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Journal of Mining Sciences

2017 year, number 4

1.
Monitoring Potentially Hazardous Areas at Korobkovo Deposit of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly

V. V. ADUSHKIN1, S. B. KISHKINA1, V. I. KULIKOV1, D. N. PAVLOV1, V. N. ANISIMOV1, N. V. SALTYKOV1, S. V. SERGEEV2, V. G. SPUNGIN1
1Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 38, Bld. 1, Moscow, 119334 Russia
2All-Russian Research Institute on Drainage of Mineral Deposits, Water Protection of Engineering Structures, Special Mining Operations, Geomechanics, Geophysics, Hydraulic Engineering, Geology and Surveying, pr. Bogdana Khmelnitskogo 86, Belgorod, 308007 Russia
Keywords: индуцированная сейсмичность, техногенные землетрясения, жесткость разломов, разломные зоны, геомеханика, массив горных пород, мониторинг, induced seismicity, induced earthquakes, fault stiffness, fault zone, geomechanics, rock mass, monitoring

Abstract >>
The article reports the results obtained in the trial of elements of the monitoring system for potentially hazardous areas at Korobkovo deposit of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly. The system is based on the seismic and deformation measurements aimed to estimate and control shear stiffness of potentially hazardous faults. The fault shear stiffness is estimated through the analysis of parameters of seismic waves in the vicinity of a fault. The sources of seismic signals in the trial were explosions carried out at the neighbor surface and underground mines.
																								



2.
Methods and Models for Analyzing Methane Adsorption Capacity of Coal Based on Its Physicochemical Characteristics

V. N. OPARIN1,2, T. A. KIRYAEVA1, V. P. POTAPOV3
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Institute of Computational Technologies, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Rukavishnikova 21, Kemerovo, 650025 Russia
Keywords: углеметановый пласт, влажность, пористость, выход летучих, петрография, сорбция, метаноемкость, потоковая обработка геомеханических и геодинамических данных, неструк-турированные массивы информации, изотермы Ленгмюра, coalbed methane, moisture content, porosity, volatile yield, petrography, adsorption, methane content, geomechanical and geodynamic data-flow computing, flat data files, Langmuir isotherm

Abstract >>
The authors study the influence of physicochemical parameters on methane adsorption capacity of coal and offer the analytical method for the methane adsorption capacity for three-phased condition of methane. It is found that in the depth interval to 300 m below surface, methane adsorption capacity measured in lab can exceed natural gas content of coal obtained from geological exploration data by 30%, and the change in the thermodynamic condition of coal-methane system brings irreversible physicochemical consequences in terms of the altered ratios of physical states of the main components. There is no linear connection between natural gas content of a coal bed and its methane adsorption capacity with respect to occurrence depth. The application of Big Data in treatment and interpretation of large data flows is described. The theoretical data predicted using the proposed method and the experimental data on methane content of Kuzbass coal agree.
																								



3.
Geomechanical Estimation of Deformation Intensity in Rock Mass above the Flooded Potash Mine

A. A. BARYAKH, N. A. SAMODELKINA
Mining Institute, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sibirskaya 58a, Perm, 614007 Russia
Keywords: затопленный рудник, растворение соляных пород, математическое моделирование, деформации, разрушение, flooded mine, salt rock dissolving, mathematical modeling, deformation, failure

Abstract >>
In focus of the article is minimization of aftereffects of the large-scale accident connected with the flooding of Berezniki Potash Mine in the Perm Krai. The authors construct a synthesized geomechanical model of the flooded mine to show the mining conditions, the process of salt rock dissolution and the elastoplastic behavior of deformation and failure of undermined rock mass in time. Approaches to analyzing intensity of degeneration of load-bearing elements of the open stoping system as a consequence of salt rock dissolving are proposed. The obtained estimates are the parametric framework for prediction of the ground surface deformation using 3D mathematical modeling. The geomechanical calculation results are used in the managerial decision-making on safety of the industrial and civil infrastructure within the hazardous territory.
																								



4.
Analysis of Two-Phase Gas-Water Flow in Carbonate Reservoirs

C. LI1, X. ZHOU2, S. YOU3, J. J. IBRAGIMOV2
1Institute of Porous Flow and Fluid Mechanics, Langfang, Hebei, 65007 China
2Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Leninskii pr. 65, Bld. 1, Moscow, 199991 Russia
3Beijing Huanqiu Contracting & Engineering Corp., Beijin, China
Keywords: карбонат, поровый, трещинный и каверновый типы коллектора, относительная фазовая проницаемость в системе "вода - газ", индикаторные кривые, carbonate rock, matrix pore type, fracture type, solution cave type, gas-water relative permeability, inflow performance relationship

Abstract >>
Gas-water relative permeability (GWP) is measured in the tests of full-diameter cores. Based on the obtained GWP curves, the standard normalized curves are plotted for three types of carbonate reservoirs: matrix pore, fracture and solution pore. The corresponding gas and water two-phase flow model was deduced by considering stress sensitivity and non-Darcy effect, and the IPR curve calculation and analysis of gas wells of the three types were carried out. Based on huge gap between the matrix and fracture permeability, the phenomenon of gas drive water mainly exists in the cracks. So the conventional gas-water relative permeability of fractured gas reservoirs was modified. The research will lay the foundation for the application of gas reservoir engineering calculation with the production and application of numerical simulation technology to make dynamic forecast.
																								



5.
Gas Content and Structure of Coal in Donetsk Basin

E. V. UL'YANOVA1, O. N. MALINNIKOVA1, A. V. BURCHAK2, A. K. BALALAEV2, V. I. BARANOVSKY2
1Academician Melnikov Institute of Integrated Mineral Development, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2Polyakov Institute of Geotechnical Mechanics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, ul. Simferopolskaya 24, Dnepropetrovsk, 49005 Ukraine
Keywords: ископаемый уголь, метаморфизм, газоносность, палеопузырьки, структура, методы спектроскопии, fossil coal, rank, gas content, paleo-bubbles, structure, spectroscopy methods

Abstract >>
The integrated study of coal is performed using methods of optical and electron paramagnetic resonances, infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that gas content of coal is governed by the rank of coal and its material constitution as well as by the coal bed structure at the macro-, micro- and nano-levels which interwork. It is discovered that the size and amount of bubbles, of paleo-origin presumably, and the content of coalbed methane are related. The influence of each scale level of the coal bed structure on the gas content is revealed. The authors illustrate benefits of the integrated study of gas-bearing coal with the physical methods that complement one the other at different levels of coal structure.
																								



6.
Finding Forces Required to Changing Air Hammer Path in Soil

B. B. DANILOV1, B. N. SMOLYANITSKY1,2, A. I. CHANYSHEV1,3, D. O. CHESHCHIN1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Siberian State Transport University, ul. D. Kovalchuk 191, Novosibirsk, 630049 Russia
3Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management, ul. Kamenskaya 56, Novosibirsk, 630099 Russia
Keywords: скважина, пневмопробойник, отклоняющее устройство, жесткопластическая среда, условие Кулона - Мора, предельные нагрузки, hole, air hammer, deviator, rigid-plastic medium, Mohr-Coulomb yield, limit loads

Abstract >>
The authors solve the problem on forces required to change drilling path of air hammers in soil. Soil mass is assumed a rigid-plastic medium with the Mohr-Coulomb yield, and the air hammer deviator is considered as a nondeformable body. The problem is solved in two stages: introduction of the deviator in soil and travel of the air hammer in soil with the rear deviated at a certain angle. The loads applied to the rear, the forces and the moment required to changing the path of an air hammer in soil are calculated.
																								



7.
Load-Bearing Capacity of Spiroid Gears of Mining Machine Drives under Peak Loads

V. N. ANFEROV, R. K. KOVALENKO
Siberian State Transport University, ul. D. Kovalchuk 191, Novosibirsk, 630049 Russia
Keywords: спироидная передача, зацепление, задиростойкость, заедание, spiroid gear, gearing, scoring resistance, jamming

Abstract >>
The substantiated dimensionless criterion of jamming characterizes relationship between the temperature of the contact links of spiroid gearing and the load-bearing capacity of an oil film. Based on the review of the existing tribotechnical systems used in scoring resistance testing, a physical model of spiroid gearing is selected. The test data obtained on a rolling-and-disc scheme of a friction assembly are presented. The relations between the friction coefficient in the spiroid gearing and the unit load are determined for the steel-steel material couples in a range of slip velocities and temperatures. A design procedure for spiroid gearing with respect to jamming is proposed.
																								



8.
Variation in Energy and Production Data of Pneumatic Percussive Machines in the Uplands

V. E. EREM'YANTS
Kyrgyz-Russia Slavic University named after B.N. Eltsin, ul. Kievskaya 44, Bishkek, 720000
Keywords: двигатель, компрессорная станция, пневматическая ударная машина, разрушение пород, высокогорье, атмосферное давление, коэффициент полезного действия, производительность, энергоемкость, motor, compressor plant, pneumatic percussive machine, rock breakage, uplands, atmospheric pressure, efficiency, productiveness, energy intake

Abstract >>
Under study is a production system composed of a power motor, compressor, pneumatic percussive machine and a treated medium. Based on the generalized theoretical and experimental data, the author relates productiveness of pneumatic percussive machines, energy intake of rock breakage in the uplands with the rare atmosphere and elevation of the machine work site above sea level. The obtained results offer a reason-why approach to selection of the pneumatic percussive machine parameters for operation in the uplands.
																								



9.
Technical Approach to Prediction of Dragline Productiveness in Blasted Rock Handling at Open Pit Mines in Permafrost Zone

S. V. PANISHEV, M. V. KAIMONOV
Chersky Institute of Mining of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lenina 43, Yakutsk, 677980 Russia
Keywords: карьер, криолитозона, многолетнемерзлые породы, смерзание, температура пород, драглайн, математическое моделирование, open pit mine, permafrost zone, permafrost formations, adfreezing, rock temperature, dragline, mathematical modeling

Abstract >>
The authors describe a technical approach to validating efficient regimes and process flow charts for draglines in open pit mining in permafrost zone; the approach integrates modeling data on temperature conditions of permafrost treated by blasting, geometrical parameters of a dragline face and interaction of work cycle time and face rock temperature in different seasons. It is shown that a dragline has the appreciably reduced productivity in slice-by-slice handling of broken-rock disintegration having negative temperature.
																								



10.
Method of Shaping Loading-and-Transportation System in Deep Open Pit Complex Ore Mines

T. M. KUMYKOVA, V. KH. KUMYKOV
Serikbaev East Kazakhstan State Technical University, ul. A. K. Protozanova 69, Ust-Kamenogorsk, 070004 Republic of Kazakhstan
Keywords: статистические испытания, комплекс “экскаватор - автосамосвал”, негабариты, кусковатость, забой, карьер, statistical tests, shovel-dump truck system, oversizes, lumpiness, face, open pit mine

Abstract >>
The article presents a procedure to select loading and transportation machines for an open pit complex ore mine. The choice of a shovel-dump truck production system is validated using a statistical testing method (Monte Carlo technique). Stop-watch readings allowed relating the productivity of the production system, degree of ore fragmentation and content of oversizes; the soundness of the choice of the production system based on the revealed criterion was proved. Using the law of the Palm flows, the authors determine the number and sequence of dump trucks for loading in a one-server system.
																								



11.
Modification of Structural, Chemical and Process Properties of Rare Metal Minerals under Treatment by High-Voltage Nanosecond Pulses

V. A. CHANTURIA, I. ZH. BUNIN, M. V. RYAZANTSEVA, E. L. CHANTURIA, I. A. KHABAROVA, E. V. KOPORULINA, N. E. ANASHKINA
Academician Melnikov Institute of Integrated Mineral Development, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: колумбит, танталит, циркон, полевой шпат, РФЭ-спектроскопия, микроскопия, физико-химические, электрические и флотационные свойства, микротвердость, мощные электромагнитные импульсы, columbite, tantalite, zircon, feldspar, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical properties, electric properties, flotation properties, microhardness, high-power electromagnetic pulses

Abstract >>
The authors have studied the mechanism of the controlled modification of composition, structure, chemistry, physicochemical and process properties of columbite, tantalite, zircon and feldspar at the meso-, micro- and nanoscales after nonthermal treatment by high-voltage nanosecond electromagnetic pulses. The studies used the methods of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, potentiometric titration, electromigration chromatography, Kelvin probe force microscopy, microhardness metering and assessment of hydrophobic behavior and flotation activity of the minerals. It is found that the change in the chemical state of atoms on the surface of the minerals is mainly connected with the sequential transformation of stages in the process of formation and modification of the functional cover of a mineral surface, with the variation in the ratio of different type hydroxyl groups on the surface of columbite, zircon and feldspar, which conditions contrast physicochemical properties of rare metal minerals and improves selectivity of their separation by flotation.
																								



12.
Part of Physical Adsorption in Flotation

S. A. KONDRAT'EV, E. A. BURDAKOVA
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: флотация, ксантогенаты, химическая и физическая формы сорбции, критерий выбора реагента собирателя, поверхностное давление, flotation, xanthates, physical and chemical adsorption, collecting agent selection criterion, surface pressure

Abstract >>
The authors analyze collecting capacity of desorbable species of xanthates. Desorbable species of a reagent are understood as the species capable to transfer from mineral particle to air bubble, i.e. to gas-liquid interface, at the moment of rupture of an interlayer between these interacting objects. Flotation process performance is evaluated at the presence of a mixed coating resulting from physical and chemical adsorption and in the presence of a chemosorption coating only. The rates of spreading products of interaction between butyl ethyl xanthates and lead nitrate over water surface are found. The spreading rates and collecting capacities of the mentioned reagents are correlated. It is found that an increase in the length of the hydrocarbon fragment increases collecting capacity of a reagent and the rate of spreading of its products over water surface.
																								



13.
Effect of Pulse-Discharge Treatment on Structural and Chemical Properties and Floatability of Sulfide Minerals

N. K. ALGEBRAISTOVA1, E. A. BURDAKOVA1, A. S. ROMANCHENKO2, A. S. MARKOVA1, D. M. KOLOTUSHKIN1, A. V. ANTONOV2
1Siberian Federal University, pr. Svobodnyi 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
2Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Akademgorodok 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
Keywords: руды цветных металлов, разрядно-импульсная обработка, гранулометрический состав, флотация, рентгеновская фотоэлектронная спектроскопия, халькопирит, молибденит, ferrous metal ore, pulse-discharge treatment, particle-size distribution, flotation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, chalcopyrite, molybdenite

Abstract >>
In terms of sulfide copper-molybdenum ore of Sorsk stockwork deposit (Republic of Khakasia), the authors discuss the option of selective dissociation of minerals. The scope of the discussion embraces effect of pulsed-discharge treatment on particle-size indexes, structural and chemical properties and floatability of objects of the study. It is shown that the pulse-discharge treatment in a greater degree influences copper sulfides and levels their floatability while surface of molybdenite undergoes minor alteration. The pulse-discharge treatment allows enhancing flotation selectivity efficiency in separation of copper sulfides and molybdenite, and promotes removal of hydrophobic molybdenite film from quartz surface, which results in production of high-quality molybdenite concentrates.
																								



14.
Application of the Environmentally Non-Aggressive Dissolvents to Mobilization of Metals in Tailings in the Norilsk Region

A. G. MIKHAILOV, M. YU. KHARITONOVA, I. I. VASHLAEV, M. L. SVIRIDOVA
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Akademgorodok 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
Keywords: Хвосты обогащения, водные растворы солей металлов, цветные и благородные металлы, выщелачивание, гумусовые кислоты, лигнин, tailings, water solutions of metal salts, nonferrous and noble metals, leaching, humus acids, lignin

Abstract >>
Under analysis is on-site extractability of nonferrous and noble metals from tailings by leaching using natural reagents (humus acids, water, lignin). Redistribution of nonferrous and noble metals in percolation bed made of old tailings in the Norilsk copper-nickel ore field is studied. Kinetics of dissolving of nonferrous and noble metals under capillary ascensional percolation is investigated. It is shown that directional capillary percolation of solutions is applicable to extraction of nonferrous and noble metals from long-term storage mining waste.
																								



15.
Rebellious Gold Extraction from Gravity Concentrates and Placer Tailings by Chemical Reagents

V. S. ALEKSEEV, T. S. BANSHCHIKOVA
Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
Keywords: техногенные россыпи, вторичная переработка, “упорное” золото, концентрирование золота, гидрофильность золота, химический реагент, амальгамирование, mining waste, secondary treatment, rebellious gold, gold concentration, hydrophilic property of gold, chemical reagent, amalgamation

Abstract >>
When gold occurs in mining waste for a long time, it becomes coated with dense films of hydroxide of iron, manganese, copper and silver sulfides, hydromica powder and clayey particles, which greatly complicates concentration of such gold by gravity. An efficient method to remove such coatings from gold is treatment of waste using chemical reagents based on halogen-containing compounds. The article presents experimental results on extraction of fine gold from tailings of sluice boxes and dredging classifiers using such chemical reagents.
																								



16.
Integrated Processing Technology for Calcium-Bearing Alumosilicate Raw Material

V. S. RIMKEVICH1, A. P. SOROKIN1,2, A. A. PUSHKIN1, I. V. GIRENKO1
1Institute of Geology and Nature Management, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, per. Relochnyi 1, Blagoveshchensk, 67500 Russia
2Amur Science Center, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, per. Relochnyi 1, Blagoveshchensk, 67500 Russia
Keywords: кальцийсодержащее алюмосиликатное сырье, физико-химическая переработка, комплексное извлечение, инновационная технология, аморфный кремнезем, глинозем, полезные компоненты, calcium-bearing alumosilicate raw material, physicochemical treatment, integrated extraction, innovative technology, amorphous silica, alumina, useful elements

Abstract >>
The undertaken research is aimed to reveal optimal physicochemical conditions for deep conversion of calcium-bearing alumosilicate raw material. An innovative technology of integrated extraction of nano-dispersion amorphous silica, alumina, calcium fluoride and other useful elements has been developed.
																								



17.
Effect of a Crushing Technique on Lead-Zinc Ore Processing Performance

N. G. BARNOV1, A. A. LAVRINENKO2, O. G. LUSINYAN2, V. V. CHIKHLADZE2
1Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Crystal Chemistry of Rare Elements, ul. Veresaeva 15, Moscow, 121357 Russia
2Academician Melnikov Institute of Integrated Mineral Development, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: свинцово-цинковая руда, дробление, объемное сжатие, гранулометрический состав продуктов, обогащение, магнитная сепарация, флотация, lead-zinc ore, crushing, triaxial compression, grain-size distribution, processing, magnetic separation, flotation

Abstract >>
Under consideration is the influence of various crushing techniques on the particle-size distribution and selectivity of dissociation of basic mineral components in the composition of Dalnegorsk complex ore under pretreatment. Distribution of basic elements per size grades is determined in crushing feed and in products of magnetic separation and flotation. Conditions of preparation and separation of disintegration products are described. The authors illustrate the change in the dissociation selectivity criterion in jaw crushing and in disintegration in press to prepare different size ore for processing by magnetic separation and flotation.
																								



18.
Analytical Description of Surface of Blasting-Formed Underground Cavities by Laser Scanning Data

V. N. OPARIN1,2, V. F. YUSHKIN1, V. K. KLIMKO3, D. E. RUBLEV1, A. S. IZOTOV1, A. V. IVANOV4
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasny prospect 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogiva 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3EVRAZRUDA, ul. Lenina 21, Tashtagol, 652970 Russia
4Siberian State University of Geosystems and Technologies, ul. Plakhotnogo 10, Novosibirsk, 630108 Russia
Keywords: рудный массив, вид напряженного состояния, взрыв зарядов, подземная камера, лазерное сканирование, формы поверхности камеры, блочно-иерархическое строение, метод аналитического описания, эффект зональной дезинтеграции, ore body, stress state types, charge explosion, underground cavity, laser scanning, cavity surface form, hierarchical block structure, analytical description, zonal disintegration

Abstract >>
In terms of Tashtagol Mine, the authors address the issues connected with the determination of surface shape in cavities formed by blasts of explosive charges in high-stress rock mass structured as a hierarchy of blocks. Laser scanning of a cavity offers the data on linear and angular characteristics of the cavity surface. The analysis of the surface structure provides details of the rock mass block hierarchy, which essentially influences formation of the roof and sidewalls of the cavity. Individual areas of the cavity surface are described with the help of approximation of measured coordinates of the cavity boundary in the cross sections using the second order curves, including circumferences and ellipses the radius of which are canonically connected with the phenomenon of zonal disintegration of rock mass.