Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia



Advanced Search

Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2013 year, number 2

1.
Low–Waste OnePot Process for Obtaining Anthraquinone through Diene Synthesis in the Presence of the Solutions of Heteropolyacids

L. L. GOGIN, E. G. ZHIZHINA and Z. P. PAI
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
gogin@catalysis.ru
Keywords: anthraquinone, heteropolyacids, diene synthesis
Pages: 115119

Abstract >>
Acid catalytic condensation of 1,3-butadiene with para -quinones and the oxidation of resulting adducts can be performed in one technological stage in the presence of the aqueous solutions of –VP heteropolyacids (HPA) of general composition HaPzMoyVxOb. These solutions possess bifunctional catalytic properties being strong Brønsted acids and rather strong reversibly acting oxidizers at the same time. The condensation of 1,4-naphthoquinone with 1,3-butadiene in HPA solutions leads to obtaining 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) in mixture with tetrahydroanthraquinone (THA) and dihydroanthraquinone (DHA). In the course of a single-stage process without organic solvents, the HPA solution is reduced and poorly soluble mixture of THA, DHA and AQ (up to 50 %) precipitates almost quantitatively from the solution. The yield and purity of AQ can be improved substantially due to the use of organic solvents miscible with water (for example, acetone, 1,4-dioxane), as well as high-vanadium HPA of the composition H15P4Mo18V7O89 and H17P3Mo16V10O89. Optimization of the process allowed us to obtain the product containing not less than 90 % AQ. Results achieved in the work open outlooks for the development of low-waste process for the production of AQ from 1,3-butadiene and 1,4-naphthoquinone.



2.
Nano– and Microparticles of Metals in Urban Atmosphere (by the Example of the Vladivostok and Ussuriysk Cities)

K. S. GOLOKHVAST1, E. V. SOBOLEVA1, P. A. NIKIFOROV1, I. YU. CHEKRYZHOV1, P. P. SAFRONOV2, T. YU. ROMANOVA2, N. K. KHRISTOFOROVA1,3, V. V. CHAIKA1, A. M. PANICHEV1,3 and A. N. GUL'KOV1
1Far East Federal University, Ul. Pushkinskaya 37, Vladivostok 690950 (Russia)
droopy@mail.ru
2Far East Geological Institute, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. 100-letiya Vladivostoka 159, Vladivostok 690022 (Russia)
3Pacific Institute of Geography, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Radio 7, Vladivostok 690041 (Russia)
Keywords: nanoparticles, microparticles, atmospheric aerosol, metals
Pages: 121126

Abstract >>
Atmospheric aerosols inherent in two areas of the Far East cities such as the Vladivostok and Ussuriysk were studied. Three of the 21 pairs of the samples of fresh snow and dry air suspensions taken in different parts of these cities exhibited the presence of iron, chromium, lead and zinc nano- and microparticles. Therewith, the nanoparticles were registered for the samples taken near the electroplating production enterprises, whereas the microparticles were observed near the roads with an intense traffic.



3.
Isolation of Precious Metals Contained in a Gold and Silver Alloy

A. B. LEBED, D. YU. SKOPIN and G. I. MALTSEV
Electromed JSC, Ul. Lenina 1, Verkhnyaya Pyshma 624021 (Russia)
mgi@elem.ru
Keywords: gold, silver, platinum, palladium, nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, nitric oxide, molecular nitrogen, chemical reaction, stoichiometric factor, electrochemical extraction, refining
Pages: 127134

Abstract >>
Studies were performed concerning the process of obtaining noble metals (gold, silver, platinum, palladium) and tellurium, involving the following process stages: dissolving the gold and silver alloy in nitric acid solutions in the presence of ammonium nitrate under the gas phase pressure; purifying the leaching solutions via sorption (from platinum and palladium) and via hydrolytic precipitation (from copper and tellurium); electrochemical extraction of silver-containing solutions to produce cathode silver; conditioning and refining the gold sludge; an electrochemical extraction of eluates containing platinum group metals; obtaining tellurium concentrate. The number and type of linearly independent reactions have been found out for the dissolution of the parent alloy, key components for the stoichiometric description of chemical reactions in the system have been identified. A mathematical evaluation of quantitative changes in the complicated heterogeneous system with polyvalent nitrogen is presented.



4.
Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Natural Objects over the Territory of Scattering the Emissions from the Irkutsk Aluminum Plant (Shelekhov City, the Irkutsk Region)

I. I. MARINAYTE1, A. G. GORSHKOV1, E. N. TARANENKO2, E. V. CHIPANINA1 and T. V. KHODZHER1
1Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,Ul. Ulan-Batorskaya 3, Irkutsk 6640333 (Russia)
marin@lin.irk.ru
2Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Lermontova 132, Irkutsk 664032 (Russia)
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, snow cover, soil, pine and larch needles, water and bottom sediments, urban aerosol
Pages: 135146

Abstract >>
Accumulation levels were determined for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in naturally occurring objects over the territory of dispersing the emissions of the Irkutsk Aluminum Plant “IrkAZ–Sual”: in the snow cover, soil, pine needles (Pinus sylvestris L.) and larch needles (Larix sibirica), in water and the bottom sediments of the. Olkha River, as well as in the near-surface aerosols in Shelekhov City. An estimation was performed for the level of contamination with PAH compounds in the area of the Shelekhov City within the framework of the MPC and background levels, a conclusion has been drawn concerning the distribution of PAH emissions from the source over a limited area. Among the isolated fractions of PAHs, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique there have been identified and determined 14 arenes including those from the list of priority organic pollutants.



5.
Cytotoxic and Immunomodulating Properties of Silver and Platinum Nanocomposites

E. S. MOROZKIN1, I. A. ZAPOROZHCHENKO1, M. V. KHARKOVA1, A. V. CHEREPANOVA1, P. P. LAKTIONOV1, V. V. VLASOV1, B. G. SUKHOV2, G. F. PROZOROVA2, B. A. TROFIMOV2, M. V. KHVOSTOV3 and T. G. TOLSTIKOVA3
1Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 8, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
morozkin@niboch.nsc.ru
2Favorsky Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Favorskogo 1, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia)
3Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Keywords: silver and platinum nanocomposites, primary and transformed cells, cytotoxicity, proinflammatory action
Pages: 147154

Abstract >>
Results of the investigation of cytotoxic and immunomodulating action of silver nanocomposites Ag15 (7.8 % Ag) and Ag13 (5 % Ag) with poly(1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole) and platinum with arabinogalactan on primary and transformed human cells in vitro are presented. It is demonstrated that nanocomposites of metals with biopolymers possess more clearly pronounced cytotoxic effect in comparison with metal nanoparticles and do not induce inflammation in cell lines under investigation. It is established that silver nanocomposite Ag15 possesses selective cytotoxicity with respect to the cells of cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa.



6.
Integrated Method for Recovering Oil Sludge

V. S. OBSYANNIKOVA1, L. I. SVAROVSKAYA1, L. K. ALTUNINA1, D. A. FILATOV1, E. A. FURSENKO2 and V. A. KASHIRTSEV2
1Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademicheskiy 4, Tomsk 634021 (Russia)
varja@ipc.tsc.ru
2Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Keywords: oil sludge, sludge pits, hydrocarbons, surfactants, detergent compositions, hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria, biodestruction, reclamation
Pages: 155162

Abstract >>
Results are presented concerning the recovery of an oil sludge model from the contamination by means of a complex microbiological and physicochemical method. It is demonstrated that washing with a detergent composition results in a 55–75 % decrease of soil contamination level. The subsequent biodestruction by native microflora further reduces the contamination by 2030 % per month. In the case of the mechanical part of the sludge, the microflora is worthwhile for stimulation by nitrogen and phosphorus containing mineral substrates, whereas in the case of spent water the mineral nutrition can be provided by the components of the composition. Changing the structural and group as well as the individual composition of hydrocarbons in the spent water corresponds to the initial stage of biodestruction, whereas that in the washed soil corresponds to the middle stage thereof, which indicates a low activity of the indigenous microflora.



7.
Efficient Combustion of Methane in a Fluidized Bed of Catalyst

A. D. SIMONOV,N. A. YAZYKOV andYU. V. DUBININ
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
simonov@catalysis.ru
Keywords: combustion, fluidized bed catalysis
Pages: 163168

Abstract >>
The process of methane combustion in a fluidized bed of spherical oxide catalyst containing mixed copper and magnesium chromite on toughened alumina (IK–1273) depending on the temperature and the concentration of methane in the mixture with air was studied. It has been demonstrated that the conversion level of methane oxidation into CO2 in the case of the methane content equal to 2 % increases from 72 % at 500 ° to 99 % at 700 . Increasing the concentration of methane to 8 % does not causes reducing the conversion level of methane oxidation within the temperature range 600750 . It has been demonstrated that the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the course of methane combustion at the temperature values ranging within 500750 does not exceed 3.5 ppm. The presence of H2 and CO in the reaction mixture does not causes increasing the conversion level of methane oxidation when the volume ratio CH4/(CO + H2) = 4 : 19.



8.
Cytotoxic and Immunomodulating Properties of Gold Nanoparticles

M. V. KHARKOVA1, A. V. CHEREPANOVA1, E. S. MOROZKIN1, I. A. ZAPOROZHCHENKO1, P. P. LAKTIONOV1, A. A. STRUNOV2, E. V. KISELEVA2, T. G. TOLSTIKOVA3, N. V. SHIKINA4, Z. R. ISMAGILOV4 and V. V. VLASOV1
1Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 8, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
kharkova@niboch.nsc.ru
2Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 10, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
3Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
4Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Keywords: gold nanoparticles, toxicity, immunomodulating properties, primary and transformed cell cultures
Pages: 169178

Abstract >>
Results of the investigation of cytotoxic and immunomodulating properties of gold nanoparticles of different sizes (12, 16, 22 and 35 nm) on primary and transformed cells in vitro are presented. Their localization and distribution in cells are studied. It is established that gold nanoparticles are not toxic within concentration range 0.06–6 μg/mL for all the cell cultures used, actively penetrate into the cell and get accumulated inside the vacuoles of different sizes, selectively activate the anti-inflammatory immune response depending on nanoparticle size and cell type.



9.
Contamination of the Lake Baikal Basin with Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons: the Gusinoye Lake

G. S. SHIRAPOVA1, N. S. UTYUZHNIKOVA1, O. A. RABINA2, A. I. VYALKOV2, S. V. MOROZOV2 and V. B. BATOEV1
1Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Sakhyanovoy 8, Ulan Ude 670047 (Russia)
gshira@yandex.ru
2Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
moroz@nioch.nsc.ru
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Lake Baikal basin
Pages: 179185

Abstract >>
In surface water and bottom sediments of the Gusinoye Lake (the Lake Baikal basin), there were concentration profiles determined for 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It has been found that the total PAH content amounts to 7.1–33.7 ng/L for the surface water and 42.6221.8 ng/g of dry solid matter for bottom sediments. It has been demonstrated that the presence of PAHs in the samples of surface water and bottom sediments of the Gusinoye Lake could mainly be caused by local sources having pyrolytic nature.



10.
Contamination of the Lake Baikal Basin by Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls: the Gusinoye Lake

G. S. SHIRAPOVA1, N. S. UTYUZHNIKOVA1, O. A. RABINA2, A. I. VYALKOV2, S. V. MOROZOV2 and V. B. BATOEV1
1Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Sakhyanovoy 8, Ulan Ude 670047 (Russia)
gshira@yandex.ru
2Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
moroz@nioch.nsc.ru
Keywords: organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, the Lake Baikal basin
Pages: 187195

Abstract >>
In the bottom sediments and surface water of the Gusinoye Lake (the Lake Baikal basin) there were content and profile values for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls determined. An evaluation was performed concerning the ways of coming thereof in the Gusinoye Lake It has been found that the sources of these ecotoxicants are mainly local.



11.
Studies on the Complex Sorption in the System Geotechnogenous SolutionsZeolite Bearing Rocks

E. S. EPOVA, O. V. EREMIN, R. A. FILENKO and G. A. YURGENSON
Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Butina 26, Chita 672014 (Russia)
apikur1@yandex.ru
Keywords: geotechnogenous solutions, zeolite-containing rocks, sorption, ion exchange
Pages: 197200

Abstract >>
Experimental results are presented on studying the ionic mobility of metals in geotechnogenous solutions from an opencast mine of the Sherlovaya Gora tin-polymetallic deposit in the presence of zeolite-containing rocks taken from the Shivyrtuy deposit (Transbaikalia). A high sorption activity of zeolite-bearing rocks is revealed concerning almost all the metal ions in solution. Concentrating the large amounts of zinc, iron, manganese ions and other elements in the solid phase could be caused replacing the ions of sodium in the structure of clinoptilolite by the mentioned ions.



12.
Development of Resource-Saving Technologies in the Production of Organosilicon Enamels Basing on Rectification

M. N. KLEYMENOVA, L. F. KOMAROVA and YU. S. LAZUTKINA
Polzunov Altai State Technical University, Pr. Lenina 46, Barnaul 656099 (Russia)
htie@mail.ru
Keywords: distillation, resourcesaving butanoltoluene mixture, liquidliquid equilibrium, rectification analysis, chromatography, topological thermodynamic analysis, pentatope, schematic separation process diagram, azeotropic separating agent
Pages: 201208

Abstract >>
A topological thermodynamic analysis was performed for a butanol–toluene mixture produced as a waste in the industry of paintandlacquer materials. Liquidliquid equilibrium was experimentally studied in the system ethanoltoluenechlorobenzenewater. Main pathways for separating a butanoltoluene mixture have been synthesized as flow graphs. A rectification analysis was performed for the system under study. Choosing a separating agent (benzene) has been performed. Variants were proposed for the technological schemes of the butanoltoluene mixture separation via combining simple and azeotropic distillation techniques.



13.
Results of Miscanthus Cellulose Fermentation in the Acetate Buffer and in Water Medium

E. I. MAKAROVA
Institute for Problems of Chemical and Energetic Technologies, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Sotsialisticheskaya, 1, Biysk 659322 (Russia)
ipcet@mail.ru
Keywords: enzymatic hydrolysis, reducing substances, Miscanthus technical cellulose, BrewZyme BGX, fermentation into ethanol, bioconversion into bacterial cellulose
Pages: 209214

Abstract >>
Enzymatic hydrolysis of technical cellulose of miscanthus in the acetate buffer with enzymatic preparation BrewZyme BGX was investigated. A linear dependence of the final concentration of reducing substances on the initial substrate concentration was established. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in aqueous medium with sequential addition of enzymatic preparations BrewZyme BGX, Celluxil, CelloLux-A was studied. The results of fermentation of the hydrolysates of Miscanthus technical cellulose obtained in the aqueous medium provide evidence of their sound quality, so these hydrolysates can be used for conversion into ethanol, gel film of bacterial cellulose and other products of microbiological transformation.



14.
Studies of the Adsorption of Glutamic Acid on Brushite

A. P. SOLONENKO and O. A. GOLOVANOVA
Dostoevsky Omsk State University, Pr. Mira 55A, Omsk 644077 (Russia)
anna.petrovna@bk.ru
Keywords: brushite (calcium hydrophosphate dihydrate), glutamic acid, adsorption, active centres and groups, biogenic and pathogenic crystallization, organomineral aggregates
Pages: 215221

Abstract >>
Regularities of the adsorption of L-glutamic acid on brushite were studied. Brushite is a mineral component of pathogenic new growth formed at the initial stages of calculus formation. It was established that the interaction of calcium hydrophosphate dihydrate and the amino acid is described within Langmuir’s theory (r2 = 0.99). Monomolecular adsorption layer is formed as a result of coordination of protonated terminal carboxyl groups of glutamic acid with positively charged groups + and/or 24+ on the surface of brushite crystal.



15.
Method of Immobilization of Titanium Silicalite, Catalyst of Hydrocarbon Oxidation, in Polymer Matrix

M. E. FEDOSOVA, S. M. DANOV and A. E. FEDOSOV
Dzerzhinsk Polytechnic Institute, Nizhniy Novgorod State Technical University, Ul. Gaydara 49, Dzerzhinsk 606026 (Russia)
mfedosova@mail.ru
Keywords: titanium silicalite, immobilization, polymer matrix, liquid-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons
Pages: 223229

Abstract >>
A principally new method of immobilization was developed for titanium silicalite (TS–1), the catalyst of liquid-phase hydrocarbon oxidation. The method involves encapsulation of catalyst particles in a polymer matrix. A series of catalysts was synthesized using different types of polymer matrices for practical implementation in oxidation processes. The optimal composition of the components of catalytic system and the type of polymer matrix for practical use in liquid-phase oxidation of the hydrocarbons of 69 fraction were established, with the use of 30 % aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution as the oxidizer and methanol as a solvent.