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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2019 year, number 2

1.
“Green Tides”: New Consequences of Eutrophication of Natural Waters (Invited Review)

M. I. GLADYSHEV1,2, Yu. I. GUBELIT3
1Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny ave., 79
2Institute of Biophysics, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/50a
3Zoological Institute of RAS, 199034, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 1
Keywords: вредоносное “цветение” водорослей, Ulva, Cladophora, Spirogyra, метафитон, бентификация, harmful algal blooms, metaphyton, benthification

Abstract >>
In the last decades, besides the comparatively well-studied “bloom” caused by phytoplankton, a “bloom” of marine and fresh waters caused by littoral benthic macroalgae of three genera: Ulva , Cladophora and Spirogyra have become a global phenomenon. In the present review, an attempt is made to approach a comprehension why namely these taxa of green filamentous algae start to grow rapidly in spring in many water bodies and streams, including oligotrophic waters, and then float up from bottom forming floating mats (metaphyton), and their decaying masses are washed ashore and cause substantial ecological and economical losses. Peculiar and common ecological and physiological features of Ulva , Cladophora and Spirogyra favorable for the “green tides” formation are considered. Although an eutrophication (supply of nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural lands, industrial and domestic wastewaters, aquaculture) is the evident cause of the increase of algal biomass, a hypothesis is proposed that a location of external fluxes of inorganic nutrients (surface runoff or groundwater discharge) is of the key importance for the “green tides” formation, as well as a biogenic re-direction of internal fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus from pelagial to littoral (benthification). Measures of mitigation of “green tides” are discussed. A necessity of detailed study of metaphytonic form of vegetation of benthic macroalgae is emphasized. It is remarked that a revision of the present concept of oligotrophic/eutrophic waters, which considers only pelagic compartments of aquatic ecosystems is needed.
																								



2.
The Structure of Hydrobiocenoses in Mineral and Thermal Springs of the Baikal Lake Region: A Review

V. V. TAKHTEEV1, I. O. EROPOVA1,2, I. N. EGOROVA3, G. I. KOBANOVA1, D. A. KRIVENKO3,4, A. V. LISHTVA1, G. D. ILYIN1,2, G. I. POMAZKOVA1, G. L. OKUNEVA1, T. Ya. SITNIKOVA5, T. E. PERETOLCHINA5, E. R. KHADEEVA6, O. G. LOPATOVSKAYA1
1Irkutsk State University, 664003, Irkutsk, K. Marx str., 1
2Baikal Museum of the Irkutsk Scientific Center, SB RAS, 664520, Listvyanka village, Irkutsk Oblast, Akademicheskaya str., 1
3Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Lermontova str., 132
4Federal State Institution “Zapovednoye Pribaikalye”, 664050, Irkutsk, Baikal’skaya str., 291B
5Limnological Institute, SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 3
6V. B. Sochava Institute of Geography, SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 1
Keywords: Прибайкалье, минеральные источники, горячие источники, почвы, водоросли, лишайники, сообщества зообентоса, Pribaikaliye, mineral springs, hot springs, soils, algae, lichens, communities of zoobenthos

Abstract >>
The available literature data and materials of own research of 14 mineral and 19 thermal springs of the Lake Baikal region conducted in 1997-2017 are summarized. Soil profiles were made, samples of water, algae, lichens, mosses, vascular plants, qualitative and quantitative samples of zoobenthos were collected. The soils in the area of springs have a short profile and chemical composition corresponding to the water chemistry, they are named “parasoils”. Two hundred fifty seven species of algae were found in mineral springs, most of them (196 species) belong to the diatoms. The lichen flora proved to be non-specific. In the mineral springs 7 species were found, in the surroundings of the thermal springs 100 lower taxa were collected. In the mineral sodium chloride springs 6 types of communities of zoobenthos were distinguished according to the dominant in biomass group of the macroinvertebrates: Gastropoda-like, Turbellaria-like, Chironomidae-like, Amphipoda-like, Psychodidae-like and Ephydridae-like. In thermal springs 4 types of communities of zoobenthos were ascertained: Gastropoda-like (with division into mono-, two- and three-dominant), Odonata-like, Amphipoda-like and Chironomidae-like. High levels of biomass appropriate to the eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes are for the most part characteristic of thermal springs. The species status of endemic to high-thermal springs mollusk Lymnaea thermobaicalica is confirmed.
																								



3.
Autochthonous Bacteriophages in the Structure of the “Microbial Loop” in Different Biotopes of Lake Baikal

V. V. DRUCKER1, O. I. BELYKH1, A. S. GORSHKOVA1, A. A. BONDAR2, N. N. SYKILINDA3
1Limnological Institute, SB RAS, Irkutsk, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 3
2Genomic Core Facility, Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Acedemican Lavrentyev ave., 8
3Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, RAS, Moscow, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10
Keywords: бактериофаги, Байкал, морфотипы, численность, планктон, нейстон, биопленки, bacteriophages, Lake Baikal, morphotypes, abundance, plankton, neuston, biofilms

Abstract >>
The paper presents results of study of autochthonous bacteriophages - previously unknown element in the structure of the “microbial loop” in the ecosystem of deep oligotrophic Lake Baikal. Transmission electron microscopy method was applied to study morphological diversity of phages in the water column, surface microlayer and benthic biofilms at the water-rock (marble, granite, mica, quartz, amphibolite, gabbro, urtite) interface. Data on the size structure of the autochthonous bacteriophages, their quantity, seasonal dynamics and vertical distribution from the surface to the maximum depth of 1200 m in comparison with bacteria are given. A few morphotypes of Baikal autochthonous bacteriophages affecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa are isolated and characterized by means of molecular and genetic methods. Full genomes of a gigantic phage PaBG of the family Myoviridae and MD8 of the family Siphoviridae are determined.
																								



4.
Plankton of Saline Lakes in south-east Transbaikalye: Transformation and Environmental Factors

E. Yu. AFONINA, N. A. TASHLYKOVA
Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Kryology, SB RAS, 672014, Chita, Nedorezova str., 16a
Keywords: фитопланктон, зоопланктон, экологические факторы, трансформация, минеральные озера, Улдза-Торейский бассейн, phytoplankton, zooplankton, environmental factors, transformation, saline lakes, Uldza-Torey basin

Abstract >>
The results of a multi-year study of plankton algae and invertebrates in drainless saline lakes of the Uldza-Torey basin are presented. The plankton communities transformation due to climatic fluctuations was characterized by multidirectionality. The influence of abiotic environmental factors (water level, salinity, pH, water temperature) on the composition, structure and abundance of hydrobionts was estimated.
																								



5.
Biotic Flow of Energy Through the Microbial Food Web in the Pelagic Zone of the Lake Type Ecosystems

V. V. BOULION
Zoological Institute, RAS, 199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 1
Keywords: экосистемы озерного типа, микробиальная пищевая сеть, пастбищная пищевая цепь, биотический поток энергии, моделирование, lake type ecosystems, microbial food web, grazing food chain, biotic energy flow, modeling

Abstract >>
The algorithm of dynamic mass-balance simulating a biotic energy flow in planktonic community containing the microbial organisms has been developed. Inlet parameters of the model are latitude, mean depth of the water body, total phosphorus content and water colour. Biomass and production of the key plankton group are predicted by the model. It is shown that a food base for fish and fish growth depend on extent of protozoan plankton contained in food web.
																								



6.
The Ecological Status of the South-Eastern Part of the Sivash Gulf (the Azov Sea) in Salinity Change Conditions

O. V. SOLOVEVA1, E. A. TIKHONOVA1, S. V. ALYOMOV1, N. V. BURDIYAN1, T. V. VITER1, E. V. GUSEVA1, E. A. KOTELYANETS2, T. A. BOGDANOVA1
1A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Marine Biological Research of RAS, 299011, Sevastopol, Nakhimov ave. 2
2Marine Hydrophisical Institute of RAS, 299011, Sevastopol, Kapitanskaya str. 2
Keywords: залив Сиваш, физико-химические показатели, биогеоценоз, макрозообентос, мейобентос, бактерии, тяжелые металлы, Sivash Gulf, physico-chemical indicators, biogeocenosis, macrozoobenthos, meiobenthos, bacteria, heavy metals

Abstract >>
The estimation of the current ecological state of the Sivash Gulf (the southern part of the Eastern Sivash) was conducted in the conditions of its water regime changes. According to the obtained concentrations of the main pollutants classes, the prevailing type of anthropogenic impact on the ecosystem state of the investigated water area is a reduction in the freshwater runoff. It caused a rise in the salinity of the water. The quantitative indices of the microbial community of sea bottom sediments of the bay characterize their contamination by organic substances. The increase of salinity in the basin caused restructuring of the bottom community main components. Meyo- and macrozoobenthos manifested decrease in biodiversity indicators and change in the taxonomic structure of the biocenosis.
																								



7.
Ecological Characteristic of Micrasterias C. Agardh ex Ralfs (family Desmidiaceae) species in West Siberia (Russia)

Yu. V. NAUMENKO
Central Siberian Botanical Garden, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Desmidiaceae, Micrasterias, водоросли, водные объекты, Западная Сибирь, Россия, algae, water bodies, West Siberia, Russia

Abstract >>
Data on species diversity of Micrasterias C. Agardh ex Ralfs representatives from the water bodies of West Siberia, their occurrence in zones and subzones are generalized. To date 23 specific and intraspecific taxa from the order Desmidiales are known. The representatives of the family occur in mosaic order in all the area of West Siberia. The greatest number of taxa (15) was revealed in middle taiga, significantly less was determined in southern and northern taiga, 9 and 8 taxa, respectively, and 3-5 in other zones. No species were discovered in the steppe zone. Thirteen species (18 taxa) of the genus were found in the lakes of different types, 5 species (7 taxa) in water streams, 4 (5 taxa) in swamps, and 4 species in temporal water bodies. The analysis performed on adaptation of the species to habitat conditions has shown that the representatives of this genus may serve as indicators of acid and brackish water. With relation to mineralization prevail halophobes - 11 taxa, among indicators of pH prevail acidophilous plants - 15 taxa.