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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2020 year, number 2

1.
Can the "green tides" affect the metal distribution in the coastal sediments? A case study in the eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

Yu. I. Gubelit1, Yu. M. Polyak2,3, T. D. Shigaeva2, L. G. Bakina2, V. A. Kudryavtseva2
1Zoological Institute of RAS, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
2Saint-Petersburg Scientific Research Center for Ecological Safety of RAS, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
3Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: "зеленые приливы", содержание металлов, ферментативная активность, зеленые макроводоросли, Балтийское море, донные отложения, "green tides", metal distribution, microbial activity, green macroalgae, Baltic Sea, sediments

Abstract >>
Our study has been conducted along the coastline of the eastern Gulf of Finland for three years. It had been shown that accumulation of algal biomass caused by the “green tide” events significantly influenced the metal distribution in the surface sediments. Metal concentrations differed significantly under algal mats and at the sites, which were free of algae. Our study showed significant changes in metal concentrations (Zn, Cd and Pb) along the coast in study years, which, in our opinion, reflect influence of the ports Vysotsk and a new one - Bronka. Principal component and classification analysis extracted two main factors, which can be interpreted as a factors related to the distance from a river mouth and to the input from the new anthropogenic sources. Taking into account a global climate change and the results of our study, we may conclude that in the future extended macroalgal blooms may provoke intense sediment contamination by organic matter and associated metals.
																								



2.
European smelt Osmerus eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Kolguyev Island (Barents Sea) and factors restricting its spread over Arctic

V. S. Artamonova1, A. A. Makhrov1,2, I. Yu. Popov2, V. M. Spitsyn3
1Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Moscow, Russia
2Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
3Northern Arctic Federal University, Arkhangelsk, Russia
Keywords: Арктика, экология, зоогеография, баркодинг, рефугиум, рыбы, Arctic, ecology, zoogeography, barcoding, refuge, fishes

Abstract >>
The distribution areas of European and Rainbow smelts overlap in North-Eastern part of Europe. Interrelation of these species is not well studied in this zone. A smelt from the Krivoye Lake of the Kolguyev Island of the Barents Sea was studied. Species identification was fulfilled by DNA-Barcoding method, the sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used. The smelt turned out to be European one. The evidences on its origin were analyzed. It was shown, that the smelt settled in the lake in the remote past, when the territory of the island belonged to mainland and its inland water bodies were linked with Pechora river basin. Recent transportation of smelt by humans or birds to the Kolguyev Island is unlikely. Restriction of distribution area of this species is likely to be related with historic factors and competition with Rainbow smelt.
																								



3.
Threespine stickleback of the White Sea: population characteristics and role in the ecosystem

D. L. Lajus1, P. V. Golovin1, A. E. Zelenskaia1, A. S. Demchuk1,2, A. S. Dorgham1,3, M. V. Ivanov1, T. S. Ivanova1, S. A. Murzina4, N. V. Polyakova1,5, E. V. Rybkina2, A. O. Yurtseva2
1Saint-Petersburg University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
2Zoological Institute of RAS, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
3Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Abu-Hammad, Sharkia, Egypt
4Institute of Biology of Karelian Research Centre of RAS, Petrozavodsk, Russia
5Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: трехиглая колюшка, Белое море, изменения климата, экосистема, популяции, трофические связи, threespine stickleback, White Sea, climate change, ecosystem, populations, trophic connections

Abstract >>
The review summarizes and analyzes data on the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus of the White Sea, which is currently the most abundant fish in the sea and play an important role in the coastal and open water communities. The stickleback was abundant in the 1920-1940s, declined significantly between the late 1960s and late 1990s, and has increased again since then, showing a positive correlation with temperature. To reveal the mechanisms of changes in the population of the stickleback and its role in the marine ecosystem, various aspects of the species’ population biology (interannual and seasonal population dynamics, spatial heterogeneity, age and sex structure, lipid and fatty acid status, homing and fluctuating asymmetry), as well as its interactions with other organisms (adult and juvenile feeding, role in the feeding of predatory fish, association with seagrass, parasite composition and spatial distribution, relationships with competitors) are analyzed.
																								



4.
Restoration of zoobenthic communities and water quality in river ecosystem after a decrease in the level of organic pollution

S. M. Golubkov, E. V. Balushkina, M. S. Golubkov
Zoological Institute of RAS, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: антропогенное воздействие, биоразнообразие, зообентос, органическое загрязнение, экологическая реставрация, anthropogenic impact, biodiversity, zoobenthos, organic pollution, ecological restoration

Abstract >>
The development of principles and methods for restoration of ecological systems that have undergone intense anthropogenic impacts is one of the most important tasks of modern ecology. The work is devoted to the study of the regularities of the influence of organic pollution on the structure and functional characteristics of zoobenthic communities and the degree of restoration of the pristine communities of bottom animals and the quality of the waters of the small Izhora River by bioindication characteristics. For this, the results of studies of the 1970s and 2000s were compared. Intensive organic matter pollution influenced the structure and functioning of zoobenthos, increasing biomass and energy flow through the bottom animal communities. At the same time, the role of oligochaete worms in the bottom communities sharply increased, the role of larvae of amphibiotic insects decreased, the species richness and biological diversity of zoobenthos declined, and the efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels of primary and secondary consumers fell down. Water quality in accordance with the values of the integrated index IP′ corresponded to the fifth highest class of pollution (“dirty”). Downstream, due to self-purification processes, the water quality and ecosystem state improved slightly, but this improvement was not very significant, which indicated that the river’s ecosystem was not able to process excess organic matter entering the river. The introduction of wastewater treatment from organic pollutants at sewage treatment plants contributed to the restoration of the structural and functional organization of zoobenthic communities and significantly improved the state of the river ecosystem. However, a complete restoration of water quality did not occur: it improved to “moderately polluted”.
																								



5.
Comparative characteristics of the fatty acid composition of lipids in factory and wild juveniles of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

Z. A. Nefedova, S. A. Murzina, S. N. Pekkoeva, V. P. Voronin, N. N. Nemova
Institute of Biology of the Karelian Research Centre of RAS, Petrozavodsk, Rossia
Keywords: атлантический лосось, дикая и заводская молодь, жирные кислоты, Atlantic salmon, wild and factory fish juveniles, fatty acids

Abstract >>
Differences between a factory and a wild juvenile salmon (fingerlings at the 0+ age and 1+ parrs) were shown in the content of physiologically significant fatty acids and their ratios. Factory juveniles (age 0+ and 1+) have a very low content of a physiologically significant 18:3 n -3 and 20:4 n -6 fatty acids compared with the wild individuals, whereas relatively high amounts of 22:6 n -3 (age 0+) and 18:2 n -6 fatty acids (age 1+) were noted. Simultaneously, the factory juveniles (age 0+ and 1+) differ from the wild juveniles in a lower ratio 18:3 n -3/18:2 n -6 of essential fatty acids (in 7.9 and 6.4-fold, respectively). The ratio of total polyunsaturated fatty acids of n -3/ n -6 families is reliably equal in the wild and the factory fingerlings (age 0+), whereas in parrs (age 1+) it is in 2-fold lower than for the factory fish. A relatively high content of oleic 18:1 n -9 fatty acid and minor 20:1 n -9, 22:1 n -11 fatty acids were found in the factory juveniles, but the level of saturated fatty acids was decreased due to 16:0 and 18:0. A high metabolic rate of fatty acid metabolism in the wild juveniles is evidenced by a higher ratio of 16:0/18:1 n -9 compared to that in the factory fish (1.50 and 1.47 vs 0.84 and 0.46 for fingerlings (age 0+) and parrs (age 1+), respectively. A lower metabolic rate of fatty acid metabolism in the factory juveniles, especially for parrs (age 1+), is accompanied by a high accumulation of their body mass (in 4-fold) compared with the wild individuals of the same age.
																								



6.
Factors of spatial distribution and risk assessment of Viviparus iviparus L. invasion in aquatic ecosystems of the Ob river basin

L. V. Yanygina1,2, A. V. Kotovshchikov1, L. M. Kipriyanova1, D. D. Volgina1
1Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of SB RAS, Barnaul, Russia
2Altai State University, Barnaul, Russia
Keywords: чужеродные виды, макробеспозвоночные, моллюски, Новосибирское водохранилище, alien species, macroinvertebrates, mollusks, Novosibirsk reservoir

Abstract >>
The mollusks from the Viviparidae family are among invertebrates actively settling outside their natural habitats. Alien representatives of this family dwell in the waters of North and South America, Europe and Asia. The paper presents the results of the long-term studies of Viviparus viviparus L. unintentionally introduced into the Novosibirsk reservoir. The effect of bottom sediments types and concentrations of organic substances on spatial distribution of V. viviparus in the reservoir was studied. It was found that the formation of denser mollusks settlements (as compared to natural areal) occurred in the Novosibirsk reservoir due to its favorable environmental conditions. The Harmonia+ Protocol was used to assess the risk of V. viviparus invasion into water bodies of the Ob river basin as well as the invasion consequences for its aquatic ecosystems. It is shown that water bodies of the Middle Ob basin are suitable for V. viviparus ; the risk of further mollusk spread is estimated as high.
																								



7.
FEATURES OF THE FAR EASTERN POPULATION OF LYMANTRIA DISPAR L. OUTBREAK

D. K. Kurenshchikov1, V. V. Martemyanov2,3, E. L. Imranova1
1Institute for Aquatic and Ecological Problems of FEB RAS, Khabarovsk, Russia
2Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
3Biological Institute, National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: Хабаровский край, Россия, динамика популяций, Lymantria dispar, эруптивная фаза, вспышка численности, Khabarovsk territory, Russia, population dynamic, Lymantria dispar, eruptive phase, outbreak

Abstract >>
Lymantria dispar features of a population at the peak phase in Far East territory are presented. We studied the death of insects based on biotic factors (parasitoids, nuclear polyhedrosis virus), the sex ratio, masses of male and female pupae, and female’s fecundity. We show that the main reason for population collapse was nucleopolyhedrovirus. It appeared no cadavers died from entomopathogenic fungi. A strong decrease in the proportion of females was partially mediated by sex-specific parasitism, moderate fecundity, and a high rate of virus-induced mortality was responsible for the fast decline of L. dispar population density in Far East territory.
																								



8.
Parasitic community of blas (Siphonaptera) small and medium predators (Mammalia, Carnivora) south-west of Primorsk region

M. N. Litvinov1, E. A. Litvinova2, M. N. Erofeeva3, S. V. Naidenko3
1State Natural Reserve “Ussuriyskii” by V. L. Komarov of FEB RAS, Ussuriisk, Russia
2Far Eastern Federal University. School of Pedagogics, Ussuriisk, Russia
3A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: блоха, паразитарные сообщества, экологические связи, хищник, синантропный вид, экзоантропный вид, полизоидность, flea, parasitic communities, ecological relations, predator, synanthropic species, exoanthropic species, polysoid

Abstract >>
Original data on the ecological relations of Sifonoptera fleas with small and medium-sized predators in the south-west of Primorsky Krai are presented. The parasitic community of fleas in populations of carnivorous mammals of the studied territory consists of eight species belonging to three families and five genera. Five flea species ( Chaetopsulla appropinquans , Ch. micado , Ch. zibellina , Ch. Dogieli ), Paraceras flabellum are specific for predatory mammals, two more species of ( Ctenophthalmus congeneroides , Megabotris calkarifer ) are found on predators, but are rodent parasites.
																								



9.
Contribution of resident and nonresident populations of small mammals to the results of irretrievable requisitioning method

A. A. Kalinin1, I. F. Kupriyanova2, D. Yu. Aleksandrov1
1Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Moscow, Russia
2Pechora-Ilych State Nature Reserve, Respublika Komi, Russia
Keywords: мелкие млекопитающие, учеты численности, мечение с повторным отловом, плотность, нерезидентная активность, small mammals, methods of catching, capture-recapture method, population density, dispersalsmall mammals, methods of catching, capture-recapture method, population density, dispersal

Abstract >>
We have compared population demography parameters of common small mammals in trap lines obtained by two methods. We applied capture-mark-recapture method (CMR) to estimate resident population density and non-resident activity, and irretrievable requisitioning method (IR) was used to estimate abundance. Though the IR reflects the abundance of small mammals in general it can distort the species ratio in community. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the results obtained with IR were influenced by both resident population density of the species and non-resident activity of small mammals. These factors together explained 88 % of the variance and their contributions in multiple correlation model were r = 0,39 (residents) and r = 0,46 (non-residents) as valued by semipartial correlation.
																								



10.
Spatio-temporal analysis of wildfires in the forest-tundra of Western Siberia

D. V. Moskovchenko1,2, S. P. Aref’ev1,2, M. D. Moskovchenko2, A. A. Yurtaev2
1Tyumen Scientific Center of SB RAS, Tyumen, Russia
2Tyumen State University, Tyumen, Russia
Keywords: Западная Сибирь, лесотундра, природные пожары, космоснимки, дендрохронология, Western Siberia, forest-tundra, natural fires, space images, dendrochronology

Abstract >>
Climate change of recent decades significantly increases the threat of the occurrence and distribution of wildfire in the Northwest Siberia. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal patterns of fires and their relationship with climate and vegetation in this area. As a result of the processing of Landsat satellite images for the period 1985-2017, it was determined that 10.5 % of the Western Siberia forest tundra was exposed to fires. Maximum relative area of burned forests (23 %) was found in larch and spruce-larch lichen woodlands. Geobotanical indicator of increased fire hazard is the dominance of sinusias of epigenic lichens in the vegetation cover. It is shown that the majority of heavily burned areas were distributed in the central part of the forest tundra within largest gas fields. Our results showed a positive significant correlation between square of burnt areas and summer temperature regime (average and maximum summer temperatures) and negative correlation between burned areas and the amount of summer precipitation. Dendrochronological analysis showed that the frequency of fires varied from 15 to 60 years (an average of about 30 years).