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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2022 year, number 3

1.
Resilience of forest ecosystems to climate change

E. E. TIMOSHOK, S. A. NIKOLAEVA, E. N. TIMOSHOK, D. A. SAVCHUK, E. O. FILIMONOVA, Yu. G. RAYSKAYA, S. N. SKOROKHODOV, M. N. BELOVA, A. Yu. BOCHAROV
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: Monitoring, old-growth forest, forest-tundra ecotone, moraine, environmental factors, succession, the Russian Altai Mountains

Abstract >>
Long-term studies of the dynamics of forest ecosystems in different landscape-geomorphological conditions have shown their spatial heterogeneity, the dominance of forests at different stages of restoration. A close relationship with soil formation in the restoration cycles of the forest ecosystem is noted: soil degradation in the phase of climax coniferous forest and restoration in the phase of derivative deciduous forests. It was found that the duration of the succession is the main factor in the sustainability of forest ecosystems. The recovery time is determined by the conditions of the edaphotop, the biological characteristics of the forest-forming species and varies from 150-600 years, which exceeds the duration of regional (secular and intra-secular) climatic cycles. At the same time, the complex structure of the humus profile of soils indicates a change in landscape conditions associated with global climate changes in millennial cycles. Anthropogenic transformations shift the ecosystem out of balance, which significantly delays its restoration or makes it unattainable.
																								



2.
Climatogenic cryomorphogenesis of south-eastern altai

L. B. FILANDYSHEVA1, P. S. BORODAVKO1,2, O. DEMBEREL3
1Tomsk State Research University, Tomsk, Russia
2Institute of Monitoring of Climate and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia
3Hovd State University, Hovd, Mongolia
Keywords: South-Eastern Altai, cryolithozone, seasonal climate rhythms, cryogenic landslide

Abstract >>
To identify the causes of activation of cryogenic landslide processes in the territory of South-Eastern Altai, a detailed analysis of temporal changes in the hydrothermal regime of natural seasons from 1936 to 2016 was carried out. Analysis of climatic conditions of the years of peak landslide activity established during processing of ultra-high resolution satellite imagery data and their comparison with indicators calculated for the period before the beginning of steady global climate change (1936-1970) indicates pronounced climate warming and its active influence on high-mountain cryogenic systems. Periods of landslide intensification caused by extreme thawing of the active layer of cryolithozone in 1998, 2012 and 2016 are reliably correlated with anomalies of indicators of hydrothermal regime of natural seasons and their structural units.
																								



3.
Lithobiotic communities on the surface of rock art monuments of the Minusinsk kotlovina (South Siberia): formation conditions, biomineral interactions

K. V. SAZANOVA1,2, D. Yu. VLASOV1,3, M. S. ZELENSKAYA3, E. G. PANOVA3, O. A. RODINA3,4, E. A. MIKLASHEVICH5,6
1Botanical Institute named after V. L. Komarov RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia
2St. Petersburg Branch of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
3Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
4Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute named after ON. Avrorina of the Kola Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, Russia
5Institute of Archeology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia
6Kuzbass Museum-Reserve Tomskaya Pisanitsa, Kemerovo, Russia
Keywords: Biolayers, petroglyphs, biodeterioration, micromycetes, biomineral crusts, rock art, Minusinsk Basin

Abstract >>
Various types of biomineral layers have been identified and characterized at the rock art sites of the Minusinsk Basin. On the surface of sandstone, on which images were applied in ancient times, cyanobacterial biofilms, biofouling dominated by lichens, mosses, primary soils develop, and are also formed by mineral crusts, to a greater or lesser extent inhabited by microorganisms. Cyanobacterial biofilms formed by Gloeocapsopsis magma are the dominant form of biolayers on open rock surfaces exposed to intense insolation. The most intense development of microorganisms was noted on light-colored calcite-containing crusts with a porous surface. Gypsum crusts are poor in organic matter content and are practically not colonized by microorganisms. By itself, the growth of gypsum crusts leads to serious damage to the surface layer of the stone and can be one of the main processes leading to the loss of the rock art.
																								



4.
Regional studies of environmental management risks in the conditions of modern climate change: basic approaches and methods of assessment

O. G. NEVIDIMOVA1, E. S. VOLKOVA1, M. A. MELNIK1, E. P. YANKOVICH2
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Tomsk, Russia
2Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: environmental management risks, dangerous natural processes, climate tensions, damage, the Tomsk region

Abstract >>
The article deals with the issues of methodological support and methodological support for the analysis of risk-forming situations in environmental management at the regional level. The principles and criteria for assessing natural hazards and risks are presented, taking into account the geosystem situation, natural-climatic and socio-economic conditions of the territory. The article provides information on the development and application of methodological approaches in the comprehensive assessment of the state of the natural environment and the likelihood of environmental and socio-economic risks. On the example of the taiga territories of Western Siberia and Tomsk region, the dynamics of dangerous situations, their classification, spatial differentiation and probability of occurrence are revealed. The features of the sectoral approach (forest management, agriculture) to the assessment of environmental risks associated with changes in the natural and climatic conditions of the territory are determined. The article presents the experience of GIS analysis and zoning, examples of estimated mapping, which take into account the impact of dangerous and unfavorable processes on various branches of environmental management. It is concluded that the degree of natural and climatic risk of the Tomsk region is increased.
																								



5.
Resilience of forest ecosystems to climate change

A. G. DYUKAREV, N. V. KLIMOVA, A. N. NIKIFOROV, N. A. CHERNOVA, S. G. KOPYSOV
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: forest ecosystems, edaphotop, succession, phytocenosis, productivity, soil, humus, climate, stability

Abstract >>
Long-term studies of the dynamics of forest ecosystems in different landscape-geomorphological conditions have shown their spatial heterogeneity, the dominance of forests at different stages of restoration. A close relationship with soil formation in the restoration cycles of the forest ecosystem is noted: soil degradation in the phase of climax coniferous forest and restoration in the phase of derivative deciduous forests. It was found that the duration of the succession is the main factor in the sustainability of forest ecosystems. The recovery time is determined by the conditions of the edaphotop, the biological characteristics of the forest-forming species and varies from 150-600 years, which exceeds the duration of regional (secular and intra-secular) climatic cycles. At the same time, the complex structure of the humus profile of soils indicates a change in landscape conditions associated with global climate changes in millennial cycles. Anthropogenic transformations shift the ecosystem out of balance, which significantly delays its restoration or makes it unattainable.
																								



6.
Long-term variations of δ13 in tree ring cellulose of the Ob-Tom interfluve

A. N. MARKELOVA, G. V. SIMONOVA, D. A. KALASHNIKOVA, YU. V. VOLKOV
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAN, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: carbon isotopes, indication of biogeochemical processes, West Siberia

Abstract >>
Long-term variations of stable carbon isotope rations in tree ring cellulose for two forest sites of the Ob-Tom interfluve territory are analyzed. At the first site, the expected decrease in δ13 values was found, but its rate was higher than the global one by 0.16-0.2 /10 years. At the second site, located 20 m from the peatland, the δ13 value was increased until 1978 and then decreased at the same rate as in the first site - 0.2 /10 years. We assume that the δ13 values variations in tree ring cellulose at the second site reflect changes in δ13 value of 2 emitted from the peatland. The reason for the changes in dynamics after 1978 is probably the influence of the Tomsk underground water intake, which led to the drying up of the peatland and, accordingly, a decrease in the δ13 value in 2.
																								



7.
Cone production of stone pines in the south of Western Siberia: the results of 30-year monitoring

S. N. GOROSHKEVICH, S. N. VELISEVICH, E. A. ZHUK, G. V. VASILYEVA
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: stone pines, cone production, climate, ecotypes

Abstract >>
The structure of reproductive function in 4 species and many geographic ecotypes of stone pines was studied on natural and experimental (clone archive and test progenies) objects. In Siberian stone pine in the south of the forest zone in Western Siberia, the dynamics of cone production is determined by weather conditions in the year of pollination. Seed productivity is declining due to late spring frosts and higher temperatures in September. Over the past 30 years, the directional change of these factors has determined a significant decline in cone production. The productivity and stability of the species and geographic ecotypes of stone pines is determined by the correspondence of their need for warmth to the climate of the test site. Under the conditions of climate change, the local ecotype in terms of growth and cone production is often inferior to more thermophilic species and ecotypes.
																								



8.
Four eyed fir bark beetle invasion effect on the species composition and structure of Siberian Fir stem pest complex

I. A. KERCHEV, S. A. KRIVETS, E. M. BISIROVA
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: invasion, Polygraphus proximus, Siberian fir, consortia, community transformation

Abstract >>
In the region of Polygraphus proximus invasion, we studied the patterns of stem dendrophages consortia (simple structural systems in biocenosis that combine autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms based on topical and trophic relations), the core of which is host tree - Abies sibirica Ledeb. The analysis was carried out on 4835 trees from 46 plots in the dark coniferous fir forests of the Tomsk region according to the following indicators: the vital state of trees and stands; taxonomic composition of insects, their occurrence, abundance and ecological characteristics; participation in the formation of xylophages communities at different host tree weakening stages. On the fir trees together with P. proximus , 21 species of stem dendrophages were identified. In all studied stands, the four eyed fir bark beetle was absolutely dominant. Monochamus urussovi Fisch was a permanent inhabitant of the stands damaged by the alien bark beetle. A direct dependence of the species coincidence degree with the disturbance of forest stands and their taxation indicators was revealed ( r s = 0.61). The species richness of the population consortia of fir is in an average dependence on the forest density and capacity ( r s = 0.4). For the first time, the ability of mass species of stem dendrophages to selectively colonize fir trees at different stage of resistance decline and to reveal the features of pre- and post-invasive consortia was determined. In a multispecies group, P. proximus acts as an initiator of the succession of stem inhabitants, determining the composition of individual consortia, the sequence of colonization of the plant by species of dendrophages in accordance with the degree of weakening of the host tree and the ability of insects to use the forage substrate. It was found that the number of the main aboriginal physiological pests of fir is at a low level, and they populate weakened trees following the attacks of an alien bark beetle or drying out for other reasons. The transformation of the indigenous stem dendrophages complex as a result of the invasion of four eyed fir bark beetle is an example of a rapid consortiogenesis leading to ecological and evolutionary changes in ecosystems.
																								



9.
Fragaria moschata Weston. (Rosaceae) phytocenotic confinement in the Yenisey Sayan Mountains

S. O. BATURIN1, N. V. STEPANOV2, E. A. FILIPENKO1
1The Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics Russian Federation the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: phytocenotic confinement, nemoral species, adh1 gene, PCR-based diagnostics, distribution, ornitochory, Yenisey Sayan Mountains

Abstract >>
Generally accepted that F. moschata is a common element of the nemoral flora. Its area occupies the territory from western bourders of Europe and reaches the Ural Mountains on the East. From the last part of the XX century, data of detections of musk strawberries in plant communities in Western and Eastern Siberia, including the southern part of the Krasnoyarsk region, have been appeared. Locations of such cenopopulations of musk strawberry described for small-leaved forests (mainly) and fir forests of the Yenisei Sayan Mountains. The article aims to describe the phytocenotic confinement of growth in the Yenisei Sayan Mountains of two populations of F. moschata (samples No. 17-16 and No. 18-28), verified by cytogenetic tests and PCR diagnostics. We have shown that samples No. 17-16 and No. 18-28, in hybridization with experimental samples of F. moschata of European origin, form full-fledged achenes with germination characteristics of the species. To establish the species affiliation of the samples, we used a molecular marker - the alcohol dehydrogenase ( adh 1) gene. Comparing the DNA amplification result for samples No. 17-16 and No. 18-28 with primers specific for the adh 1 gene sequence showed the lengths of amplified fragments identity set for investigated samples to the F. moschata of European origin PCR profile. Comparison of the floristic similarity of these two plant communities, where the studied samples of F. moschata grow, showed little correspondence of these communities in species composition ( KJ = 0.2). This fact indicates the ability of F. moschata to develop not only ecological niches of small-leaved forests close to its needs (sample no. 17-16) but also fir forests (sample no. 18-28) in the Yenisey Sayan Mountains. The article discussed the origin (allochthonous or autochthonous type) of F . moschata population in the natural plant communities of the Yenisey Sayan Mountains on previous herbarium collections and our samples.
																								



10.
Current state of population of lthaea officinalis l. (alvaceae) at the territory of Atyrau region

M. S. SAGYNDYKOVA, A. A. IMANBAYEVA, Yu.M. ISHMURATOVA, G. G. GASANOVA
Mangyshlak Experimental Botanical Garden, Aktau, Kazakhstan
Keywords: Atyrau region, medicinal plant, population, current state, morphological and quantitative indicators, ontogenetic spectrum

Abstract >>
The world experience of applying of medicinal plants shows the prospect for development preparations based on the plant raw materials, including wild ones. In this regard it is necessary the field study for assessment current state of medicinal plants populations for rational use and preservation of biological diversity. For the populations of Althaea officinalis , we evaluated the botanical features, ontogenetic spectrum and morphological indicators of plants. So, structural indicators of four populations of . officinalis in valleys of the rivers Altolkyn, Uter, Sergek and Koneu (Kurmangazysky rayon of Atyrau region) were investigated. It was determined that species composition of communities had 54 species from 50 genera and 26 families. The leading families by number of species were Poaceae , Asteraceae Fabaceae . The most common species (category I) included 37 taxa; category II included 10 taxa; category III included 4 species; and category IV-V included 2 species. Mesophytes, mesoxerophytes and xeromesophytes dominated among ecological groups; herbaceous perennial, annual and biennial plants dominated among life forms. The maximum morphometric indicators of . officinalis were noted for populations in the valley of the rive Aktolkyn; the minimum - floodplain of the river Sergek. Analysis of age spectrum made possible to determine, that population in the valet of the river Altolkym was characterized as stable, medium-age; in the floodplain of the river Sergek was stable and young; in the floodplain of the river Uter was non-stable, aging; in the valley of the river Koneu was young. As the results of field investigations, it is possible to recommend implementing action for collection of medicinal raw material of . officinalis in the populations of the valleys of the rivers Altolkyn, Koneu and Sergek. It is not possible to collect raw material in the valley of the river Uter; actions for reconstruction of its structure are needed.