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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2021 year, number

THREATS TO THE SECURITY OF FAR-EASTERN BORDERS OF THE USSR IN 1932-1941

B.B. Kondratenko
Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russian Federation
Keywords: Far East, World War II, military threats, security, border, military strategy, pan-Asiatism

Abstract

The threats to the USSR security in the Far East had been formed earlier than in Europe. The collapse of the collective security system established after World War I, Chinas occupation and Japans approaching the borders of the Soviet Union increased the vulnerability risks in the Far Eastern region of the USSR. The article examines the process of forming external threats at the Far Eastern borders. It considers Japans military doctrines, their main ideas and action plans; analyzes the geopolitical situation change along the Far Eastern borderline. Japans military strategic plans changed regularly depending on the operational situation and variation in the military personnel number at Manzhou-go territory. Military intelligence was carried out in the Far East region, and data were collected in information reports for the Kwantung and Korean Groups of Troops. The military strategic plans changed based on the intelligence information. The author represents the amount of main military units of the Japanese Armed Forces in Manzhou-go; analyzes their strike capability according with the military doctrine; shows the nature of Japans military activities related to the Far Eastern territory. The paper concludes that the process of deploying Japanese troops near the USSR border led to border conflicts, which checked the defense of border troops. By 1941, Japan had formed a military strategy of an offensive nature, and based on the conduct of lightning warfare. Primorsky Krai and Transbaikalia were in a state of constant expectation of an external threat. Japan intended to attack the USSR after starting the Great Patriotic War. The Far East was a vulnerable territory, it was near the camp of hostile states. The Far East was in the camp of hostile states anticipating an external strike. This factor contributed reassessing the region strategic importance for the country.