative projects in destiny of the opening essentially new relations between philosophy and science in general. Article purpose - to open features of the philosophy of education relating to essentially new type of modern branch interdisciplinary and social and culturological researches. The organizing force of philosophy of education in relation to promptly extending empirical and theoretical massifs of researches is explained by its ability to place emphasis on subject variety and open methodological dialogicity of industry publications. This subject and methodological variety is considered in article in aspect of its form and content. The form is set by a large number of printing streams. On the one hand, the structure of these streams decides according to the general theoretical fundamentals of philosophy of education, and on another, - each of printing participants carries out presentation of a private subject and method of the research. In «form» internal and external its parties differ. The inside of a form is turned directly to education, and external - is always burdened with social and economic conditions of its existence. The special attention is paid to research of optimum ways of realization of theoretical knowledge in practice. Expansion and updating of base of innovative knowledge began to have a strategic importance for the countries of the modern world. It is accepted to call this process now a knowledge ekonomization which became the reason of significant increase in number of publications about scientific and methodical bases of development of training programs of the latest generation. The status of a research trend was received by the concept of the praktiko-focused training. In the concept the attention to individual qualities of the personality in the course of training of the master or the expert as direct carriers of innovative knowledge is strengthened. The emphasis is placed on value of «the competence-based principle» in training. Thus, the education philosophy, more and more distinctly finds ability to interdisciplinary researches with open subject and methodological borders.



2.
Genesis of the research education concept: from Kant to the knowledge society

A. O. Karpov
Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2-nd Baumanskaya str., ap. 5, p. 1, Moscow, 105005, Russia
Keywords: education, history, culture, genesis, university, school, learning/teaching, research, innovations

Abstract >>
The paper deals with the cultural and historical roots and the genesis of the research education concept from the perspective of the knowledge society development. The challenge is to clarify the origin of the modern model of science education of a research type and to determine the trends of its development. The preamble shows the key role of research education in the development of the knowledge society. The socioeconomic framework of the knowledge society is the creation of new knowledge and its innovative use. This is a result of the research function of thinking which is fostered by the science education of a research type. Such education uses methods of cognition inherent in scientific research; it is instituted in the cluster-online forms and distributed in educational and scientific innovative environment. Modern education, both higher and secondary, while moving towards the knowledge society, acquires a paradigmatically differentiated structure. Research education becomes its cultural-producing locus, which provides an end-to-end prevailing character of education in secondary and higher educational institutions that was previously separated. I. Kant put the search and «public presentation of the truth», which are usually provided by the Department of Philosophy, into the idea of University. Later, through the Department of Philosophy, natural sciences penetrated into the university education. In the 19th century, the Humboldt University of Berlin was built on the idea of connection between research and teaching rather than between research and education. The University in the industrial epoch required the student’s participation in research, which was becoming a part of the learning process. However, its mission was education and research, i.e., the searching work was a part of training, but did not determine its content and structure as a whole. At the end of the 20th century, scientific research became a genetic part of the university education of a research type in which research was used as a training method. They began to form the learning process and cognitive thinking. The influence of the «Russian school of training for engineers», formed in the second half of the 19th century in IMTU (now the Bauman MSTU), on the genesis of the research education concept in the world is shown in the present paper. The conceptual principles of the new educational episteme are examined, which were formulated in the theory of knowledge society, the theory having been created by P. Drucker in 1940-1960-ies. Drucker's ideas on the innovation system of society have been implemented by the beginning of the new century in the Western universities, which began to play a leading role in the commercial development of scientific knowledge and became a key link in implementing the ideology of research excellence in the EU. The studies conducted in the United States and Western Europe, have shown the fundamental role of secondary education in the formation of research competences. To implement this task, it is necessary to form educational partnerships of schools, universities and research organizations to build successive training based on the principles of investigative cognition. The analysis of traditional ideas, proceeding from I. Kant and W. Humboldt, shows that such a task is new to the school institution. The issues of enhancement of the socio-cultural space have been actively discussed since the middle of the 20th century. During this period, the task of creative teaching of schoolchildren began to be resolved in the United States at the State level; in a number of European countries, the evolution in the direction of using education as a means to identify and train talented and gifted children from all social groups was taking place. In the 80’s, the promotion of research activities in school became an integral part of human potential development policies implemented by the European Commission. In Russia, the development of modern models of research education in secondary and higher educational institutions started to be implemented under the influence of «The Step into the Future» Program in the early 1990’s. Thus, the educational institution of a research type - the university and school - appears at the end of the industrial era, in the late 20th century. Research education is being formed as a separate part of the paradigmatically differentiated system of education in the society developing towards the knowledge society.



3.
Transfer of culture and/or development in activity: the German-Russian and Anglo-Saxon models of education

M. A. Abramova1,2, V. V. Krasheninnikov3, H. Liberska4, M. Farnika5
1Institute of Philosophy and Law, Nikolaeva str., 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, str. Pirogova, 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Novosibirsk state pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
4Casimir the Great University, Bydgoszcz, Poland, Jana Karola Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz, Poland
5University of Zielona Gora, Poland, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra, Poland
Keywords: paradigm of education, didactic encyclopedism, didactic utilitarianism, German-Russian and Anglo-Saxon education systems

Abstract >>
In the article the educational concepts which became a basis of formation of the Anglo-Saxon and German-Russian education systems are analyzed. The basic principles, the specifics of their realization in the construction of educational process, the difference in perception of the teacher’s role are revealed. The authors note that, in the didactic encyclopedism concept, the criteria of assessment of the efficiency of pupils’ educational activity have become, first of all, the volume, systematic character of the gained knowledge, the analysis ability, the quality of humanitarian training of specialists. The strategy of the training material exposition was based on the principle of deduction. This approach formed the basis of the German-Russian education system, as well as the education systems of some countries of Eastern Europe. In opposition to it there is a concept of didactic utilitarianism, the foundation of the Anglo-Saxon education system, which is characterized by realization of the activity approach and the emphasis on the development of personality in the course of acquiring empirical experience. The existence of such opposition within the educational systems of the USA, Russia and Europe is conditioned by the history of development of the countries. Presently, there takes place interpenetration of ideas, concepts and approaches. Thus, for the Anglo-Saxon system there becomes important not only the experience formation, but also a certain knowledge of the individual, including in the field of humanities. For the German-Russian education system, on the contrary, in the last decades there has been more characteristic drifting away from the principle of fundamentalization of education and strengthening the attention towards the technology of construction of the educational process. Signing by the countries of Europe of the Bologna declaration has only aggravated the situation of revision of educational paradigms, which can have both constructive and destructive consequences for the preservation of national specifics of educational systems. As one of the ways of harmonization of the unfolding changes is the idea of «Education throughout life» (or the principle of continuity of education), which is to become a mechanism of adaptation of the individual and his/her overcoming the difficulties of transition. But the German-Russian model of education, whose focus is on the fundamental nature of knowledge, has turned out to be less adapted for the realization of this principle in difference unlike the Anglo-Saxon education system where responsibility for the obtained educational result is entirely laid on the student. Thus, the authors have come to a conclusion that the change of educational paradigms not only promotes development, but also can easily become a factor causing a loss by the education system of the basic principle of implementation of educational activity, the principle of cultural congruence.



4.
Problematics of the studies on teachers’ education in the publications of Russian researchers of the XXI century

N. V. Chekaleva, N. S. Makarova, Yu. B. Drobotenko
Omsk State Pedagogical University, International str., 6, Omsk, Omsk, 644000, Russia
Keywords: teachers’ education, teachers’ training, pedagogical research, pedagogical science studies, content-analysis, keyword analysis, focus-group, scientific knowledge, informational model of science, science publication, methodology of pedagogy

Abstract >>
The authors give a review of the publications of Russian researchers that have been studying problems of teachers’ education in the period 2000-2015. The article presents an analysis of the ongoing status of pedagogical science; the characteristics of modern teachers’ education and characteristics of pedagogical studies; description of the problematics of pedagogical studies and description of the main directions of pedagogical studies; the expert and focus-group evaluation of the directions identified in the article. While discussing the ongoing status of pedagogical science, the authors underline the intensity of such processes as integration and differentiation, the development of problematic field of pedagogical studies, the increase in the number of publications, the qualitative growth in scientific-pedagogical knowledge, the enrichment of conceptual apparatus of pedagogical science and the development of the structure of pedagogy. In the article, it is then pointed out that some humanitarian strategies and methods are penetrating into pedagogy: interpretation, content-analysis, case-study, modelling, sociometric methods, etc. that give a possibility to get new knowledge about developing pedagogical objects as well as give a qualitative assessment of the accumulated knowledge. Characterizing teachers’ training as a complex object to study, the authors emphasize that the content and structure of pedagogical studies are also becoming more complex and complicated as they reflect the status and development of teachers’ education. With the help of such methods as content-analysis, problematical analysis, keyword analysis, a wide overview of the problematics of the studies of teachers’ training for the last fifteen years is presented in the article. It gives a reason to identify the main research trends in pedagogical studies: the description of the outcomes of teachers’ education and the development of competency-based approach to teachers’ training; practice-oriented principles in teachers’ education; content and structure of teachers’ education; vocational training of teachers; the development of the values of teaching profession; management approaches to teachers’ education; forms, methods and technologies of teachers’ training at all levels of teachers’ education, etc. The authors mention the lack of works in the field of research methodology of teachers’ training, the lack of works devoted to the changes in teachers’ education as well as the lack of integral researches on the history and development of teachers’ education since the year 2000. With the help of the expert and focus-group analysis, an evaluation is presented of the research trends in pedagogical studies; the list of research trends is complemented, in particular, the deficit is identified of comparative studies and studies on the history of teachers’ training with the help of which it would be possible to develop modern practice of teachers’ education; the development of new research trends is forecasted. The article contains some conclusions concerning the topical research trends in pedagogical studies of teachers’ education in modern sociocultural and socioeconomic conditions. The article can be used as a ground for working out one’s research position and a plan of one’s own pedagogical study.



5.
Problems of formation of some qualities of the teacher in the legal educational space

A. V. Pugachev
Novosibirsk state pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: educational system, legal education, legal regulation, lecturer, teacher, competence assessment, competence assessment commission, subject area, professional quality

Abstract >>
In the article there are discussed the problems of formation of some professional qualities of the teacher in the legal educational space of modern Russia. The authors thinks that among the most important professional qualities of the teacher there is the professional knowledge, which includes knowledge of the subject area and pedagogical knowledge; level of communicative culture; commitment to professional growth; and the ability to reflect. Despite the fact that the professional qualities of the teacher largely determine the effectiveness of the educational system, the question of formation of these qualities is actually outside the framework of the legal education space. Based on the analysis of the provisions of the Russian legislation, the author comes to the following conclusions. The state, represented by the legislative power, confined itself to declarative rules in this matter, leaving to the executive authorities of the Federal or the Federal entity level to solve this problem. These organs, in turn, has delegated the corresponding authority to the competence assessment commissions, not providing them with specific criteria and algorithms for assessment of the amount of knowledge of the teacher in the subject, psychological and educational spheres, as well as not providing specific forms of participation in the certification of the public associations and pedagogical educational institutions. Thus, the question of the minimum amount of knowledge in the subject area and relevant psychological and pedagogical knowledge has been left to the teacher to decide upon.



6.
Search of the value foundations of upbringing in modern Russian education

N. V. Nalivayko1,2, T. S. Kosenko1
1Novosibirsk state pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
2Institute of Philosophy and Law, Nikolaeva str., 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: philosophy of education, cultural conformity, socio-cultural approach, value framework, integration, globalization, market economy, crisis, education policy

Abstract >>
The article shows that the value characteristics of the process of education and the entire educational space are conditioned by social bases. The direction and content of the process of orientation of students towards certain values are always determined by the system of values of the teacher and society, are subject to constant changes due to evolution of social values, the values of national and global human culture. The article raises the issue that the main reserve of improving education, improving its quality in the context of axiology is the personal potential of the trainee and the trainer. In this axiological field there is always a possibility of interpenetration of the real and potential, new and old, actual and potential, subjective and objective. At the turning points of the development of society, the fundamental state-political objectives and public interests radically change, there is a change in the system of social and personal values and social priorities, resulting in a change of values in the education system, changes in its axiological nature. It is in this relationship that the interconnection is manifested of social foundations and axiological nature of education, which is in need of further philosophical reflection. A special attention is paid in the article to the problem of educational activities as a part of historical and cultural practices and socio-cultural activities. It is shown that the link between education and culture is observed from the earliest periods of the institute of education, because the culture is constantly reproduced through education. Therefore, the paradigm of education must inevitably be culture-corresponding to the type of culture in which the subjects of the educational process live. The paradigm of education must be aimed at mastering the achievements of the education system and their reproduction, adopting the adequate socio-cultural norms, a reproduction of the society's culture and identity through training and education of individuals.



7.
Social-philosophical aspects of the problems of engineering education in the context of information culture

I. A. Pfanenshtil, M. P. Yatsenko, I. G. Borisenko
Siberian Federal University, Svobodnyy prospekt, 82, Krasnoyarsk, 660130, Russia
Keywords: information society, information culture, problems of engineering education

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the major challenges faced by the teachers and students of technical colleges, a significant portion of them being conditioned by rejection of the best traditions of Soviet education. The authors offer concrete solutions to the problems of engineering education, based on the latest information technologies. The analysis of the social-philosophical aspects of the problems of modern engineering education includes taking into consideration the ambiguity of influence of modern information technologies on the educational system as a social institution which acts in a traditional domestic manner: as a unity of training and upbringing. Informatization of the society not only fundamentally changes the education system, but also creates new problems in it which are particularly sharply manifested in engineering education. For free orientation in the information space the person should have the information culture as a component of general culture; however, in the engineering education today there are a number of problems in this respect. Increasing the prestige of engineering professions is a priority in the modernization of the Russian science, because the technological modernization of the country depends largely on engineers and designers. To achieve this goal it is necessary to form a new generation of engineers which are able to create, maintain and develop innovative technological solutions. In addition, one of the main goals of engineering education is not only preparing the professionally educated specialist, able to make independent decisions, but also the formation of the skill of successful entry into the labor market, the development of active life position, the mastering of the ability of further self-development of personality. It is important to emphasize here that in today's world, education is seen not only as information and communication tools and the mechanism of translation and dissemination of knowledge, but also as a social institution of spiritual and moral development of the individual as the basis of socialization, active inclusion into various spheres of social life.



8.
Media-upbringing as an answer to the challenges of our time

E. A. Avdeeva
Prof. V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Str. partisan Zheleznyak, 1, Krasnoyarsk, 660022, Russia
Keywords: upbringing, media-upbringing, media, culture, information

Abstract >>
In the conditions of formation of media-pedagogy, media-upbringing begins to identify itself. In the foreign literature it is presented as a scientific discipline concerned with the issues of upbringing in the context of media, which aims to help the younger generation to better adapt to the world of media-culture, to master the language of media, to learn how to analyze the media texts. The purpose of the article is to identify the characteristics of the space of media-upbringing and of media-upbringing as new directions in the philosophy of education and pedagogy. The content of the article reveals the problems associated with the formation of media-upbringing, provides a concept of media, and considers the need of classification of the media instruments in upbringing. Modern media, which include all media (press, cinema, TV, internet resources) are working today on the formation of the consumer type of personality, which inevitably leads to a number of problems: unreliability (or direct distortion) of the real facts; ideologization/commercialization of media; low ethical level with the destruction of the moral and cultural norms of behaviors and vocabulary. Such a state of media and the media space requires an appropriate control from the part of the state, and from the educational institutions. Therefore, the issues of identity formation of the younger generation in the conditions of media space are becoming more and more relevant, and the research of the tool for their solution, media-upbringing, a social order of the society. Currently in the media-pedagogy there is still lacking a unified for all countries terminology. As a rule, not only scientific schools, but some individual scientists suggest various formulations of such key notions as «media education», «media culture», «media literacy» and finally «media-upbringing». The diversity of approaches in the treatment of these concepts is related to the fact that the role of mass media, the methodology of constructing the spaces of media-upbringing and the mechanisms of action of media and technology in shaping the personality are still in their infancy. Therefore there is an urgent need for philosophical understanding of the situation, as a result of which there will be clarified, first of all, the new spiritual directions which improve the effectiveness of upbringing. An important role in this process is played by the use of the new possibilities offered by media and technologies, the study of the contemporary media-upbringing space and the concept of «media-upbringing».



9.
On preservation of the human in the human being and the natural in nature

N. V. Komova, V. V. Gusarenko, D. A. Nozdrin
Prof. V. F. Voino-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Guerrilla Zheleznyak, 1, Krasnoyarsk, 660022, Russia
Keywords: human being, nature, society, civilization, progress, biosphere, noosphere, education, humanities and natural sciences, information, understanding, co-evolution, universal organizational science

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to a topical problem of today: the condition of the biosphere and the perspectives of future existence of the Homo sapiens species. The formation of a new strategy in the relationship between humans and nature, the development of a new concept of education are the duty of not only scientists but also philosophers. Humanity today faces a global change related to ecology, demography, education, medicine, nuclear safety, life support resources. The relationship between nature and society, the impact of scientific and technological progress, irreversible environmental changes affect humanity and every human being. The development of nature, as well as the development of society, proved to be extremely unstable. The very future of humanity is at stake. Humans have become hostages to their own scientific and technological power. The concern about the consequences of scientific and technological progress is common for physicists, biologists, doctors, and philosophers. Modern society is entering into the information stage of development, rationalizing of the entire social life is becoming not only possible but essential. An understanding has come that the most important factor in resolving these difficulties is education of people without which it will be impossible to solve the problem of survival of humanity and biosphere. The interest toward natural environment and the usage of technical progress unites today the scientists and the experts in humanities. Only the united humanity can hope for a favorable result, for the future. Over the past 30-40 years in the philosophical and natural science literature there have been formed a doctrine of noosphere, or a sphere of reason which appeared together with humans. At a certain stage of human development, knowledge and information have become guarantors of human prosperity. There arises a necessity of providing people with education in order to prevent the onset of the crisis situation in the «biosphere - human being» system. Only a society which is educated and has enough qualified professionals will be able to enter the era of noosphere. The proposed notes are our humble attempt to take at least some part in the fate of the world.



10.
A difficult task: between «evaluation» and «validation»

A. Cosentino
University of Naples, Via Porta di Massa, 1, Italy
Keywords: evaluation, docimology

Abstract >>
My reflections are focused on both the epistemological and educational dimensions of evaluation. In this view I’m looking for some answers to questions like the followings: in which kind of knowledge-theory has to be included the evaluation?, which is the function to be assigned to the evaluation?, who evaluates and from what point of view? When evaluation becomes a professional performance aimed at assessing a program, it makes ends and means separated and the main value, which works as criterion for evaluation appears to be the success of a product. Such kind of evaluation is applied from the outside on selected outcomes of a whole process and reveals its positivistic roots. On the contrary, when considered from the inside of the process, evaluation assumes different meanings and functions. If this is the case, it works as a “game”, a social practice that becomes capable of self-evaluation, once the course of reflection is set going. In this perspective, evaluation appears as nothing but one side of the inquiry going on and, as far as its general direction, it will accord with a constructivist epistemology. At the end, evaluation expresses on the whole the caring-side of thinking, either as appraising (weighing up) or as prizing (assigning value) attitude. As far as the educational scenario is concerned, both evaluation from the outside and form the inside are operating within the majority of school systems. It is clear that the outside evaluation is prevailing with centralized and bureaucratic school systems, which prefer uniform and formal curricula. On the contrary, it is the inside evaluation which better helps to reach the results when adopting curricula that pay attention to local needs and, moreover, are sensitive to psychological (personal differences) and sociological (specificity of contexts) variables.



11.
Edifying and systematic philosophies in Richard Rorty’s works

O. I. Tselishcheva
Tomsk State University, Pr. Lenina, 36, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: edifying philosophy, systematic philosophy, pragmatism, hermeneutics, conversation of the mankind, argument, truth

Abstract >>
The article deals with the distinction made by R. Rorty of two types of philosophy: edifying and systematic, which correlates with that of analytical and continental philosophy. One aspect of the opposition of analytic and continental philosophy concerns the style of presenting the teachings and theories, methods of appealing to readers, ultimately, in the organization of the discipline. The essence of edifying philosophy, according to Rorty, is to maintain a conversation, rather than to seek objective truth. In order to make such a division among philosophers plausible, Rorty was forced to introduce yet another distinction, on normal and revolutionary philosophers. It is shown that, to justify his dichotomy of «systematic philosophy/edifying philosophy», Rorty was forced to discuss a number of other dichotomies: «analytic philosophy/continental philosophy», «systematic philosophy/didactically philosophy», «normal philosophy/revolutionary philosophy. And finally, in the framework of revolutionary philosophy we have a dichotomy that has no clear outlines, as characterized by the ratio to the institutionalization and commensurate with tradition. The intricate scheme of relations of these dichotomies is resolved suddenly in favor of edifying philosophers, intentionally peripheral in relation to traditions, making the whole hierarchy of dichotomies simply unnecessary. Edifying philosophy rejects the idea of penetration into the essence of reality, offering different views of the role of philosophy. Instead of a systematic search of the eternal truths, it offers a «Conversation of Mankind». Such approach excludes the main feature of philosophy, the argument. As a consequence, edifying philosophers are «partners in conversation», and their goal is not to search for objective truth, but the continuation of the conversation itself, and maintaining such a conversation is quite sufficient for the purpose of philosophy. In edifying philosophy, hermeneutics is used instead of reasoning in order to understand the partner in conversation. Edifying philosophy is based on the interpretation of acts that avoid institutionalization, having a great deal of arbitrariness in comparison even with the vaguest arguments. Interpretation pretends to be the only conceptual tool in the cognition of the world. As an example, the philosophers who prefer hermeneutics to arguments, according to Rorty, are exemplified by Gadamer and Sartre. There is a fundamental contradiction in the philosophy of Richard Rorty, who throughout his career continuously «involved» the most diverse philosophers in the «conversation of mankind», which has more or less contingent character. At the same time, Rorty denies some of these philosophers who should participate in the «conversation» of the need to argue their case, assuming that the admonitory strategy of these philosophers is the most successful. And the other part of the participants of the same «conversation» - systematic philosophy - is denied in the useful arguments, considering it as simply unnecessary. It is hard to imagine such a fruitful conversation between two groups of philosophers, each of which clings to its own standards of philosophizing. Reconciliation, which offers Rorty, based on his pragmatic vision of the entire philosophical enterprise, is largely a utopian project, which vulnerability is increasing with the growing schism of «two cultures».



12.
Traditional system of values of modern Buryats (on the example of the ethnical group of Barguzin Buryats)

V. V. Lygdenova1, O. B. Dashinamzhilov2
1Institute arheology and etnographii, Pr. Akad. Lavrentieva, 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of History of SB RAS, Nikolaeva str., 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: values, traditions, rituals, the Buryats, culture, religion

Abstract >>
The present article is dedicated to studying the traditional values of Barguzin Buryats and to revealing the factors that contribute to the formation of national consciousness. The values of education, family, children and knowledge of the own history and native language are considered. The objectives of the paper are to identify the changes in the role and functional mindsets in the family, their consequences and to consider the factors contributing to the development of national consciousness despite the ongoing assimilation. Barguzin Buryats are chosen as the research object because they constitute an ethnic group which is least susceptible to modern modernization processes, since they are living in a remote territory and still retain traditional values. However, presently they are also undergoing profound changes. In this work, there is carried out for the first time a detailed analysis of the transformation of the traditional values of modern Barguzin Buryats; there are used the field data, interviews, statistical and historical data, as well as the national census data for 2002 and 2010 for the Republic of Buryatia. The main conclusion is that, on one hand, there is identified such trends as the transition to a family model with a small number of children and decreasing of the number of Buryat people speaking their native language; on the other hand, there is growing interest among the population towards ancestry, religion and national ceremonies. Religious syncretism is a unique feature of the worldview of Barguzin Buryats and characterizes one of the stages in the evolution of religious beliefs.



13.
The culture of conscience in the society of nomads in Central Asia

G. D. Sundui
Institute of the Development of the National School of the Republic of Tyva, Str. Êalinina 1b, Kyzyl, 667005, Russia
Keywords: conscience, culture of conscience, attitude, spiritually, morality, value, identity, tradition, upbringing

Abstract >>
This study deals with the problem of spiritual and moral formation of the growing generation of modern society and presents an attempt to reveal the culture of conscience in the society of nomads in Central Asia, particularly, in the society of Tuvinians. The research is conducted in the places of compact settlement of Tuvinians: in West Mongolia, in China (Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang Uygur region) and in the Republic of Tyva (Russia). The culture of conscience is interpreted by the author as a conscious oriented activity of a collective consciousness, aimed at the formation of a conscientious attitude of the person to him/herself and others, nature, external world, family, culture, and society. During the study, the forms of expression of the positions of the culture of conscience are determined; the interaction is revealed between conscience and collective consciousness in the process of formation, preservation and development of the basic (unchangeable) moral values in the conditions of appearance of internal and external threats; the role of conscientious mindsets within the «suzukteer» upbringing tradition of Tuvan people is described. The author considers the culture of conscience as a genetically tuned defense mechanism in the system of relationship of person to him/herself and others, nature, external world, family, culture and society. The results of studying the sphere of conscience in the society of nomads greatly expand the subject field of the modern pedagogical knowledge, thereby helping to create the directions of spiritual-moral formations of children in modern conditions based on the principle of ethnic-cultural connotations of education.



14.
Technical-analytical competence and the artistic-figurative content as the basic components of the exercise drawing

K. A. Kravchenko
Novosibirsk state pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: exercise drawing, technical-analytical competence, artistic image, professional perception, artistic thinking, creative interpretation

Abstract >>
The author analyzes the content of the exercise drawing, the structure of which includes the technical-analytical competence and the artistic-figurative component. In the pictorial activities these two principles are inseparable. Activation of creative thinking improves the quality of the image, whereas the in-depth study of the scientific foundations of educational drawing helps in creating a convincing artistic image. The article notes that the process of learning the drawing techniques is based on the development of such mental and cognitive processes as perception and thinking. The process of perception is based on the task of creating the image. The results of perception are processed through the operations of thought. In the exercise drawing, the image creation process is built on a permanent combination of analysis and synthesis. Drawing any object from nature, the student analyzes the design shape, spatial position, the distribution of light and shade and other features and regularities of the model. The result is an abstraction of one or more properties or characteristics of the studied phenomenon. However, the abstraction is not an end in itself but only a means of knowledge of the whole; after abstraction there comes generalization as a result of synthesis. The lack of artistic synthesis that combines all the characteristics and properties of nature, linking them into a coherent artistic drawing, explains typical of many drawings scattered, chaotic character, dispersion of the composition. The task of the pedagogue in the process of teaching the drawing techniques is to direct the attention of the student from the live observation to abstraction, for example, from the external forms of a natural object to its design, proportions, internal rhythmic organization, which determine the character of a complex shape. When drawing from life, the student must learn to combine the results of living contemplation and abstract thinking. Learning the technical- analytical side of the drawings process, it is necessary to understand that it should not be the only task of learning, especially in the senior years of studying, when the foundations of a creative approach to art are being laid. The possibilities of acquiring pictorial competence in the creative process are greatly enhanced, it is just important to provide it with problematic situations of a cognitive character, i.e., the situations where the student is given the opportunity to solve the artistic tasks of creating an artistic image in the exercise drawing by way of his/her own conclusions.



15.
Artistry in a context of emotional-aesthetic development

D. M. Spektor
Institute of Art Education of the Russian Academy of Education, Str. Pogodinskaya, 8, korp. 1, Moscow, 119435, Russia
Keywords: art education, aesthetic development, emotions, typical and unique situations, spontaneity

Abstract >>
The diverse apologetics has not managed to fix a clearly delineated purpose for the sphere of art development. The change of the established evaluations is possible only with the change of general views on the sphere of emotions. Its reconsideration significantly changes also the purpose and structure of the artistic-aesthetic development. The methodologically consistent extraction of a «teaching process situation» out of the framework of mastering the known and putting it into the «here and now» context, making accent on the contextual perception-action serve as a methodological reference point of the planned transformations. Culture is called to cultivate a number of basal instincts in the human being. In the historically first form of a cult it initiated the defense instinct, or an ecstatic condition, in which inhibition was realized of the reflectory schemes of reaction (including the most significant self-preservation instinct), while triggering the collective-spontaneous reactions. Transcendental aesthetics absorbs this primary thing as a spontaneous reaction to unique situations together with their addressing the group in the form of requirements of harmonization, expressiveness and playing with such type of situations as the general-cultural attitude towards the world. Returning its original missions to aesthetics requires its rethinking, including in terms of didactics, as a developed systems of skills of aesthetical (inspiring a group spirit) shaping of spontaneous initiatives. The further rethinking of ontological subcurrent of didactics can be seen in shifting of the accents of art development from mastering the technical-pictorial skills and «the history of arts» to the general conditions of development of emotional sphere. And within its framework the first role should be taken by the purposes and practical tasks of arts (in their original role of turning to the unique) or «art» in its deftness of turning the everyday experience into a poem. In the most general form, the conclusion from the above would be the methodologically consistent extraction of a «teaching process situation» out of the framework of «mastering the known and established» and putting into the context of «event» while making accent on the situational-spontaneous perception-action. In light of the proposed interpretation, the mastering of aesthetics is an intense work of self-improvement. First of all, it is a fundamental reworking of the sphere of «direct experience», which is substituted by the consciously formed openness with respect to inner sources of harmony (synthesis). It is also re-orientation of development towards its true subject, the sphere of the one-time and unique, which initiates, in particular, going out of the limits of natural separateness (the sublime), and, at the same time, keeping the frames of the beautiful (inner-ordered game of emotions). Ultimately, it is cultivation of the «harmonious person» not inside the monastery walls, in the monastery cells or studios, but in the environment of joint experiences and actions.



16.
On the concepts of «decorativeness» and «academism» in painting

V. N. Vidineev
Nizhnevartovsk State University, Str. Lenina, 56, Nizhnevartovsk, Tumenskaya oblast, 628600, Russia
Keywords: academic painting, decorative painting, art image, history of art, Russian artists, modern art

Abstract >>
The author analyzes the creative work of artists of the past and tries to reveal the essence of artistic method in the achievement of expressiveness in the creation of an art image. The works of artists are examined in an attempt to determine the degree of convention of depiction and deviation from the photographic naturalism towards decorativeness. Stylization of form results in a certain degree of convention in the composition and coloristic manner, and also originality in the painting technique (i.e. in the manner of painting). And, most importantly, in the creation of a work of decorative painting it is necessary to decide on the degree of convention in stylization of a real image. And this depends on the level of art taste of the artist, on the degree of his/her skills and on the aesthetic ideas. However, while solving creative problems, conventionalizing the images of the characters and subjects of the image, one may lose all meanings in the image. The necessity of defining the concepts of «decorativeness» and «academism» in painting arose in connection with the appearance of two types of painting, the traditional academic and decorative ones, in the curricula for the future teachers of fine and decoratively-applied art. The concepts of decorativeness and academism should be separated. When performing educational tasks, accurate differentiation is necessary of the forthcoming tasks. Perhaps, it makes sense to depict one setting twice - one in the academic traditions and another, in the decorative one - and, then, to compare the works. In the article it is noted that, despite the opposition and distinctions of the tasks in these disciplines, there takes place interpenetration of techniques in painting. The elements of decorativeness are able to strengthen the emotional perception of artistic work, whereas the knowledge of laws of realistic image (and this is the basis of academic manner) helps creating the works of decorative art. The teacher's task in the course of training is to accurately differentiate the tasks of these two disciplines. The understanding by the students of the difference of the tasks which they face will help to master these disciplines and to solve the creative tasks in the independent professional activity.



17.
Psychological and pedagogical aspects of the painting training of the Bachelors of pedagogical education

B. G. Gagarin
Nizhnevartovsk State University, Str. Lenina, 56, Nizhnevartovsk, Tumenskaya oblast, 628600, Russia
Keywords: painting, integrity of perception, problem situation, abstract thinking, natural image

Abstract >>
The author analyzes the process of students’ mastering the knowledge of painting. It is noted that only the practical side in the painting training cannot satisfy the requirements of modern school. Besides possession of practical skills, the teacher must build the educational process to achieve maximum efficiency of training on the basis of understanding of psycho-physiological structure of cognitive activity of students. The understanding of training material in such discipline as painting has to appear in the expediency of performance of these or those actions which are applied by the student in the course of depicting the nature. The author focuses attention on that only in the course of thinking the student can comprehend more and more deep structures of the form and color of the represented object, and all this is achieved through the abstraction from the less important, non-essential elements. Therefore, the ability to think abstractly is necessary for the artist. It is necessary to teach this to the students, because without this many moments in the fine arts will be simply unthinkable and the graduate, incompetent. A starting point of initiation of cogitative activity of the student in the course of depicting the nature is the creation of a problem situation. It can be expressed through some difficulty which has appeared, for example, in connection with new picturesque tasks. The problem situation is present in each new educational task and aims at awakenings of the need of the students to put into practice the earlier acquired knowledge and skills. Not less important quality in the course of painting activity is the integrity of visual perception. It is exactly taking into account this condition that the entire system of the artistic depicting of nature is built. It is known that process of artistic depiction cannot be considered as a process of mechanical putting of some color spots on a sheet of paper. The artist is faced with more complex tasks of finding and transferring the real tone and color relations which are connected in the nature with the artist's reasoning in the course of comparison of one subject with another. For the full cognition of an object, the artist needs to reveal and understand its connections with other neighboring objects both with respect to tone and color. Thus, in the course of teaching painting, which in comparison with other fine arts possesses a possibility of the fullest reproduction of the appearance and properties of objects and phenomena, the question consists in how to direct the student towards a correct visual perception of the nature, which is the main component of pedagogical skills.



18.
Formation of the images of representation in the course of portrait drawing

A. V. Golosai
Nizhnevartovsk State University, Str. Lenina, 56, Nizhnevartovsk, Tumenskaya oblast, 628600, Russia
Keywords: drawing, portrait, representation, artistic image, perception, comparison, generalized form

Abstract >>
In the article the author indicates that among the diverse problems of studying of drawing, a problem of identification of a figurative and spatial system in the portrait is among the most significant and the most difficult ones for the students. Therefore it is necessary to direct students to representation of difficult spatial forms in the simplified schematic constructions, including of the human head which, in its basis, is related to a certain volume-spatial design. It is noted that for centuries-old history of development of the fine arts, many artists-teachers have been developing various simplified schemes of drawing the head and figure of the person, proceeding from the analysis of the elementary geometrical forms. There are many methods of carrying out drawing which represent various approaches to construction of the volume shape of the head; moreover, it is very important that they supplement each other and, in general, give the most complete idea of the design of this form. The purpose of all settings in educational drawing is not studying the means of depiction, but mastering a system of construction of an art form and space. In addition, it is necessary to know that a realistic drawing has nothing in common with simple copying of the nature. Its task is to transform observations into an artistic image. Development of the ideas about form and space is a difficult process directly depending on physiological, mental and intellectual development of the person. To develop understanding of the students concerning modeling of form, identification of its constructive basis, there are used various theories of light-and-shade, aerial perspective etc. For example, in the portrait it is impossible to separate the form from the content; there is a stable connection between the construction being formed and the searches for an expressive form. Here everything is equally important as portrait drawing is a harmonious whole. Working on the condition of a portrait image, the artist necessarily works on its form, whereas its searches, in many respects, determine the feeling of the artwork, its artistic image. A generalized form facilitates the further perspective construction of the tonal surfaces forming the head, revealing nuances and prompting an arrangement on them of finer details, allowing understanding a volume form as a tonal harmony. Each of these planes is lit differently and differently characterizes the form. But even at such initial stage of generalization it is impossible to draw conditionally a roughly planned scheme; in drawing a live form all these planes can be represented in the mind. In drawing a live nature, a conditional scheme has to be only some guidance in the work, as a means of conscious drawing a model. It must help to understand the essence of a live form in order to reproduce later a real, live form of the head.



19.
Epistemological problems of intuitive thinking in mathematical education

N. I. Sidnyaev
Bauman Moscow State University, St. 2-nd Baumanskaya, 5, Moscow, 105005, Russia
Keywords: mathematics, modernization, philosophy, cognition, intuition, methodology, space, concept, education

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the analysis of dialectics of the intuitive and formal in the cognition of fundamental disciplines. It discusses the specifics of physics and mathematics as sciences which study a complex of constructive features of human intellect. The article also considers the philosophical importance of formal substantiation of exact sciences, the place and role of intuitive moments in mathematics education, as well as the nature of aesthetics in mathematics as an expression of unity of the formal and intuitive moments in scientific cognition. A considerable attention is paid to the subject of mathematics and scientific study of the dialectics of the formal and intuitive in cognition. The existence of non-material entities, which cannot be observed or captured by conventional means and in the usual state of consciousness, is denied in principle. The feelings associated with these entities will inevitably be attributed to the world of altered states of consciousness and intuition, and, in terms of philosophy, be interpreted as a distortion of reality, appearing somehow in the sensory perception of the objectively existing elements. The concept of intuition in mathematics, considered in a philosophical context, only reaffirms, at best, an important for the theory of knowledge fact that there exist the statements and principles of mathematical knowledge which appear direct for the modern consciousness. In this case, intuitionism refuses to further philosophically investigate the genesis of this directness, so philosophically it is not going forward. Consideration of mathematics as a science, the provisions of which are in need of empirical justification, raises a number of specific issues before the philosophy of mathematics, for example: what is observed in the empirical mathematics, that is, which type of mathematical propositions can be tested in practice? The position and aspirations of mathematical intuitionism have as their premise a negative attitude of the intuitionists to absolutization of logical and formal foundations of mathematics.



20.
About the problems of students’ volitional self-regulation at the physical culture classes in the higher education institution (a value-educational aspect)

I. V. Yakovleva, N. K. Fedorova, S. L. Margaryan, S. A. Strukova
Novosibirsk state pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: value-motivational content of the sport activity, volitional sphere, volitional qualities, volitional self-regulation, volitional activity, motivational and stimulating readiness, sense-forming values

Abstract >>
The paper presents an analysis of two year’s research carried out in PE classes at the Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University. The study presents an analysis of students’ volitional activity in relation to the value and educational content of sports and recreational activities. We take into account the fact that the volitional experience, caused not only by physical but also the value-motivational sense-content, is able to change the person in the ontogenetic scale. The functional asymmetry of the properties of the nervous system with respect to psychomotor performance was studied and analyzed for the first year students of a special medical group. The different methods of self-assessment of the students’ own willpower were used during the research along with interpretation of the technique of backbone strength which is characterized by certain specific manifestation of willpower in a particular activity .The relationship of semantic values manifestation with physical stress and reflection is revealed on the basis of the projective technique of research of students’ value-motivational attitude toward physical education. The article also discusses the basic mechanisms of volitional self-regulation, such as self-constraint, self-mobilization, including emotions and self-stimulation, the ability of not only desiring (setting a goal) but also manifesting activity, giving a sense to the activity, binding activity to the existing needs of the person. The authors formulate recommendations on the necessity of forming the semantic orientations on the health-centered ideological paradigm within the applied physical culture.