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Geography and Natural Resources

2021 year, number 3

1.
ONITORING OF REGIONAL NATURE MANAGEMENT

P.Ya. Baklanov
Pacific Geographical Institute, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia
Keywords: territorial combination, natural resources, inter-resource relationships, direct resource consumption, return resource consumption, monitoring fragments, modeling

Abstract >>
It is suggested that the monitoring system for regional nature management be established. It should cover all components of regional nature management, i. e. all links of spatial structures of nature management. It is necessary to organize such a monitoring for natural-resource areas with detailed information on compact territorial combinations of natural resources within an integral geosystem. The components of spatial structures of nature management and, accordingly, the objects of monitoring are: the resource containing components of the geosystem with their basic characteristics, the kinds of activity existing in the area, the volumes used by certain natural resources as well as the calculated characteristics of their changes, and the dynamics due to technogenic influences and inter-resource relationships. It is proposed to monitor a total of about seven fragments of the various indicators presented in the tabular (matrix) form: a territorial combination of natural resources, activities, their direct and return (due to technogenic influences) resource consumption, inter-resource relationships, total changes of natural-resource potential, and the ecological status of the environment. Modeling of changes of the kinds of activity, including an exception of some kinds and the inclusion of the new ones is possible. In this case, alternative calculations can be done and the most effective of them can be selected. It is suggested that geoinformation technologies and large databases should be used in the monitoring system.
																								



2.
GEOGRAPHICAL APPROACH TO WATER SCIENCES

L.M. Korytny
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: geographical thinking, role functions, water problems, development of the geographical direction, birth of the Siberian school, ways and prospects

Abstract >>
Water Sciences are considered as a single bloc. It is proved that geography, as the only one that studies the complete nature-economy-population system in the disciplines of its cycle, can serve as a basis for improving the integral and sectoral methodology. Five main role functions of water have been identified: vital, energy-production, environment-forming, aquatorial and civilizational. Five major problems have been revealed, which arose from using water bodies and water resources: depletion of water resources leading to a quantitative water shortage; contamination of water bodies leading to their qualitative degradation; changes in the water regime and water balance of terrestrial landscapes and water bodies as a result of anthropogenic activities leading to disruption of moisture circulation, climate change and changes in aquatic biogeocenoses; problems arising from intersectoral contradictions as well as from the uneven spatial distribution of water resources, different rates and stages of economic growth and levels of socio-economic development, and hazardous natural phenomena. The gaps are examines, which arise in the absence of geographical thinking in land hydrology including examples of determining the maximum discharge in a catastrophic flood in the summer of 2019 on the Iya river in the city of Tulun and an unsatisfactory governmental attempt to keep the level of Lake Baikal within the 1 meter range. An analysis is made of the geographical direction in the Water Sciences. Presented are the results of studies of the Siberian landscape-hydrological school, the beginning of which is associated with the book by A.N. Antipov and L.M. Korytny entitled Geographic Aspects of Hydrological Research (A Case Study of the River Systems of the Southern Minusinsk Depression) published 40 years ago. The main directions of this school are experimental-landscape, geosystem-regional (basin), indicator, cartographic, classification, and organizational-coordination. The main ways of solving the problems of strengthening the geographical approach to the Water Sciences are proposed.
																								



3.
SOME RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF LANDSCAPE MAPPING OF RUSSIA

S.V. Solodyankina1, A.V. Koshkarev2, K.S. Ganzei3, G.A. Isachenko4, A.V. Lysenko5, V.T. Starozhilov6, A.V. Khoroshev7, D.V. Chernykh8
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
2Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
3Pacific Geographical Institute, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia
4St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
5North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russia
6Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia
7Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
8Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Barnaul, Russia
Keywords: landscape maps, emergent properties of geosystems, metadata, web mapping services, geoportals

Abstract >>
The focus of this research is on the inventory of landscapes maps of Russia compiled at various scales including individual cartographic products, maps in scientific papers, and comprehensive scientific-reference atlases as well as digital spatial data on landscapes. The paper provides a review of data sources for landscape-cartographic studies on the territory of contemporary Russia since 1959 till the present and the results of searching for landscape maps on the Internet. Taking into consideration the difficulties in searching for analog and digital landscape maps, and sets of spatial data on landscapes in libraries, bibliographic publications and databases, it is proposed to create a metadata base and provide free access to it on the Landscapes of Russia geoportal. It is aimed at disseminating existing Russian and foreign data sources, integrating geosciences data based on geoportal technologies and web mapping tools. The current state of landscape mapping of the terrestrial and aquatic areas of Russia (Far East, southern Eastern Siberia, Altai, North Caucasus, and the north, north-west and center of European Russia) is illustrated by some regional case studies (totaling about 60 names) differing in the degree of cartographic knowledge. The prospects for advancements in landscape mapping include a further improvement of methods and technologies of using remote sensing data as well as identifying emergent properties of geosystems. The principles of organizing landscape maps and legends to them are formulated with due regard for the system properties of the research object (a special subject of landscape science, which is not limited only to the synthesis of information from geology, geomorphology, pedology, botany, etc.) and practical needs of nature management.
																								



4.
SELF-ORGANIZATION AND SELF-DEVELOPMENT OF URBOGEOSYSTEMS

B.I. Kochurov1, I.V. Ivashkina2, Yu.I. Ermakova1
1Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Genplan Institute of Moscow, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: self-organization, urban equality and self-government, ecological and urban balance, “smart” city, urban landscape, urban planning

Abstract >>
At present, in the context of the growing severity of environmental and socio-economic problems, information connectivity and ever more frequently occurring crisis phenomena, there is an acute shortage of new ways and tools for understanding and management of increasingly expanding urban systems (urban geosystems). In the world, there are still no unified well-established recommendations for building an ideal self-organizing city. However, the previously developed and proven approaches to management of self-organizing systems can become effective tools for stimulating a further progressive development of urban geosystems of any level of complexity and hierarchy and building the city of the future. We examine the general principles of self-organization and self-development of urban landscapes of urbogeosystems in the management system using, as an example, a large metropolis - Moscow. The concepts of self-organization of landscapes and self-development of landscapes in the format of modern concepts are analyzed and the application of these concepts is given to study the functioning of urban planning systems. Examples of the modern practice of the regulation and evolution of urban development to improve the beautification and comfort of living of the population as well as the potential of the city and individual communities for self-development and self-organization are given. It is shown that the manifestation of self-organization processes is closely linked with the structuring of information and the drive of the metropolis to the category of a smart city, which contributes to the establishment of new forms of self-government, an increase in population safety in the context of a pandemic of viral diseases, the effective use of budgetary and other funds and the preservation of the historical and cultural heritage and architectural appearance of the city, and, ultimately, the establishment of close ties between authorities, on the one hand, and the population, on the other. It is found that the specific features in the development of urban geosystems imply that their behavior obeys the achievement of particular goals; in addition, they are able to change their structure in the course of their functioning, i.e. to self-organize. The more effective the processes of self-development are, the more useful information and accumulated experience the urban geosystem uses by making a purposeful selection.
																								



5.
TRANSFORMATION OF THE ETHNIC POPULATION OF EASTERN SIBERIA: POST-SOVIET TRENDS

L.A. Bezrukov, Yu.S. Razmakhnina
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: ethnic space, “Russian” and “ethnic” regions, indigenous peoples, mono-ethnicization, polarization, post-Soviet stage

Abstract >>
Using the results of the 1989 and 2010 censuses, an analysis is made of the post-Soviet transformation of the ethnic composition of the population of Eastern Siberia at three territorial levels: the macroregion as a whole, regions (constituent entities of the Russian Federation), and municipalities. Among the groups of peoples distinguished by the geographical feature, a decrease in the population size and proportion is characteristic for Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians, the peoples of the Ural-Volga region, Germans and Jews; the population growth and an increase in the proportion correspond to the large and small indigenous peoples of Siberia, the peoples of Central Asia, Transcaucasia, and East Asia. The focus is on the Russian and indigenous peoples prevailing in the total population. An increase in their total proportion for 1989-2010 has been revealed, which reflects a tendency for a decrease in ethnic diversity. A tendency has been established for a sharp increase in the polarization of ethnic space into Russian regions (Krasnoyarsk and Zabaikalskii krais and Irkutsk oblast) and ethnic regions (the Republics of Buryatia, Sakha (Yakutia), Tyva and Khakassia). While in the first of them and Khakassia the share of Russians increased, in three republics, especially in Tyva and Yakutia, there is an active process of mono-ethnicization (indigenization). A zoning of the ethnic space of Eastern Siberia was carried out according to four components identified by the proportion of the Russian population of municipalities: the Russian ethnic core, the contact zone of the Russian mega-core, and the inner and outer periphery of the Russian mega-core. The post-Soviet dynamics of the ethnic space is characterized by the expansion of its two opposite key components: the Russian ethnic core and the outer periphery, which confirms the tendency for the polarization of the districts and cities into Russian and ethnic.
																								



6.
SOME FEATURES OF METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE DISPERSION OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPURITIES IN THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC SECTOR (A CASE STUDY OF A PART OF WEST SVALBARD ISLAND)

E.S. Andreeva1, I.N. Lipovitskaya2, S.S. Andreev3
1Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
2St. Petersburg Institute of Education in the Sphere of Humanities, St. Petersburg, Russia
3Rostov Institute for Entrepreneur Protection, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric air quality, level of air pollution, meteorological potential of dispersion of anthropogenic impurities, self-purification of the atmosphere, synoptic conditions, natural and climatic conditions

Abstract >>
This article is devoted to the study of the contribution of meteorological parameters to the dispersion of anthropogenic impurities of the surface air layer of the atmosphere within a part of West Svalbard Island (using, as an example, the settlement of Barentsburg). The Svalbard archipelago has an important scientific significance from the perspective of the uniqueness of its natural and climatic conditions, which actualizes the topic of this study. It is found that the main factors affecting the environment of the island include coal mining and an intensification of tourist flows. Therefore, one of the most important problems of the western part of the archipelago is air pollution that has been increasing recently where the natural and climatic conditions have a significant role by determining the conditions of accumulation or dispersion of pollutants. In spite of the scientific experience gained in Russia and the results from investigating the interactions between the climatic (meteorological) conditions and the level of air pollution, the territory of the Svalbard archipelago was not included on the list of areas to be studied. In this regard, the present study is focused for the first time on identifying the features of the contribution of meteorological parameters to the accumulation or dispersion of anthropogenic impurities in the Russian Arctic sector of the archipelago (settlement of Barentsburg). Drawing on the experience of previous scientific efforts, it is suggested that data from the system of observations taken eight times per day without averaging by using a direct intensity of events, dictating a need to develop a new mathematical formula. Furthermore, it is necessary to complement the procedure of assessing the self-purification capacity of the atmosphere by expanding it to two or three stages and include the synoptic and geographical features of the terrain on the list of parameters to be studied. The inclusion of the meteorological features of the dispersion of anthropogenic impurities in the Arctic zone has a scientific novelty and relevance in the context of a further industrial development of this zone.
																								



7.
RECOVERY OF SOIL ZOOCENOSES IN PINE FORESTS OF THE SOUTH OF EASTERN SIBERIA

I.V. Balyazin
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: soil mesofauna, comparative geographical approach, post-pyrogenic restoration, structure and taxonomic diversity

Abstract >>
This paper suggests that the comparative-geographical approach should be used in the study of the recovery of post-pyrogenic communities of soil invertebrates. This method greatly eases identification of the state of soil zoocenoses; furthermore, it improves the efficiency of assessment and the direction of the course of successions of disturbed landscapes in forest geosystems in the south of Eastern Siberia. The direct effect of fire on vegetation cover and on the upper soil layers causes catastrophic changes in the living space for the invertebrates living in soils. Even fires of short duration lead to significant changes in the structural and numerical characteristics of soil zoocenoses. The recovery mechanisms of soil biotic communities are initiated almost immediately after the end of the ignition. However, the course of recovery processes proceeds depending on the microclimatic conditions and the location of the territory. At the initial stages of recovery, in damaged areas, an ecotonic effect arises, the operation of which is gradually leveled out (under certain conditions) and further changes in post-pyrogenic communities proceed along the path of increasing taxonomic diversity, restoring the structure of the population and increasing the bioproductivity of soil zoocenoses. The limited migration capacity of the soil biota, combined with its dependence on many external factors (physicochemical, microclimatic, etc.), makes it possible to use the statistical information obtained as the most reliable in ecological monitoring of the state of landscapes experiencing various external influences. Soil invertebrate communities are becoming some of the most convenient test objects for transformation in regenerating ecosystems. Studies aimed at understanding the formation of the response of soil zoocenoses using a comparative geographical approach permit the predicted level to be reached.
																								



8.
OVERTOURISM AT BAIKAL: PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF ADDRESSING THEM

A.Yu. Aleksandrova, S.N. Bobylev, S.V. Solovyeva, I.Yu. Khovavko
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: permissible tourist load, sustainable tourism, responsible tourism, overtourism, Lake Baikal

Abstract >>
This article examines the socio-economic causes and consequences of a high load on tourist destinations (overtourism) in the Baikal Natural Territory (BNT). An economic analysis is made of the existing tourist flows, and the areas of conflict of the interests of tourist business, the local population, authorities of different levels and investors have been identified. This study summarizes the results of field investigations made in a number of districts of Buryatia in order to develop the strategy of sustainable ecologically balanced development of the territory. The technique of informal interviews was used to identify and compare the opinions of different categories of persons concerned as regards the reasons behind the conflict of the interests in BNT and the methods of settling them. Estimates of the economic benefits from the flow of unorganized tourists in the Baikal region of Buryatia by the method of travel costs have been obtained. It is shown that the policy of restriction on economic activities in BNT and reliance on mass tourism stifles the possibility for full-fledged communication with wildlife and for an educational and active recreation provided that the recreational load on the territory is observed. In addition, super-tourism territories become vulnerable to any emergencies (such as epidemics).
																								



9.
MANAGEMENT OF RECREATIONAL IMPACTS ON LANDSCAPES OF OLKHON ISLAND

A.D. Abalakov1, N.S. Pankeeva2
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
2Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: landscape structure, ecological and tourist zoning, sustainable tourism, recreational activity, anthropogenic disturbance

Abstract >>
An ecological and tourist zoning of Olkhon Island, one of the most attractive and visited areas of Pribaikalskii National Park, has been carried out. It is found that an exceedance of recreational load on the islands natural complexes leads to their degradation. This dictates a need to develop scientifically based recommendations for managing recreational impacts on natural landscapes. A map of the landscape structure of the study area has been compiled. As a result, seven zones were identified, which combine ten types of natural landscapes of Olkhon Island. Types of recreational activities are recommended for each ecological and tourist zone. The ecological and tourist zones are categorized into three groups according to the level of environmental restrictions. The most stringent environmental restrictions are specific to the first group of ecological and tourist zones, which include an area of relict spruce forest on the Zhima mountain and the landscapes of high fault-line slopes of the eastern coast of Olkhon. Limited educational tourism is recommended for the first group. Strict environmental limitations are foreseen for three ecological and tourist zones of the second group represented by the landscapes of the northern part of the island, the coast of the Maloe More and of the transition zone between forest and steppe. The recreational resources of these ecological and tourist zones allow for development of various types of tourism. The coast of Maloe More of Olkhon is characterized by the greatest economic and recreational development. Therefore, rational tourism management is the most acute problem there. General, less strict, environmental restrictions are recommended for the ecological and tourist zones of the third group. The landscapes of these zones are most characteristic for the island and occupy vast areas. They include mountain light coniferous forests and steppes typical for Olkhon and Priolkhonie. For the ecological and tourist zones of the third group, it is appropriate to develop active types of tourism. The ecological and tourist zoning of Olkhon Island is treated as a powerful tool of managing recreational impacts on landscapes which permits the issues related to rational use and protection of natural resources to be addressed in a coherent manner in the process of tourism development.
																								



10.
MODELING OF THE BALANCE OF SUSPENDED SOLIDS IN THE SELENGA DELTA FROM REMOTE SENSING DATA

M.K. Tarasov1,2, G.L. Shinkareva1, S.R. Chalov1, O.V. Tutubalina1
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2FRECOM Ltd., Moscow, Russia
Keywords: metals, suspended sediment concentration, satellite images, Landsat, Sentinel-2, accumulation, biogeochemical barrier

Abstract >>
This paper describes the methodology developed for assessing the distribution of suspended sediment fluxes and metals along the Selenga delta channels and their accumulation by aquatic vegetation, based on the interpretation of Landsat-5, -7 and -8 and Sentinel-2/MSI satellite images, with clarification according to field data collected in 2011-2016. The methodology has a high potential for application, because it allows to obtain quantitative characteristics of the suspended sediment and metals balances based only on satellite images and data on discharges of suspended matter and metals at the delta apex. Calculation of sediment budget allowed us to obtain first quantitative data on the relationship of erosion-accumulation processes with water discharges in the Selenga river delta: for water discharges larger than 1500 m3/s, a steady predominance of sediment accumulation in the delta was observed. For smaller discharges there are cases of a longitudinal increase in the suspended sediment flux related with pileup from Lake Baikal and channel erosion in the delta arms. On average about 30 % of suspended sediment flux accumulates in the delta. Using an example of July 24, 2014, it was shown that 43 % of the investigated metals flux (Mg, Al, Ti, Tl) under investigation was accumulated in the delta. In the case of metals accumulation, the channel and floodplain components account for 73 and 23 %, respectively; 3 % is due to aquatic vegetation.
																								



11.
SPATIAL PLANNING AS THE TOOL OF MARINE AND COASTAL NATURE MANAGEMENT IN KRASNODAR KRAI

G.G. Gogoberidze1, A.R. Kosyan2, E.A. Rumiantceva1, R.D. Kosyan3
1Murmansk Arctic State University, Murmansk, Russia
2A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
3P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gelendzhik, Russia
Keywords: coastal eco-socio-economic system, adjacent marine area, maritime activity, ecology of nature management, legal system, decision-making process

Abstract >>
To solve the problems of ensuring the sustainable development of coastal eco-socio-economic systems and adjacent marine areas uses marine spatial planning (MSP) tools as one of the approaches to territorial planning. This paper assesses the possibilities of using the MSP tools to improve the efficiency of joint activities of economic entities and minimize environmental risks of environmental management. As a territorial object, the coastal zone of Krasnodar krai as a coastal subject of the Russian Federation is examined and the ecological and economic state of the territory is analyzed. Based on analyzing the international and Russian practice, the principles and stages of the MSP process are considered as well as the opportunities and prospects for using the MSP principles for Krasnodar krai, including in terms of the necessary legal base. It is shown that due to the geographical economic and ecological features of Krasnodar krai and to the lack of the federal and regional legal system in the field of strategic planning of coastal eco-socio-economic systems and adjacent marine areas, implementation of MSP tools can become the missing link in the decision-making process for the development of regional maritime activities. An analysis of experience of using the MSP tools for Krasnodar krai shows that sustainable development of the coastal territories and the adjacent waters areas depends primarily on monitoring the maritime activities and the environment to prevent degradation of the eco-socio-economic situation. Requirements for the use of elements of the MSP tools for Krasnodar krai have been developed, which should be aimed at providing recommendations for effective decision-making to administrative bodies and economic entities in specific maritime sectors of natural resources management.
																								



12.
THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC CHANGES ON THE HYDROLOGICAL REGIME OF NORTHERN RIVERS OF KRASNOYARSK KRAI

T.A. Burenina, D.A. Prysov, A.V. Musokhranova
Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: hydrological regime, atmospheric precipitation, flow dynamics, climate trends, permafrost, Central Siberia

Abstract >>
The spatial and temporal aspects of the dynamics of the annual runoff and the trends in air temperature and precipitation were analyzed to identify regional and local features of the hydrological regime of rivers in the permafrost zone in the territory of Krasnoyarsk krai. Nine river basins located within three landscape zones: forest-tundra, and northern and middle taiga were selected as test sites. To make clear the influence of climatic factors on hydrological regime of the study area the database of long-term hydrological and meteorological observation data was created. Generation of the database used archival material of the Central-Siberian Administration for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring: long-term observational data on the runoff at hydrological stations, and air temperature and precipitation at weather stations in the study area. The database thus generated was used in constructing models of annual river runoff formation depending on climatic factors, and in analyzing spatial-temporal characteristics of river runoff formation. Investigations showed that the landscape differentiation of the territory influences the spatial distribution of climatic characteristics and, accordingly, the features in the hydrological regime. For all the watersheds under study, regression equations were obtained, which reflect the relationship between river runoff and air temperature and precipitation. For the average annual runoff, precipitation and air temperature during a warm period are most significant, whereas for the winter runoff low the liquid precipitation and air temperature in the winter months are more important. Analysis of linear trends in average annual air temperatures and precipitation showed that since the mid-1950s there has been a steady increase in air temperature, whereas the precipitation trends have not only significant differences in absolute values but differ in sign. Analysis of the dynamics of the annual and minimum winter runoff of the rivers studied in different observation periods showed that most of the rivers are characterized by a positive trend of the annual runoff varying from 0.57 to 4.76 mm/year. The winter runoff increased from 0.09 to 1.42 mm/year. This indicates a general trend for an increase in river discharge in the study area. The opposing trends observed in the river runoff and precipitation show that the thawing of permafrost caused by an increase in air temperature becomes a more significant formation factor for the river runoff in the permafrost zone.
																								



13.
STRUCTURAL AND HYDROGRAPHIC FEATURES IN THE FORMATION OF SURFACE FLOW OF THE IYA RIVER SYSTEM

I.Yu. Amosova
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: region of flow formation, region of flow transit, region of flow accumulation, stream order, structural analysis, maximum water-carrying capacity

Abstract >>
Data of a structural and hydrographic analysis of the Iya river system are presented for the first time. Mapping of the territory used the technique of automated identification of catchment basins in terms of the digital elevation model (SRTM DEM). A dynamic model is constructed, a water-erosion network is identified, and morphometric characteristics of streams and their basins (lengths, areas, and slopes) are determined based on the digital elevation model. Using a methodological approach based on the Horton - Strahler classification, we determined the order of the water-erosion network. Episodic, ephemeral and permanent streams were singled out on the basis of a combined analysis of the results of a dynamic modeling of the water-erosion network and the river network pattern displayed on topographic maps. Episodic, ephemeral and permanent streams include streams of the first and second orders and streams starting with the third order. Regions of formation, transit, and accumulation of flow were identified by using the structural approach on the basis of the structural regularities in the water-erosion network for the Iya basin. By analyzing the structural and hydrographic parameters for the individual partial sub-basins, it is possible to identify in more detail the conditions of flow formation in the basin as a whole. The technique based on the relationship of structural measures with average water-carrying capacity combined with a comparison of the automated processing of the water-erosion network with the channel network obtained from topographic maps permits calculations of the maximum water-carrying capacity of river systems. The specific character of the basin under investigation was the crucial factor for the individual construction of a local relation of the maximum water-carrying capacity, as a result of which the elements of the Iya river system was categorized into three groups. The predictive estimate of the maximum possible flow of the Iya river system, which the water-erosion network can transport, greatly exceeds the observed values.
																								



14.
NITROGEN THERMS AND CARBONIC WATERS OF THE KUANDA-EIMNAKCH HYDROMINERAL REGION (NORTHERN TRANSBAIKALIA)

A.I. Orgilianov1, L.V. Zamana2, I.E. Miheev2, I.G. Kryukova1, M.T. Usmanov2, A.N. Pyrayev3,4
1Institute of the Earths Crust, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
2Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chita, Russia
3Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
4Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: hydromineral complex, mineral springs, chemical composition, deep-seated genesis, balneological type of water, natural monument

Abstract >>
We examine the mineral springs occurring in the northern part of Transbaikalia region within the boundaries of the Kalar National Park which is in the process of establishment. The study area is located on the eastern flank of the Baikal rift zone. The mineral springs under consideration are combined into the Kuanda-Eimnakch hydromineral complex along the young sublatitudinal fault which represents a natural boundary between the Baikalian and Daurian (Transbaikalian) hydromineral provinces. The uniqueness of the geological-structural conditions is responsible for the formation of different types of mineral water. On this basis, we identified the nitrogen thermal and carbonic thermal and cold waters. Results from analyzing the chemical, gas and isotopic composition of the mineral waters are presented. On the basis of data on the isotope composition of carbon, the conclusion is drawn about the deep-seated genesis of CO2 in carbonic mineral waters. The composition of solid sediments of mineral springs was investigated. In the nitrogen therms of Purelag they are represented by sodium sulfate. In the carbonic thermal waters from the Travertinovyi spring, largely calcium carbonate is deposited. As related to balneology, the waters under consideration refer to the Pitatelevskii (nitrogen therms), Borjomi and Shumak (carbonic therms), Darasun and Lastochkinskii (carbonic cold) types of waters. Such a variety of mineral waters in a relatively small territory provides a high recreational potential of the region. There is a need for the protection of mineral springs, which are unique natural monuments, from pollution and depletion by control over visitors of the national park being established. Clinical investigations among vacationers are required in order to improve the quality of treatment with mineral waters.
																								



15.
MARKET POTENTIAL OF REGIONS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN RUSSIA

S.P. Zemtsov1,2, Yu.V. Tsareva1, P.N. Pavlov1
1Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia
2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: market access, economic and geographical location, small and medium-sized enterprises, gravity models, institutions, econometric estimation

Abstract >>
Methods for calculating the volume of potentially available markets and assessing their impact on the development of entrepreneurship are proposed. It is found that the market potential is higher in a number of coastal and border regions of Russia as well as in the European part of the country near large agglomerations. Over the past twenty years, it has grown many times, especially in the south of the Far East. It is established that small businesses are more developed in regions with large consumer markets (Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Samara oblast), a favorable institutional environment (Novosibirsk, Yaroslavl and Voronezh oblasts) and access to foreign markets (Khabarovsk and Primorskii krais, and Kaliningrad oblast). It is concluded that the introduction of quarantine measures can cause the most significant damage to small businesses in large cities and coastal regions. The results of econometric calculations confirmed the initial hypothesis: a reduction in the volume of available markets by 1 trillion rubles leads to a decrease of the number of micro- and small firms by ≈0.5 (per 1000 people of the labor force), taking into account the level of economic development and the availability of capital. The estimated 3 % reduction in global markets, a reduced availability of bank financing and household income may lead to a 9-10 % (200-260 thousand) drop in the number of micro and small enterprises in Russia in 2020. It may then be expected that GDP will decrease by 0.5-1.7 %. The results can serve as an additional justification for subsidizing demand, supporting SMEs, digitalizing public services, and developing infrastructure for international and inter-regional trade.
																								



16.
THE INTERNAL TRANSPORT CONNECTIVITY ASSESSMENT OF THE MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS OF KRASNOYARSK KRAI

D.V. Zhitin1, K.A. Morachevskaya1,2
1Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia
2Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia
Keywords: public transport, frequency of transport links, road network, Krasnoyarsk krai

Abstract >>
This paper presents the experience of calculating the total indicator of transport connectivity of the municipalities of Krasnoyarsk krai based on the original methodology. The transport connectivity of settlements in this study is thought of as an opportunity to reach, during a day, the district center from a specific settlement and return back by personal or public transport. Data from the Yandex Map and Google Map services were used to measure the mean speed of traffic with due regard for the type of motor road; data from the registers of municipal regular transportation routes for 2018-2019 were summarized as well as information on the routes of the other modes of transport from the official websites of municipal administrations and transport organizations. The factors determining the intraregional imbalances in the logistical accessibility of populated areas in local settlement systems were identified and evaluated. It has been established that even the central macrodistrict is radically different in transport connectivity, which is due to both the configuration features of the existing transport network and the multidirectional development of settlement systems. The role of district centers in the total transport availability across the territory is considered. It was found that the spatial concentration of settlements, their size structure across the territory of a single district, the presence or absence of transit transport corridors are the key factors that determine differences in transport connectivity at the municipal level. The suggested methodology is an important tool for assessing the total transport availability of the territory of Krasnoyarsk krai and can be used in similar studies in other regions.
																								



17.
DETERMINING THE AREAS WITH POTENTIAL LAND SUBSIDENCE USING THE ANALYTICAL NETWORK PROCESS (CASE STUDY: BIRJAND AQUIFER, IRAN)

Z. Zeraatkarz, A. Kh. Siuki, A. Shahidi
University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
Keywords: groundwater aquifers, land subsidence, Birjand, analytical network process, sewage

Abstract >>
In arid regions, the shortage of water resources and a rapid population growth have damaged the natural balance and caused a sudden or gradual land subsidence. Therefore, in future, even if there is water on the surface of the Earth, its potential penetration will be reduced greatly. Hence, if these water spaces are lost, they will be lost permanently and it will be the end of an aquifers life. In this study, six criteria (hydrology, lithology, etc.) were used to determine the potential land subsidence above the Birjand aquifer by the analytical network process. The method of collecting data was based on questionnaires and interviews with experts. Results show that the hydrogeological criterion and the sub-criteria of water resources availability and groundwater exploitation have the most important role in potential land subsidence. In addition, about 14 % of the aquifer is prone to subside in the Dastgerd village, the Masoumiyeh residential area and Khousf town. According to observational data on the influx of sewage below the residential areas, there has been a downturn that has caused the breakdown of open wells with the passage of time. Therefore, it is imperative for planners to pay more attention in land use planning in these areas, especially residential areas that are more at risk.
																								



18.
THEORY OF PIONEER DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT PROBLEMS OF TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT

N.M. Sysoeva1,2
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
2Irkutsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: theory of pioneer development, habitation, territorial production complex, geographical expertise, transformation of the territory, development strategies

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the analysis of the scientific heritage of K.P. Kosmachev whose centenary is celebrated in 2021. His theory of pioneering development makes it possible to assess the current problems of regions where plans for the construction of territorial production complexes were implemented. These problems include arranging the habitat for the arriving population and taking into account the characteristics of the territory for decision-making. Special attention is paid to research into the local population activities on the use of biological resources of the taiga. At present, it is this layer of the embedded sector of the economy, operating on the basis of individual initiative, that provides a means of intensifying the internal resources of local communities for territorial development.
																								



19.
THE SCIENTIFIC HERITAGE OF K.N. MISEVICH AND RESEARCH INTO THE SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL OF SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS OF SIBERIA

N.V. Vorobyev
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: Siberian school of population geography, settlement systems, population, socio-demographic potential, economic complex, Siberia

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This paper provides an overview of Kornei Nikolaevich Misevichs scientific activity related to the problems of the population and its settlement in connection with the economic development of Siberia for use in the study of modern socio-demographic potential. K.N. Misevich is a geographical scientist in the field of population studies, a recognized specialist in the field of socio-economic geography and cartography in Russia and abroad. It is shown that the scientist made a great contribution to the study of the territorial organization of settlement systems in connection with the peculiarities of economic activity, socio-demographic conditions of the population, traditional ways of life of indigenous small-numbered peoples, and the development of multi-scale maps of the population. He established the nature of the relationship between the geographical features of production and the settlement of the population in the areas of economic development in Siberia. The results of his research have been published in 250 scientific papers. For his scientific achievements K.N. Misevich received a number of state awards and public recognition: he was elected an Honorary Member of the Russian and Ukrainian Geographical Societies.
																								



20.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE SIBERIAN SCHOOL OF MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY (IN COMMEMORATION OF THE 80TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF S.V. RYASHCHENKO)

O.V. Evstropyeva, T.N. Shekhovtsova
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: medical-and-geographical direction, recreational geography, regional anthropoecology, development of ideas, modern trends

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This article presents the experience of medical-and-geographical research done by V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography SB RAS. It is pointed out that the anthropoecological and recreational-geographical directions were formed at the institute on the basis of medical and geographical research. The transformation of the research focus over time for various reasons of an external and internal nature is highlighted. A brief biography of S.V. Ryashchenko is outlined, and the main directions of his scientific activity are considered.
																								



21.
RESEARCH INTO MORPHOSTRUCTURES OF THE SOUTH OF EASTERN SIBERIA

O.I. Bazhenova, V.M. Plyusnin
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: geomorphology, neotectonics, Northern Cisbaikalia, relief development, mapping

Abstract >>
The paper considers the research activity of the famous geomorphologist Anatolii Gavrilovich Zolotarev, Professor of the Geographical Faculty of Irkutsk State University. His scientific interests include neotectonics, geomorphology and correlative deposits. In the field of regional research, A.G. Zolotarev obtained new evidence on the formation and structure of the Baikal-Patom stepped upwarp and suggested the concept `of the pre-rift transition zones of Eastern Siberia. He developed a new approach in calculating the total amplitudes of vertical neotectonic movements and suggested that they should be calculated not from the modern surface of the World Ocean but from its level at the beginning of the neotectonic stage as well as with consideration for the distorting influence of the lithomorphic level. The result of these studies were conclusions that indicate the subsidence of the western part of the internal field of the Irkutsk amphitheater, rather than its rise, as previously thought. The 1:1 500 000 Map of the neotectonics of the south of Eastern Siberia that was created under the leadership of A.G. Zolotarev (in 1981) displays the neotectonic features of individual regions of the south of Eastern Siberia and their structure. Corrections for the influence of the lithomorphic factor and changes in the level of the World Ocean were also taken into account as a benchmark for calculations.