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Journal of Mining Sciences

2022 year, number 2

1.
Phenomenon of Reduction in Friction at the Toe of Gravity Landslide under Seismic Vibration Effect

G. G. Kocharyan1, Z. Z. Sharafiev1, S. B. Kishkina1, Qi Chengzhi2
1Academician Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Beijin University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijin, China
Keywords: Slope-related phenomena, landslides, strain accumulation, creep, seismic vibration, earthquakes, blasts

Abstract >>
The article describes the lab-scale testing of dynamic instability in a block placed on a rough slope surface and subjected to small-amplitude vibrations. It is shown that the macroscopic sliding evolution is well-presented using equations of creep with the properly selected constants. According to the testing data, the necessary condition of the dynamic failure is the critical displacement along the slope and the certain creep rate. The critical displacement appears to exceed greatly the typical value when the sliding surface transits to the residual shear resistance. It is found that the landslide body instability develops at the late stage due to the phenomenon of reduction in friction at increasing sliding velocity.
																								



2.
Complex Loading of Granular Materials with Continuous Rotation of Strain Axes

A. F. Revuzhenko1, V. P. Kosykh1
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Shearing strain, complex loading, dilatancy, stresses, inelastic media, cyclic deformation, uniform flow

Abstract >>
The granular and other similar-type materials without cohesion are tested on various mode shearing machines. The complex loading machine with continuous rotation of principal strain axes is described. Loading represents a superposition of the planar and parallel Couette flows (simple shears) between parallel plates rotated at a certain angular rate. The stress and dilatancy data of quartz sand in deformation on the designed equipment are reported. It is found that stresses and dilatancy in cyclic deformation tend to stationary values. The stationary values of dilatancy increase with increasing shearing strain. The stationary deformation stresses change periodically, their average values weakly depend on the cyclic strains and their amplitude increases.
																								



3.
Seismic Response of Undrained Twin Tunnels

K. Ouadfel1, S. Messast1, K. Boulfoul2
120 August 1955 University of Skikda, Skikda, Algeria
2University of Batna 2, Batna, Algeria
Keywords: Soil-structure interaction, dynamic, numerical modeling, twin tunnels, clay soil, drained and undrained condition

Abstract >>
The article presents a real case of twin tunnels T4 of the East-West Highway (Algeria) for studying purpose of the effects therein on the soil-structure interaction and the excess pore water pressure on the same by use of a numerical analysis PLAXIS 3D. The results obtained from the Mohr-Coulomb model have been compared with those of Hardening Soil Model for drained and undrained condition. More to the point, it indicates that the soil under undrained condition can produce a significant modification in the normalized internal forces and the moment of lining for the stiff tunnels compared to flexible tunnels.
																								



4.
Stable Created Fracture Growth between Two Parallel Boreholes

A. V. Patutin, A. V. Azarov, L. A. Rybalkin, A. N. Drobchik, S. V. Serdyukov
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Hydraulic fracturing, stress field, fracture, parallel boreholes, mathematical modeling, physical experiment

Abstract >>
The authors describe numerical modeling of a growing fracture created between two parallel boreholes in an isotropic medium in the nonuniform stress field. The fracture paths are modeled at various deviations of the initial fracture from the axes of boreholes, spacing of the boreholes and the compressive stress field between them. Physical simulation of hydraulic fracturing is implemented using large-size samples.
																								



5.
Macro-Mesoscopic Fragmentation Characteristics of Rock Beneath Disc Cutters Subjected to the Thermo-Mechanical Coupling Action

Anthony Kojo Amoah1, Song Kanglei1, Yang Haiqing1,2
1Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
2Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Automatic Monitoring for Geological Hazards, Chongqing, China
Keywords: Thermo-mechanical coupling, crack propagation, field penetration index, specific energy, disc cutter

Abstract >>
A series of laboratory cutter indentation tests were conducted on mudstone samples to study the influence of thermo-mechanical coupling on rock fragmentation. The experimental results show that many micro cracks and pores are formed in the crushed zone of rock sample due to the frictional heat during cutting process. After that, the relationships between specific energy and mesoscopic surface of mudstone samples were analyzed. The results show that the thermo-mechanical coupling is conductive to rock fragmentation. Therefore, thermo-mechanical coupling action in the tunneling process greatly improves the rock breaking efficiency. This study is conducive to extend cutter life, reduce project cost and construction risk in TBM tunnel project.
																								



6.
Specifics of Internal Overburden Dumping in Open Pit Mining

V. I. Cheskidov, A. V. Reznik
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Deposit, minerals, open pit mining, internal dumping, overburden, mined-out area, ecological safety

Abstract >>
The authors discuss the application ranges of internal overburden dumping open pit mining. Specifics of internal overburden dumping on gently and steeply dipping beds is given. Internal overburden dumps are classified. The methods and techniques of scaled-up internal overburden dumping by means of efficient utilization of mined-out pit area are identified. The ecological safety of dumping is addressed.
																								



7.
Face Stability in Heavy Clay: Theory and Practice

M. O. Lebedev1, M. A. Karasev2, N. A. Belyakov2, L. A. Basova2
1Lenmetrogiprotrans Research, Design and Exploration Institute, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
2Saint-Petersburg Mining University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: Tunnels, rock deformation, advanced face reinforcement, fiberglass rock bolts, numerical modeling

Abstract >>
The authors focus on feasibility of reducing deformation of surrounding rock mass around underground structures by means of advanced reinforcement of tunnel headings in claystone. The reinforcement efficiency is estimated in 3D calculations. The factors to influence deformation in rock mass ahead of tunnel faces include: rock bolt length, rock bolting system stiffness and the bolt pattern. An additional factor of concern is the mechanical characteristics of claystone. The implemented research shows the highest influence is exerted on deformation in rock mass by the bolt pattern and the rock bolting system stiffness. The efficient design of advanced rock bolting is determined.
																								



8.
Calculating Dispersion of Air Pollutants in Mines

M. A. Semin, A. G. Isaevich, N. A. Trushkova, S. A. Bublik, B. P. Kazakov
Mining Institute, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
Keywords: Mine ventilation, modeling, air pollutants, gas diffusion, longitudinal dispersion coefficient

Abstract >>
The reference sources on calculation of toxic gas and dust flows in systems of mine roadways are reviewed. It is shown that the calculation should take into account convection and longitudinal dispersion, while molecular and turbulent diffusion in straight-line roadways can be neglected. However, in case of vortex mixture of air in dead-air spaces at junctions in mines, the turbulent diffusion can be comparable with the longitudinal dispersion. The authors propose a calculation formula for the effective longitudinal dispersion coefficient with regard to the influence of air flow velocities in neighbor roadways. The algorithm of nonstationary flow of air pollutants in mine roadways uses the method of splitting by physical processes.
																								



9.
Hydrophobic Interactions in the Diamond-Organic Liquid-Inorganic Luminophore System in Modification of Spectral and Kinetic Characteristics of Diamonds

V. V. Morozov, V. A. Chanturia, G. P. Dvoichenkova, E. L. Chanturia
Academician Melnikov Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: Diamonds, X-ray luminescence separation, luminophores, composition, organic collector, hydrophobic interactions, spectral and kinetic characteristics, modification

Abstract >>
The authors studied theoretically and experimentally the compositions of luminophores in modification of spectral characteristics of anomalously luminescent diamonds to the effect of their recovery. Attachment of a luminophore-bearing composition at the diamond crystal surface takes place owing to the stable aggregation of the diamond, organic liquid and inorganic luminophores by the mechanism of hydrophobic interaction in polar medium. Stability of such aggregates is ensured by intense adhesion of the components having similar surface energy. For diamond and zinc sulfide, the dependence of the wetting angle, generated by the organic liquid drops in the water medium, on the surface tension of the organic phase exhibits the extreme nature. By the coordinate of the maximum of the wetting angle-organic liquid surface energy curve, the surface energy of diamond and zinc sulfide is determined. It is proved that the organic liquids and oil products, which are used as organic collectors and have surface energies similar to the luminophore surface energy, maximize the force of hydrophobic interaction and stability of the diamond-organic liquid-inorganic luminophore aggregate.
																								



10.
Collectability of Xanthates in Precipitation of Heavy Metals

T. G. Gavrilova, S. A. Kondrat'ev
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Flotation, flotation activation, heavy metal ions, physisorbed collector action

Abstract >>
The authors undertake a critical analysis of zinc flotation activation mechanisms, namely, ion exchange and electrochemical, and propose a new mechanism of activation of sphalerite flotation by heavy metal ions. Flotation can be activated by physisorption of the collector in the unit event of particle-bubble attachment. The causes of floatability of sphalerite activated by lead ions in the alkali range of pH are disclosed. The characteristic of zinc as a metal-activator consists in high solvability of zinc and xanthate compounds. The conditions of improved floatability of sphalerite after its activation by zinc ions are determined.
																								



11.
Stimulation of Leaching of Rare Earth Elements from Ash and Slag by Energy Impacts

V. A. Chanturia, V. G. Minenko, A. L. Samusev, E. V. Koporulina, C. A. Kozhevnikov
Academician Melnikov Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: Ash and slag, rare earth elements, leaching, efficient parameters, kinetics, energy impacts

Abstract >>
The authors describe the studies into nitrate leaching of rare earth elements (REE) from ash and slag. The morphology, texture and structure of surface of ash and slag micro spheres are examined using the methods of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray phase analysis. The experimental efficient parameters of nitric leaching of REE, which ensure the maximum REE extraction at the level of 50.4% include: the temperature of 130 °С, the nitric acid concentration of 7.2 M, the leaching duration of 180 min and the mineral suspension stirring frequency of 500 min-1. The REE leaching kinetics conforms with the pore-diffusion model of nucleus shrinkage. It is possible to stimulate REE leaching by preliminary treatment of ash and slag by powerful electromagnetic impulses and ultrasound, which ensures intense disintegration of aluminosilicate micro spheres and, as a consequence, provides increased extraction of REE in subsequent leaching by 1.8-18.2%.
																								



12.
Analysis of Oxidation of Sulfide Minerals in Copper-Nickel Deposits

S. V. Mal'tsev, I. I. Chaikovskii, E. L. Grishin, A. G. Isaevich
Mining Institute, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
Keywords: Oxidation, sulfide ore, air and gas control, maximum allowable concentration, microbiological studies, heterotrophic bacteria, chemolitotrophic bacteria, geochemical properties of ore

Abstract >>
The oxidation-induced alteration of properties of sulfide minerals is analyzed. The air-and-gas content and thermodynamic parameters of mine air are experimentally investigated as a case-study of blind roadways in sulfide deposits at a depth of 300-1500 m. The microclimate conditions of sulfide ore oxidation are determined and used in design of two laboratory testing machines with oxidation in a bubbling chamber. It is found that oxidation of sulfides runs more violently in air saturated with steam than in water saturated with oxygen. The tests included two oxidation scenarios: oxygen sorption in surface layer and sulfur oxidation with leaching of metal. On the surface of sulfide ore samples, heterotrophic and chemolitotrophic bacteria which can absorb oxygen from mine air are detected. The highest number of the bacteria is present on the surface of high-grade ore.
																								



13.
Separation of Fluorine Mineral from Its Ore by Flotation Method and Optimal Use of Chemical Reagents

M. B. E. Andargoli, S. Moshrefi, M. Mortazavi
Islamic Azad University, Savadkooh, Iran
Keywords: Fluorite, flotation, petrography, chemical reagents, Kamarposht mine

Abstract >>
The article presents the case-study of flotation of fluorite ore from Kamarposht mine, Iran. The flotation tests allowed optimization of consumption of chemical reagents. The recommended process conditions enable production of flotation concentrate at fluorite content of 61.4 % and fluorite recovery of 85.88 %.
																								



14.
A Study for the Protection of Groundwater Production Zones from Polluting Sources Using GIS-Integrated Vulnerability Technique

C. Simsek1, M. Kuruoglu1, Z. Demirkiran1
Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey
Keywords: Groundwater potential, aquifer system, groundwater protection, land use planning, GIS, vulnerability technique

Abstract >>
The main objectives of this study are to determine the highly productive aquifer zones using the GIS-integrated vulnerability technique and to assess the protection of these productive zones from the pollution sources such as industrial and residential areas nearby a river system. This study was performed in Kucuk Menderes River Basin (KMRB) located in the western part of Turkey, which has a significant groundwater potential and includes highly productive agricultural land and some of the largest industrial establishments. According to the results, the western part of the study area has notably high aquifer potential used by industrial and residential areas, whereas the eastern part of the study area has lower aquifer potential used by productive agricultural land. However, urbanization and industrial areas are expanding in high groundwater potential zones. It means that regional water resources will be at great risk in terms of quantity and quality. Therefore, this study is aimed in assisting both the determination of protection zones in the main aquifer system and to help planning the future site selection of land use for the river basin.
																								



15.
Deep Learning and Internet of Things (IoT) Based Monitoring System for Miners

T. S. Getinkaya1, S. Senan2, Zeynep Orman2
1Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey
2Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey
Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), miner monitoring, artificial neural networks, deep learnin, LSTM model

Abstract >>
In this study, a miner monitoring system is designed using the Deep Learning (DL) approach and the IoT technology together. It is aimed to determine the area where the miners are located while a possible accident occurs by the proposed system. Experiments were carried out to analyze the effectiveness of the proposed system and the performance evaluations were made. The best result was obtained with an accuracy rate of 97.14%. This rate indicates that the designed miner monitoring system can be used effectively in practice.
																								



16.
A Quasi-Distributed Optical Fiber Monitoring System for Movement of Roof Strata in Mines

A. D. Mekhtiev1,2, E. Zh. Sarsikeev1, E. G. Neshina3, A. D. Al’kina3, M. Zh. Musagazhinov1
1Seifullin Kazakh Agrotechnical University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
2Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
3Karaganda Technical University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan
Keywords: Optical fiber, pressure, roof, mine roadway, safety, optical fiber sensors

Abstract >>
The R&D project on the novel method and facilities for ground control is presented. The relevant literature and advanced design efforts are comprehensively reviewed. A simple design of an optical fiber displacement sensor is proposed. Its cardinal difference from the monitoring systems currently in operation in coal mines is the use of a single mode fiber as a sensitive element. The new hardware and software system improves ground control and enhances safety of mining. The geotechnical condition of roadways is identified by means of comparison of light spot apertures.