Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia



Advanced Search

Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2021 year, number

1.
PATRIARCH NIKON AND ESCHATOLOGY

N.S. Gurianova
Institute of History SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: Russian Church, XVII century, religiosity, Nikon, patriarch, reform, schism, eschatology, Old Believers

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to studying the problem of Patriarch Nikon`s appeal to the Christian eschatological doctrine in the letters to Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich and the essay «Vozrazhenie, ili Razorenie...». The text analysis allowed showing that Nikon began to interpret his status change as persecution of the Church after leaving the patriarchal throne. He presented himself as protector of the Church. Opponents of church reform chose the same line of behavior. During the exile Nikon was forced to justify his behavior and defend his views, i.e. found himself in a situation very similar to that of his opponents. In this case, Nikon clearly manifested the religiosity of the medieval type, and explaining his position, he turned to the eschatological doctrine. This doctrine provided an opportunity to interpret the current situation of persecution as a result of the Antichrist’s reign coming. The church reform opponents perceived their position in a similar way. They also appealed to the Christian eschatological doctrine. Appealing to Patriarch Nikon’s epistles written after the patriarch had left his position, as well as to the text of the essay “Vozrazhenie, ili Razorenie...” made it possible to conclude that such eschatological expectations were possible in the worldview of any person who lived in the second half of the XVII century. It could be explained both by the spiritual crisis and changes in the situation of a particular person, which is especially noticeable in Patriarch Nikon’s life. His theological, historical-canonical, philosophical views should be defined as typical of a Modern history person. Having lost the status of patriarch, Nikon, like his opponents, began to interpret the persecution in the spirit of the Christian teaching about the ultimate destinies of the world and man. Eschatological constructions in the Old Believers and Patriarch Nikon’s writings indicate that religiosity of the medieval type remained a characteristic feature in views of Russia’s population in the XVII century.
																								



2.
"NOTEBOOKS" BY PETER ARTEMYEV: TOUCHES TO THE BIOGRAPHY OF THE WRITER

T.V. Panich
Institute of History SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: Pyotr Artemyev, “Notebooks”, biographical information, Euthymius Chudovsky, “Writings out of Notebooks”

Abstract >>
Studying the issues related to Peter Artemyev’s biography, a writer and poet, representative of the Russian literary culture of the second half of the XVII century, is important for a deeper understanding of his work. A valuable source containing information about the writer’s life and literary activity is his essay «Notebooks». It was written by Artemyev during his stay in Novospassky monastery, where he was placed after promoting the Catholic Church teachings. The «Notebooks» are known today from extracts preserved in the structure of the polemical work by Euthymius Chudovsky «Writings out of Notebooks...». The article uses the list of this work contained in a manuscript of the Library of the Academy of Sciences, P.I.V.11 (34.3.13), as research materials. The task to study «Notebooks» surviving fragments was to search for additional facts and information concerning the personality of Peter Artemyev, his views and biography, which determined the features of his work. The article presents in brief the history of «Notebooks» text, as well as an attempt to determine its genre features: the essay is a complex text in terms of its composition. Obviously, it included travel and diary notes, elements of the biographical and memoir genres. «Notebooks» reflect the theme of the author’s spiritual search and confessional choice. Having changed his religion during his studies with the Jesuits, Artemyev openly expressed his new views and beliefs in his «Notebooks», despite the threat of church court proceedings. The writer’s fragmentary confessions testify to his attitude to the Old Believers, their punishment practice, which was characterized by cruelty, and he condemned it. A new reading of the surviving quotations from «Notebooks» allowed clarifying and expanding the range of information concerning a small, but important period of his life described by Peter Artemyev (an educational trip to Europe and return to Moscow). The obtained data supplement our knowledge about the biography of Peter Artemyev, circumstances of his conversion to Catholicism, and the writer’s value attitudes.
																								



3.
THE GENNADY’S BIBLE OF 1499: PUBLICATION EXPERIENCE AND PROSPECTS

V.A. Romodanovskaya
Institute of Russian literature (Pushkin House) RAS, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation
Keywords: Gennady’s Bible, Holy Scripture handwritten texts, Middle Ages’ printing, phototypic and diplomatic publications, scientific publication

Abstract >>
The first complete Bible in Ancient Russia, known as the Gennady’s Bible, was compiled in Novgorod in the late XV century; its model was the Latin Vulgate, which had been repeatedly published by this time. Perhaps, the Gennady’s Bible was also prepared for printing, but this did not take place. However, it became the prototype of all Russian printed publications starting with the Ostrog Bible of 1580/1581. The researcher interest in the Russian manuscript Bible is concentrated on the list of 1499, but the work is complicated by the lack of a phototypical or diplomatic edition. Scientific and diplomatic publications of the Gennady’s Bible were a task of the Commission for the Slavic Bible Scientific Publication (1915); the organizer and executor of these projects was I.E. Evseev. Their implementation, as well as the Biblical studies development in Russia, was hindered by the revolutionary events of 1917 and ensuing anti-church state policy which lasted for 70 years. Studying the Russian Bible was possible only abroad that time; the German Slavist G. Freidhof published a phototype of the Psalter from the Gennady’s Bible in 1974, and Apostolic Epistle - in 1979, but the project was limited to two issues. Works to publish the Gennady’s Bible resumed in Russia in the 1990s. The Russian Bible Society started preparing a diplomatic edtion, which was discontinued due to lack of funds. At the same years, a phototypic reproduction of the list of 1499 was undertaken under the surveillance by Archimandrite Innokenty (Prosvirnin), four volumes were published: Fourth Gospel (vol. 7), Apostle, Epistles and Apocalypse (vol. 8), Psalter (vol. 4) and a phototype of the accompanying articles (vol. 9). In the late 2010s, the Moscow Sretensky Monastery and the State Historical Museum resumed the phototypic edition of the Gennady’s Bible; the pages of the XV-century manuscript are accompanied by a parallel Synodal translation. This edition does not interfere with scientific publications, diplomatic and critical ones, which corresponds to the failed project of the Commission for the Slavic Bible Publication.
																								



4.
EPISTLES OF STARETS ARTEMIUS: ON THE EPISTLES CONTENDING LUTHERANS IN THE RUSSIAN PUBLICIST WRITINGS OF THE 16TH CENTURY

L.I. Zhurova
Institute of History SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: Artemius, Lithuania, XVI century journalism, Lutherans, epistle, treatise, manuscript, manuscript tradition

Abstract >>
The Eldery Artemius, accused by Moscow Bishops’ Assembly in 1554 of the aptitude to Protestantism, became strictly Orthodox in Lithuania, a castigator of heretics and active antagonist of the Lutheran Church. The epistles composed in emigration present him as the Orthodoxy proponent in the west. In five epistles (out of nine) of the Lithuanian creative period, representing the author’s discourse, the publicist made denunciations of Luther’s teaching, addressing them to Prince Czartoryski, treasurer Ivan Zaretsky, heretic Simon Budny, Lutheran teachers and a certain prince. The article’s subject of analysis is the issues of the handwritten tradition of «Epistles to Lutheran Teachers», approaches to determine the relations between epistles based on functioning toposes, intertextual connections, and appeals in the polemical narrative. The epistle is an extended treatise of a publicist, in which, along with the Lutherans denunciations, the author expresses his attitude to an ecclesiastical Hesychast writer, the ideologist of non-possession, which makes this work the programmatic work of Artemius. The text’s distinctive feature is the author’s pronounced personality and the system of appeals to Luther and the Orthodox who converted to Lutheranism. The results are disñcussed relating to the book tradition of “Epistles to Lutheran Teachers” preserved in three collections of manuscripts of the XVI century. The text published in the collection “The Russian Historic Library” based on the Russian State Library’s opus ¹ 494 of Undolsky collection does not have a beginning, and its long title is likely to be authored by P. Hiltebrandt. This opus has a title Na Lutory (i.e. “Against Lutherans”) in two other manuscripts. The copy kept in the Russian National Library O.XVII.71 should be considered the most complete and relevant text of the Epistle.
																								



5.
ON COMPILATIONS IN OLD BELIEVER LITERATURE

L.V. Titova
Institute of History SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: Russian Church, church reform, schism, works defending Old Rite, Old Believer journalism, compilations, martyrology

Abstract >>
The Old Believers’ writers of the first generation of the church reform opponents created significant works to defense the Russian Church traditions. They presented evidentiary extracts from authoritative manuscripts and early printed books, testifying validity of the advocated attitude to innovations. New texts of compilatory nature appeared in the late XVII - early XVIII centuries based on these authoritative writings and representing a summary of the doctrine foundations. The content analysis of several compilations made it possible to indicate the purpose of referring to the essays written by the leaders of the Old Believer first generation. The paper shows that the compilers used the original text to borrow and briefly outline main arguments in favor of the defended viewpoint on the reformers’ innovations, which violated the Russian Orthodoxy traditions. However, the focus of attention was on the fragments from the works of the leaders opposing the church reform, which characterized the time being experienced as «the Antichrist kingdom». The compilations’ key topic was the statement about the «last times» and a warning to “powerful tormentors”. The compilations’ authors were able to show the cruelty and inhumanity of the authorities, ecclesiastical and secular, the mass executions and persecutions of Old Believers for the «pious readers». Based on documentary material, the article shows the attitude and assessment of Old Believer journalism by secular and church authorities. They understood the danger and agitational significance of publicistic texts in defense of the «old faith», therefore reacted sharply to them, intensifying the persecution of the Old Believer doctrine spreading. The article concludes that the compiled texts of the late XVII and early XVIII centuries had a significant impact on forming a broad religious and social movement called the Old Believers by researchers.
																								



6.
OLD BELIEVER LIBRARY IN THE COLLECTION OF TOMSK THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

V.A. Esipova
Tomsk State University Research Library, Tomsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: Old Believers, Siberia, manuscripts, archeography, Tomsk Theological Seminary, Ignaty Andreev Mozzherin

Abstract >>
The collection of the Tomsk Theological Seminary (TTS) entered the Tomsk State University Research Library (TSU RL) in the 1920s. Its collection has a “schismatic” library including books seized from Old Believers. There were a number of book collections among them. The article objective is to consider such collection which consists of 10 manuscripts. When the manuscripts were seized, they were signed by the priest Ioann Mineralov. Based on his signature and the same handwriting, the studied collection was identified as a whole. The research uses a method of viewing the manuscript catalogue and selected copies. Then the selected copies were analyzed using traditional methods of paleography and codicology. A list of manuscripts is given in an appendix. Results. All identified manuscripts are small notebooks in 8O, from 33 to 160 sheets. The text contains a lot of corrections and additions. In terms of content, the manuscripts are collections of numerous short extracts from authoritative texts and lists of bibliographic references. A number of sources are precisely indicated by the scriber: pre-Nicon editions of Moscow Printing House. The topics of the extracts are traditional for the Old Believers’ circle of interests: these are questions of baptism, living in the desert and escape from the world, etc. The scriber’s personality was identified thanks to a document sewn into a manucript: debt notes made by the manuscript scriber, Ignaty Andreev Mozzherin. The document’s text is published in the article. There are other records that made possible to establish the territory where the scribe lived: it is an area of modern Ordynskoe village (Novosibirsk Region). The author makes assumptions about the purpose of composing the manuscripts: either preparation for polemics, or compilation of another more extensive text; suggests that the scriber belonged to the group of the Old Believers-pilgrims. The collection of manuscripts under study will expand our understanding of the Old Believers’ region, their reading circle, as well as everyday habits and lifestyle.
																								



7.
BOOK PUBLISHER I.P. LADYZHNIKOV (1874-1945): OF THE BIOGRAPHY UNKNOWN EPISODES

A.O. Anisimov
State Public Scientific Technological Library SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: I.P. Ladyzhnikov, publishing house, Russian Diaspora, Bolshevik Party, I.P. Ladyzhnikov Publishing House

Abstract >>
The article examines the problem of party affiliation of I. P. Ladyzhnkov (1874-1945), the most famous figure in the book business of the Russian Diaspora. I.P. Ladyzhnikov belonged to the cohort of so-called “old Bolsheviks”, and he was for a long time the head of the Bolshevik Publishing House by I.P. Ladyzhnikov in Berlin, who successfully replenished the party treasury, and was involved in RSDLP(b) conspiratorial work abroad as well. The author proves that I.P. Ladyzhnikov, taking an active part in illegal Bolshevik activities abroad, never officially joined the ranks of RSDLP(b)-RCP(b). The paper emphasizes that while carrying out conspiratorial actions together with such key figures of early Bolshevism as L.B. Krasin, M.M. Litvinov, A.A. Bogdanov, I.P. Ladyzhnikov coordinated directly with V.I. Lenin the issue of his party status. It notes that the official non-party status of I.P. Ladyzhnikov was unknown to both ordinary party members, and such authoritative party figures as V.D. Bonch-Bruevich, A.M. Gorky, who played a key role in Ladyzhnikov’s life. His non-party position could be traced to 1917 and in the first half of the 1920s, when I.P. Ladyzhnikov took the official position of the division head of the USSR People’s Commissariat for Foreign Trade in Berlin. The article analyzes documents on an unsuccessful attempt by I.P. Ladyzhnikov to join the ranks of the Bolshevik Party in 1925. The author states possible reasons to refuse his request.
																								



8.
WHAT CHILDREN’S LITERATURE ABOUT SIBERIA SHOUD BE: DISCUSSIONS OF THE 1950S

N.N. Rodigina
Institute of History SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: children’s literature of the 20th century, Siberian authors, image of Siberia, discussions about goals and themes of Soviet children’s literature

Abstract >>
In the article the author seeks to answer the following questions: 1) who determined what children’s authors should write about Siberia in the 1950s and what children’s literature should be like; 2) if there were discrepancies on this topic in the period from the late Stalinism to the Thaw; 3) what representations of the region were favorable for children’s authors, teachers, librarians and young readers themselves in these years. This article is written as a combination of history of childhood, history of children’s literature and historical imagology. Views on the work of Siberian children’s authors, their colleagues, teachers, journalists and librarians are analyzed within the framework of institutionalized approach. Unpublished protocols of meetings of children’s authors from Siberia that took place in September of 1953 and May 1958 that are kept in the State Archive of Novosibirsk region (GANO), publications of the newspaper “Sovetskaya Sibir’” and the journal “Sibirskie Ogni” (1950-1958) about those meetings and about regional children’s literature, lists of recommended literature that were compiled by metropolitan and Siberian librarians are being used as sources for this article. The authov concludes that the Thaw tendencies in the Siberian children’s literature that barely appeared in the beginning of 1950s didn’t developed by the end of the decade. Mainly the authors themselves (both local and metropolitan), librarians and sometimes members of pedagogical community took part in the discussions on topics what children’s authors should write about Siberia in the 1950s and what children’s literature should be like on the regional level. Representations of Siberia as a place of torment of people condemned to political exile, revolutionary events of the early 20th century, territories of heroic achievements of the postwar five-year plans and impactful Komsomol constructions, the land of emerging science cities, symbolic distant countries on the literary map of Soviet readers, decorations for “bildungsroman”, adventure stories and fantastic literature prevailed in children’s literature and in discussions about it.
																								



9.
THE TALE OF THE KULAK COW: SHIFTING IDENTITIES, BLAME, AND THE HIDDEN PURGE OF THE 1930s

David R. Shearer
University of Delaware, Newark, USA
Keywords: USSR, Western Siberia, 1930s, Stalinism, de-kulakization, identity, blame, famine, hidden purge

Abstract >>
This article examines a strange case from 1935, in the Usinsk region of Western Siberia. There, a local Communist Party Committee indicted a milk cow as a “kulak” cow, an enemy of the people, and, as a fine, assessed it several liters of milk a month. The owner of the cow, a veterinary assistant who had purchased the animal at an auction, complained to the oblast prosecutor, and the matter created serious tension. This article examines the broader implications of this seemingly absurd incident and argues that, in fact, it is the absurdity of the story that begs explanation and holds a clue to the meaning of the tale. The tale of the kulak cow reveals, in the extreme, the way in which categories of social identity and social stigmatization in Stalin’s socialism became blurred, loosed from their moorings in class and property relations. The indictment of a cow as an enemy of the people reveals more than just a pathological paranoia; it shows a regime unable to cope with the massive dislocation created by its own economic and social policies. The indictment of a cow was a sign, not of arrogance and power, but of weakness and instability, the instability of a state and a regime whose local officials felt simultaneously besieged by an unruly and often hostile population and forgotten by a demanding state.
																								



10.
Poor and middle-class peasants in collective farm society of West Siberian region in the first half of 1930s

V.B. Laperdin
Institute of History SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: peasantry, state agrarian policy, social mobility, Siberia, collective farm - state farm system

Abstract >>
The article objective is to investigate socio-economic differentiation of collective farm society in West Siberia in the 1930s. The author concludes on the mobility in the collective farm society from the point of starting positions (individual economic and social status in the peasant society before collectivization). Despite the high social mobility, it was difficult for poorest peasants to move up the ladder of collective farm hierarchy because of negative attitude of middle-class peasants. Meanwhile, many representatives of the poor strata of peasantry managed to take a worthy place in the collective farm society. The existence of two opposite tendencies is explained by heterogeneity of the poorest peasantry, and attitude of other groups to poor peasants formed before collectivization. Peasants had a positive attitude towards the “forced” poors, who became such because of redistribution of land or other force majeure circumstances, but the “voluntary” poverty was condemned in peasant society. Those poorest peasants, who adhered to the Bolshevik ideology, had bad reputations, but were supported by the authorities. Relations in collective farms between social groups developed, among other things, on the basis of practices that existed before collectivization, «transferred» from the traditional peasant community to new conditions of the collective farm society. Those poor peasants, who had the least prestige among their fellow villagers, found themselves at the bottom of the social hierarchy. People belonging to the same status, but with a higher position, were not bullied by the middle-class peasants and were able to take full advantage of the social elevators. Groups of peasants supporting the state were in the most advantageous position. Collective farm leaders were often recruited from those groups.
																								



11.
UNDERSTANDING THE RESULTS OF THE FIRST FIVE-YEAR PLAN: THE PATH TO INSIGHT IS NOT EASY

M.A. Feldman
Ural Institute - Branch of the Academy of National Economy and Public Administration of the Russian Federation, Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation
Keywords: Five-Year Plan, plan, USSR, industry, party, economy, plenum, industrialization, mythology, ideology

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to understanding the results of the First Five-Year Plan in the USSR in January 1933. The idea of the First Five-Year Plan was extensive: for the first time in world history, a proportional and balanced development of regional and sectoral potentials was planned within the framework of the state plan; as well as a wide range of social programs. The clash of rational and utopian courses during implementation of the five-year plan is the most dramatic page of Soviet history, which had a strong impact on the people fates. The materials of the January (1933) Plenum of CPSU(b) Central Committee show that the perniciousness of the “frenzied pace” course was eventually realized by the USSR leadership representatives. However, the comprehension of the First Five-Year Plan events has been complicated by the constructed mythological space, which included ideological constructions such as “creating the socialist economy foundation”. At the same time, Stalin attributed the explanation of the “frenzied pace” practice, all difficulties and hardships fell to the population share during the First Five-Year Plan, as well as reasons to under-fulfill the planned tasks to an external factor: “the refusal of neighboring countries to sign non-aggression pacts with us and complications in the Far East”. The removal of one’s own responsibility for the monstrous mistakes and crimes of the early 1930s; the imposition of responsibility on local cadres and the capitalist environment - such were distinctive signs of Stalin’s style, which had not changed since the spring of 1930, the time of balancing on the verge of a new civil war in the countryside. Another fundamentally new point was the repeated emphasis on the lack of alternative to the course of the early 1930s. The General Secretary did not make any analytical comparison with the version of the Five-Year Plan adopted in April-May 1929. Thereby, the January (1933) Joint Plenum of CPSU(b) Central Committee and the Central Control Commission has a special place in a number of party forums according to the significance of conclusions included in textbooks for decades - for example, the thesis about “building the socialist economic foundation”. By the scale of social deception - millions of people dying of hunger dying collectivization; exile and devastation of the most skilled peasants; impoverishment of tens of million people; catastrophe in husbandry; economic chaos in constructing and developing enterprises - were presented as a revolutionary victory of “socialist” relations.
																								



12.
THREATS TO THE SECURITY OF FAR-EASTERN BORDERS OF THE USSR IN 1932-1941

B.B. Kondratenko
Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russian Federation
Keywords: Far East, World War II, military threats, security, border, military strategy, pan-Asiatism

Abstract >>
The threats to the USSR security in the Far East had been formed earlier than in Europe. The collapse of the collective security system established after World War I, China’s occupation and Japan’s approaching the borders of the Soviet Union increased the vulnerability risks in the Far Eastern region of the USSR. The article examines the process of forming external threats at the Far Eastern borders. It considers Japan’s military doctrines, their main ideas and action plans; analyzes the geopolitical situation change along the Far Eastern borderline. Japan’s military strategic plans changed regularly depending on the operational situation and variation in the military personnel number at Manzhou-go territory. Military intelligence was carried out in the Far East region, and data were collected in information reports for the Kwantung and Korean Groups of Troops. The military strategic plans changed based on the intelligence information. The author represents the amount of main military units of the Japanese Armed Forces in Manzhou-go; analyzes their strike capability according with the military doctrine; shows the nature of Japan’s military activities related to the Far Eastern territory. The paper concludes that the process of deploying Japanese troops near the USSR border led to border conflicts, which checked the defense of border troops. By 1941, Japan had formed a military strategy of an offensive nature, and based on the conduct of lightning warfare. Primorsky Krai and Transbaikalia were in a state of constant expectation of an external threat. Japan intended to attack the USSR after starting the Great Patriotic War. The Far East was a vulnerable territory, it was near the camp of hostile states. The Far East was in the camp of hostile states anticipating an external strike. This factor contributed reassessing the region strategic importance for the country.
																								



13.
"A RIDDLE WRAPPED IN A MYSTERY": HEALTH OF LEONID BREZHNEV AS AN ELEMENT OF STATE APPARATUS

V. Donninghaus1, A.I. Savin2
1Nordost-Institut (IKGN e. V.) an der Universitat Hamburg, Luneburg, BRD
2Institute of History, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: L.I. Brezhnev, USSR, leader, health, illnesses, work efficiency, state apparatus, political power

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the role of health status of Leonid Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Central Committee of Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, as the state apparatus major element in the USSR. Using numerous sources, including notes and diaries of Brezhnev himself, notes of Brezhnev’s secretaries, memories of Brezhnev’s political companions, doctors and family members, the authors have reconstructed the dynamic changes in the health status of Brezhnev, and what way these changes impacted his work efficiency. Despite the fact that Brezhnev came to power already burdened by diseases and bad habits, his first decade as the Soviet Union leader was very fruitful. This conclusion contradicts an established historiographical opinion that Brezhnev belonged to a type of a quite healthy, but lazy leader, who could not and did not like to perform the state and party leader duties, trying to evade them at every opportunity. The last seven years of Brezhnev’s rule are characterized by a sharp deterioration in health status that led to the alternating periods of decline and rise of Brezhnev’s work efficiency, which severely affected entire state apparatus. Despite the efforts of Brezhnev himself and the fact that Soviet bureaucracy managed to mostly compensate the periods of “stalling” and even the temporary unavailability of the leader, the USSR’s specific power mechanism started to malfunction during the second half of 1970s. Another consequence of Brezhnev’s decreased performance was the delegation of significant political power to the group of companions led by Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko. Having occupied the state head post almost for life, being the leader of socio-political system, which actually did not have mechanism for a legal change of power, except for the death of a predecessor, sick and decrepit Brezhnev had to work hard and remain “a leader” until his death, including at the cost of drug addiction.
																								



14.
"DON'T WORK, DON'T EAT!":ATTRACTING ALTAI WOMEN TO PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN THE 1920S

E.V. Metel
V.M. Shukshin Altai State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University, Biysk, Russian Federation
Keywords: female labor, emancipation, feminism, women departments, employment, training, production, USSR, Altai, 1920s

Abstract >>
The study objective is to determine the level of Soviet women’s participation in productive work, as well as to reveal the state policy features in this area. The scientific novelty lies in studying regional peculiarities (Altai case) by attracting unpublished archival sources. The historical and comparative technique made it possible to compare data on women participation in productive labor in the Russian Empire and similar indicators in Soviet Russia. The author used the historical-genetic method, which allows identifying the properties of the studied phenomena consistently, and cause-and-effect relationships. So, women’s labor was considered as an emancipation element in the state policy, and this led to the legislative consolidation of work obligation. In addition, there was a dynamic in the number of working women, thanks to the chosen course, but a low level of their salaries due to the poor education and qualifications. In turn, this led to a row of measures to educate women and improve their professional skills. As a result, it was determined that the state policy did not give the desired results by 1930, the share of employed women remained at a level close to the pre-revolutionary one, but its application scope became wider. The article reveals regional peculiarities as well: in Altai region, enterprises that used women’s labor to greater extent (most often in the textile industry) few in number, so it was especially important to train women both in the field of general education, and in their professional retraining.
																								



15.
THE OLD BELIEVERS OF YEKATERINBURG IN THE HISTORY AND SOCIAL LIFE OF THE CITY (Review on the book: Borovik Yu.V. «Old Believers of the Ural city in the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries: the confessional community and the family of Yekaterinburg.» Yekaterinburg: Publishing house of the Ural. University, 2019. 448 p.)

N.A. Starukhin
Institute of History SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: The Urals, Old Believers, chasovennye, Belokrinitsa consent, family, marriage, social composition, number

Abstract >>
Monograph by Yu.V. Borovik is a final study, which focuses on certain aspects associated with the difficult fates of the Old Believer communities of Yekaterinburg. The author was able to thoroughly develop a number of issues related to the social composition, comparative dynamics of the number of urban stationary communities of the Ural region, the institution of the family, not previously discussed in domestic and foreign historiography.
																								



16.
ON THE QUESTION OF THE POLITICAL CULTURE OF THE STALINIST ERA IN THE HISTORY OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE USSR (Book review: Velikanova O. “The Constitution of 1936 and the mass political culture of Stalinism”. Moscow, 2021. 360 p.)

I.N. Strekalov
The Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation
Keywords: constitution, socialism, communism, Stalin, Khrushchev, Brezhnev, society

Abstract >>
The review’s author considers the monograph on the history of the creation of the Constitution of the USSR of 1936 written by Olga Velikanova. The review’s author analyzes which sources are introduced by the Velikanova into academic circulation, points out which conclusions are new in the context of the historiography of the question and, finally, recognizes what is the scientific significance of the results of the study conducted by the historian. The conclusion of O. Velikanova relating the political culture of the era of Joseph Stalin, in the context of other periods of history of the constitutional development of the USSR, is analyzed in detail. The author of the review belleve that such a conclusion is controversial. The political culture of the post-war USSR with its decisive rejection of the Stalinist heritage can hardly be considered as the coexistence of the opinion of some single majority with the “islets,” as the researcher expresses, of liberal culture; the whole Soviet society had become much more complex, more diverse, and a number of opinions had appeared on various issues of the development of the state and society.