Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia



Advanced Search

Philosophy of Sciences

2016 year, number 3

1.
SPECIFICALLY SCIENTIFIC AND ABSTRACTLY SPECULATIVE TRAITS IN THE WORLDVIEW OF EARLY SPINOZA

V.P. Goran
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaeva st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Спиноза, Декарт, монизм, дуализм, материализм, пантеизм, субстанция, атрибут, протяжение, мышление, абстрактно-спекулятивная и конкретно-научная составляющие миропонимания, Spinoza, Descartes, monism, dualism, materialism, pantheism, substance, attribute, extent, mentality, abstractly speculative and specifically scientific components of worldview

Abstract >>
The earliest work of Spinoza is discussed in order to reveal specifically scientific and abstractly speculative components in his position. The influence of each component is discussed in the context of the earliest work, as well as consequent works of Spinoza. It is claimed that abstractly speculative theoretising of Spinoza was substantially complemented and concretized by his reliance on specifically scientific knowledge. As the result, his picture of the world can be characterized by integrity and his worldview as of monistic type.
																								



2.
CLASSICAL EVOLUTIONARY EPISTEMOLOGY OF SCIENCE TESTIFIES AGAINST SCIENTIFIC REALISM

I.A. Kuzin
National Research University "Higher School of Economics", 21/4, Staraya Basmannaya st., Moscow, 105066, Russia
Keywords: адаптационизм, Б. ван Фраассен, научный реализм, научный прогресс, эволюционный прогресс, эволюционная эпистемология, B. adaptationism, van Fraassen, scientific realism, scientific progress, evolutionary progress, evolutionary epistemology

Abstract >>
Nowdays every serious attempt to justify scientific realism is obliged to somehow manage van Fraassen’s employment of evolutionary epistemology against the important realistic «no-miracles argument». Thus a systematic translation of arguments pro et contra sufficiency of natural selection for evolutionary progress into epistemological language is needed. The main thesis of this paper is that it is difficult and maybe even impossible to reconcile scientific realism with classic evolutionary epistemology based on selectionist models.
																								



3.
THE SUBSTITUTIONAL QUANTIFICATION IN BASIC LOGIC AND ONTOLOGICAL COMMITMENTS IN FORMAL MATHEMATICAL THEORIES

V. Tselishchev1,2, A. Bessonov1,2
1Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogov St., Novosibirsk, 630090
2Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch RAS, 8, Nikolaev St., Novosibirsk, 630090
Keywords: семантика, онтологические допущения, подстановочная квантификация, атомарные предложения, истина, semantics, ontological assumptions, substitutional quantification, atomic sentences, truth

Abstract >>
The article deals with problems of semantics for the substitutional quantification in contrast with objectual quantification, and related ontological commitments of theories. Three difficulties with the substitution quantification is considered, namely, the argument about the lack of names, the argument about the redundancy of numeric characters, the argument of the unnamed objects. It is shown that the Geach- Lavine semantics is quite satisfactory for establishing the equivalence of two interpretations.
																								



4.
ON PROBLEM OF UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ON THE BASIS OF THEIR APPLICATION

V.M. Reznikov
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: дедуктивно-номологическая схема, общие законы, неявное знание, применимость математики, теория, модель, объяснение, понимание, теория вероятностей, Гемпель, Колмогоров, Райл, де Регт, deductive-nomological model, general laws, implicit knowledge, applicability of mathematics, theory, model, explanation, understanding, probability theory, Hempel, Kolmogorov, Ryle, de Regt

Abstract >>
In the deductive - nomological formalization of Hempel the explanations of studied phenomena are grounded on the laws of nature, but understanding of phenomena is connected with obtaining explanations. In contemporary philosophy of science researchers believe that the explanation of phenomena under study is based on using the models of the theory which is intelligible to the users of this theory. The application of a lot of formal theories and their models is not a simple task, since the formal techniques are intended for studying abstract mathematical objects rather than real data. Hence, formulating the conditions under which formal theories and their models can be correctly applied for the analysis of real phenomena and real data becomes topical. The article presents a formulation of some conditions of applying the probability theory and the parametric statistical analysis on the basis of the notion introduced by the author - the base property of the objects of mathematical theory.
																								



5.
EPISTEMOLOGICAL SPECIFICITY OF EXPERIMENT IN POST-NON-CLASSICAL SCIENCE

N.V. Bryanik
First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin Ural Federal University, 51, Lenina av., Ekaterinburg, 620000, Russia
Keywords: постнеклассическая наука, компьютеризация, космизация, математизация эксперимента, натурный эксперимент, компьютерный эксперимент, структурно-функциональное моделирование, имитационное компьютерное моделирование, Post-non-classical science, computerization, сosmization, mathematization of experiment, natural / computer experiment, object, the subject, structurally functional and imitating computer modeling

Abstract >>
The article deals with essential changes in experiment taking place in the second half of twentieth century, when it becomes post-non-classical. Two such distinctive feature of experiment in post-non-classical science as computerization and kosmization are examined. The comparative analysis of natural and computer experiments is offered, the author finds out their interrelation and cognitive functions. The analysis of changes in object, the subject, technology and means of experimental activity which are related to its kosmization is undertaken.
																								



6.
"EPISTEMIC REDEEMER": THE CODE OF TRICKS USED TO LEGITIMATE NONSENSE

D.V. Vinnik
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: эпистемология, философия науки, теории истины, бессмыслица, иррационализм, постмодернизм, кризис науки, синергетика, квантовая механика, культурология, epistemology, philosophy of science, truth theories, nonsense, irrationalism, postmodernism, crisis of science, synergetics, quantum mechanics, cultural studies

Abstract >>
The paper deals with the aspect of the crisis of knowledge which shows a profound exhaustion of classical ideas of objective truth. This aspect of the crisis is the result of both intentional and irreflexive passion of the so called non-classical forms rationality, speculative theoretical-cognitive concepts and hidden [latent] forms of anti-scientism and irrationalism. We analyze typical tricks used to legitimate nonsense and pseudo-scientific texts, those are the appeal to Godel theorem, quantum mechanics and fuzzy logic, an incorrect use of results obtained in synergetics and culture anthropology, redtaping texts, the abuse of etymological reduction and the approach employed in linguo-cultural studies.
																								



7.
L. CHIZHEVSKY AND E. SHREDINGER: WHAT IS LIFE?

G.I. Lovetsky, O.A. Padalka
Kaluga of MSTU, 2, Bazhenov st., Kaluga, 248000, Russia
Keywords: А.Л.Чижевский, Э. Шредингер, электронная теория, энтропия, эволюция идеи зарождения жизни, A.L. Chizhevsky, E. Shredinger, electron theory, entropy, the evolution of the idea of the origin of life

Abstract >>
The ideas of A. L. Chizhevsky and E. Shredinger about the origin and development of life laid the Foundation for the formation of the modern scientific picture in the framework of this question. The development of the problems at the interface of natural science and philosophical trends allows us to consider the study basis in the context of current theories of metaphysics, and also admits the possibility of the universalization of dynamic processes of the cosmos and of the living cell.
																								



8.
THE ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE AND THE IDEA OF MULTIPLE UNIVERSES - I

A.L. Simanov
Institute Philosophy and Law SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: принцип, антропный принцип, Вселенная, мультивселенная, фундаментальные постоянные, сингулярность, пространство-время, процесс, principle, anthropic principle, the Universe, multiverse, fundamental constants, singularity, space-time, process

Abstract >>
The article proves the conclusion that the anthropic principle does not arise from an analysis of processes taking place in nature and that is why it cannot explain the specific character of our Universe by itself. Moreover, in the context of the idea that there exists a multitude of universes it becomes “empty”, for each universe, including our one, is so what it is because of natural processes which form it, but not as a result of the anthropic principle effect.
																								



9.
FROM THE HISTORY OF ANTIQUE METEOROLOGY: ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA

E.V. Afonasin1,2
1Institute of Philosophy and Law, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: эмпирическая наука, погодные явления, Аристотель, Теофраст, Сенека, empirical sciences, weather signs, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Seneca

Abstract >>
In the first two articles of a series of studies dedicated to ancient meteorology (Filosofiya nauki, 68-69 [2016]) I discussed the method and content of Pseudo-Theophrastus’ On weather signs, translated a short treatise On the location and names of the winds, traditionally included in the Corpus Aristotelicum, and discussed various theories, designed in Antiquity for explanation of the origin and development of winds and hurricanes. In this article, based on Aristotle’s Meteorology, the Meteorology of Theophrastus in Syriac and Arabic Translation and Seneca's Naturales Questiones, I approach various ancient theories of thunderstorms, rain, smog, hail, etc., and, in the second part of the article, these of comets, meteors and other optic atmospheric phenomena.
																								



10.
ON SOME PROBLEMS OF INCLUSION OF RUSSIAN JOURNALS IN RSCI

M.Yu. Osipov
Institute of jurisprudence and management of VPA, 98, Boldin st., Tula, 30028, Russia
Keywords: наука, наукометрика, научные журналы, импакт-фактор, критерии отбора, международные базы цитирования, science, nanometric, scientific journals, impact factor, selection criteria, international database citation

Abstract >>
The problem of representation of Russian journals in the international bases of citing is one of the urgent problems facing modern science. One of the means of promotion of Russian journals in international citation database is the RSCI project, a joint project of the Russian science citation index and Web of Science. The subject of the research is to develop scientifically based criteria for inclusion of a journal in RSCI. The author, using the data of the scientometric studies of science, concludes that the selection of journals in RSCI was a significant influence of psychological and organizational factors, rather than objective and scientific. The author concludes about the necessity of primarily relying on objective scientometric indicators of the journal in its selection for presentation in the international bases of citing, rather than the subjective opinion of members of the selection Committee, particularly on such indicators as the ranking of Science index, index of scientific relevance, the impact factor of the journal etc. The results of the research can used to improve selection of scientific journals in the international citation base