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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2021 year, number


E.V. Metel
V.M. Shukshin Altai State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University, Biysk, Russian Federation
Keywords: female labor, emancipation, feminism, women departments, employment, training, production, USSR, Altai, 1920s


The study objective is to determine the level of Soviet women’s participation in productive work, as well as to reveal the state policy features in this area. The scientific novelty lies in studying regional peculiarities (Altai case) by attracting unpublished archival sources. The historical and comparative technique made it possible to compare data on women participation in productive labor in the Russian Empire and similar indicators in Soviet Russia. The author used the historical-genetic method, which allows identifying the properties of the studied phenomena consistently, and cause-and-effect relationships. So, women’s labor was considered as an emancipation element in the state policy, and this led to the legislative consolidation of work obligation. In addition, there was a dynamic in the number of working women, thanks to the chosen course, but a low level of their salaries due to the poor education and qualifications. In turn, this led to a row of measures to educate women and improve their professional skills. As a result, it was determined that the state policy did not give the desired results by 1930, the share of employed women remained at a level close to the pre-revolutionary one, but its application scope became wider. The article reveals regional peculiarities as well: in Altai region, enterprises that used women’s labor to greater extent (most often in the textile industry) few in number, so it was especially important to train women both in the field of general education, and in their professional retraining.