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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2014 year, number 3

1.
From the Editor-in-Chief

A. A. Onuchin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation

																								



2.
Development of Forest Population Biology and Biogeocenology in the Urals

S. N. Sannikov, N. S. Sannikova, I. V. Petrova, S. A. Shavnin
Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202, Ekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
Keywords: forest population biology, population, coniferous, biogeocenosis, microecosystem, genetics, microevolution, ecology, geography, Urals

Abstract >>
The priority directions, concepts, approaches, methods and results of half a century investigations of forest genetics, ecology, geography and biogeocenology in the Ural school of population biology of woody plants are briefly discussed. The results of quantitative genetic-ecologic-geographical studies of the forests based on population approaches as well as main theoretic generalizations are presented, to assist possible interpretation and development of future investigations.
																								



3.
Studies of Fire Nature in the Forests of Siberia

P. A. Tsvetkov1, L. V. Buryak2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Siberian State Technological University, Prospekt Mira, 82, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russian Federation
Keywords: studies of forest fire nature, increase of forest fire resistance, fire impact on forest formation, fire management, Siberia

Abstract >>
An analytical review of forest fires in the forests of Siberia from literature data published over the past 50 years is given. Prior to 1970 the main attention in publications was given to the investigation of fire nature in the southern taiga and mountain forests of Western and Central Siberia, Altai and Trans-Baikal. From 1971 to 1980, publications were characterized by wider aspects of forest fire research and expansion of the geographical area of coverage. In the next 15–20 years, the main consideration was given to the impact of fires on forest formation process, fire emissions, carbon balance, and fire management’ problems. Also in this paper, the main trends and goals for future research are determined.
																								



4.
Forest Fires Under Abnormal Weather Conditions in Central Siberia

E. N. Valendik1, Ye. K. Kisilyakhov1, V. A. Ryzhkova1, E. I. Ponomarev1, J. G. Goldammer2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2The Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC), Fire Ecology Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry c/o Freiburg University / United Nations University, Georges-Koehler-Allee 75, Freiburg, D-79110 Germany
Keywords: large and catastrophic forest fires, droughts, planetary atmospheric circulation, extreme fire season, Central Siberia

Abstract >>
Occurrence of forest fires and their development to large and catastrophic wildfires are considered for Central Siberia taiga subzones under abnormal drought conditions. The combination of natural conditions that determine the appearance and spread of these fires are given for drought conditions. A map of the large wildfires distribution in the boreal forest subzones of Central Siberia is compiled for 1979 to 2011. A brief analysis is made of dry periods and their relation to the planetary atmospheric processes, as well as the possibility of wildfires escalating in boreal forests and mountain forests of southern Siberia under climate warming.
																								



5.
Fire Impact on Subtaiga Larch Forest Ecosystems of the Eastern Khentey Area in Mongolia

Yu. N. Krasnoshchekov1, M. D. Evdokimenko1, Ch. Dorjsuren2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Institute of Botany, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Zhukov avenue, 77, Ulaanbaatar, 210351 Mongolia
Keywords: ground litter-humus fires, radial increment of trees, production process, living ground cover successions, soil morphology, water-phуsical and physicochemical properties of soils, erosion-preventive soil stability, the Eastern Khentei, Mongolia

Abstract >>
The data of experimental studies on post-fire dynamics in subtaiga larch forests in the Eastern Khentey area in Mongolia are analyzed in the paper. It has been revealed that ground litter–humus fires are the major destructive factor in forest dynamics. The impact of intense ground fire on root systems causes tree mortality, and the survival of the trees after a fire depends on character and severity of the fire damage. In extreme fire situations dead larch tree stands are replaced by secondary birch forests. The characteristics and dynamics of the lower forest vegetation layers under the influence of fires of varying intensity and duration are presented. The negative fire impact on soil properties is shown.
																								



6.
Pyrogenic Transformations of the Baikal Lake Forests. Retrospective and Contemporary Issues

M. D. Yevdokimenko
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: forest fire, fire regime, fire-caused stand changes, degradation, economical development of forest lands, forest fire activity, deforestation, Baikal lake forests

Abstract >>
In the forests of the Baikal Lake basin annual fire activity historically has been higher as compared to surrounding forest areas due to specific climatic conditions and altitude-controlled vegetation structure. The regional forests, predominantly light coniferous, develop under a high or, in dry years, extreme-fire-activity regime. Common pine and larch tree stands of fire origin are periodically thinned by fire. The productivity of the fire-intact parts of such stands decreases as a result of fire-caused soil condition disturbances. In extreme fire years, large fires cover landscapes and lead to irreversible forest ecosystem degradation and, hence, to local deforestation. In the past, forest fire activity and area burned increased with increasing use of the regional forests beginning with hunting, wood extraction by dwellers of local settlements, Trans-Siberian Rail Road building and, finally, industrial-scale logging. In 1970–1980, the regional fire situation was successfully controlled due to improvements of forest use and protection. However, the recently relaxed forest economy standards have resulted in loss of the progress achieved.
																								



7.
Geography of Phytomass, Net Primary and Specific Primary Production of Larch Forests Within Eurasia

V. A. Usoltsev1,2, D. S. Gavrilin2, V. P. Chasovskikh2, A. V. Bornikov3, Yu. V. Noritsina1
1Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
2Ural State Forest Engineering University, Sibirskii trakt, 37, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
3Orenburg State Agrarian University, Chelyuskintscev str., 18, Orenburg, 460014 Russian Federation
Keywords: larch forests, genus Larix Mill, phytomass, net primary production, specific net primary production, natural zoning, index of climate continentality, Eurasia

Abstract >>
Statistically significant transcontinental changes of biomass, net primary production (NPP) and specific primary production (SNPP) of all wood fractions and understory layer of larch forests on the territory from the United Kingdom to the Japan and South of China, using data of 540 sample plots with the definitions of phytomass and 116 plots with the definitions of NPP and phytomass are stated. Larch forests of Eurasia have substantial regional differences on biomass, NPP and SNPP, which are largely determined by climate peculiarities.
																								



8.
Woodland: Dynamics of Deciduous Tree Stand Average Diameters of the Principal Forest Types

R. A. Ziganshin1, A. V. Kachaev2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Siberian Federal University, Prospekt Svobodny, 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russian Federation
Keywords: woodland, deciduous tree stands, forest types, average diameters, age dynamics, Highland Khamar-Daban, South-East Baikal Lake region

Abstract >>
The analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of a deciduous tree stands of different forest types at Highland Khamar–Daban (natural woodland in South–East Baikal Lake region) has been done. The aggregate data of average tree stand diameters by age classes, as well as tree stand current periodic and overall average increment are presented and discussed in the paper. Forest management appraisal is done.
																								



9.
Ordination of Forest Types by Climate and Terrain Indices at Ulughem Forest Plant District in the Republic of Tuva

R. T. Murzakmatov, V. L. Koshkarova, S. K. Farber
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: forest types, climate and land forms indices, digital terrain model of a land forms, mapping of plant communities, Ulughem forest plant district, Republic of Tuva

Abstract >>
A diversity of forest establishment conditions is defined by a combination of values of heat and moisture. On district fields establishment varies depending on land forms indexes. The absolute height, level, and exposition have dimension. For problem solving of mapping of plant community's there is a possibility of use of digital models of land forms. In the paper, interrelation of forest types with climate and land form indexes with forest establishment at Ulughem Forest District with the use of a of straight line ordination method has been revealed. Ordination results are a scientific substantiation for mapping, both of plant communities, and of their environmental niches.
																								



10.
Defense Response Characteristics of Suburban Pine Stands of Krasnoyarsk City at Early Stage of Anthropogenous Damage

G. G. Polyakova1, V. A. Senashova1, M. V. Polyakov2, N. V. Pashenova1
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Academician M. F. Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University, Prospekt Krasnoyarski Rabochi, 31, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 Russian Federation
Keywords: Ceratocystis laricicola, fungal extractives, stem phloem, defense response, suburban pine stands, permanent sample plots, anthropogenous damage, Krasnoyarsk city

Abstract >>
In 2002–2013, on permanent sample plots (PPs), the condition of suburban middle-aged pine stands of Krasnoyarsk was investigated. Annual assessments of parameters of defense response of stem phloem of the sample trees on the action of extractives from mycelium Ceratocystis laricicola (Redfern & Minter) were carried out. The size of a phloem necrosis and its shift along a stem relative to inoculation hole were measured. The pine stands (polluted and conditionally background) are convenient for determining condition changes at early stages of damage. These stands are affected by different anthropogenic factors, but don't differ in vigor state as visually estimated on a 6-point scale of Forest Regulation of Russian Federation. PPs have similar forest inventory characteristics, except for PPs on an edge of polluted pine forest where the site class is reduced. Significant shift of necrosis in phloem up on a stem within two years following a year when there was a spring creeping fire is registered. It proves the reversal of normal basipetal transport of assimilates toward crown and feasibility of using necrosis asymmetry for assessment of fire influence on physiological condition of pine stands. The increase of necroses size (decrease of resistance) after a fire was noted during later period in comparison with reversal of transport of assimilates in the stem. Influence of a chemical burn of needles on acropetal shift of necrosis was expressed to a lesser extent in comparison with a fire.
																								



11.
The Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Tomsk Region. Problems of Sustainable Forest Use

N. M. Debkov, A. M. Danchenko
National Research Tomsk State University, Prospekt Lenina, 36, Tomsk, 634050 Russian Federation
Keywords: the Siberian stone pine stands near settlements, problems of sustainable forest use, Tomsk region

Abstract >>
A review of the Siberian stone pine stands' formation near settlements in Tomsk region is given in historical aspect. Their current status is described in detail. Age, tree species, and typological structure, as well as productivity and dynamics of forest inventory indices have been identified. Forest management practices in leased and non-leased Siberian stone pine stands have been analyzed. The ways and procedures for an expansion of the existing Siberian stone pine stands and creation of new Siberian stone pine forests near settlements is proposed.
																								



12.
The Results of Complex Selective Logging in Beech-Hornbeam Tree Stands of the Greater Caucasus in Azerbaijan

A. B. Yakhyaev, V. S. Farzaliev
Central Botanical Garden, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Patamdart Highway, 40, Baku, AZ1037 Azerbaijan
yahyayev-azasu@bk.ru
Keywords: complex selective logging, thinning, natural regeneration, the preservation of the undergrowth, the intensity of logging, increase in stock, the Greater Caucasus, Azerbaijan

Abstract >>
The results of complex selective logging conducted in beech-hornbeam tree stands on the northeastern slope of the Greater Caucasus are analyzed in the paper. Experiments were carried out in two forestry districts, involving beech stands, comprising 2–3 units, with 30° slopes, in beech forests with woodruff, fescue and forb forest types. It has been revealed that for recovering the main tree species, as well as for increasing productivity and sustainability of the beech–hornbeam tree stands, which was spread out in the northern exposures, 2–3 repetitions of complex selective logging are recommended. It is recommended that in order to increase the amount of beech in the tree stand composition to 6–8 units in young stands and to 4–6 units at the slopes of south exposures, to complete 3–4 thinning operations, with the increasing beech share to 4–5 units in the upper story and in the undergrowth.
																								



13.
Impact of Pine Population Density on Tree Size Variability

V. V. Kuzmichev, L. S. Pshenichnikova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: pine populations density, age dynamics, variability of the tree diameters and heights, pine plantations, southern taiga, Krasnoyarsk territory

Abstract >>
Variability of diameters of trees is considered in connection with density change of pine plantings with the age of 12 to 30 years. It has been revealed that there is a decrease in the maximum and average diameters due to increase in density in a limited range of density, which decreases with increasing age. Variability of average heights on all variants of experience in different years remains almost constant. There is essentially a smaller variability in artificial forest stands in comparison with natural stands.
																								



14.
Types of Structure and Sustainability of Forest Shelter Belts in the Southern Part of Central Siberia

G. S. Varaksin1, A. A. Vais2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Siberian State Technological University, Prospect Mira, 82, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russian Federation
Keywords: forest belts, the structure by stem diameter, tree species, evaluation, sustainability, the Southern part of Central Siberia

Abstract >>
The series of tree stem diameter distributions has been basis for study tree stand structure in forest shelter belts. The measurements were carried out in forest shelter belts of the southern part of the Central Siberia. Experimental sample plots have been established in the Republic of Khakassia (Ust-Abakan, Beisk, and Shira districts), Krasnoyarsk Territory (Shushenskoe and Minusinsk districts), and the Republic of Tuva (Kyzyl district). The analysis of tree stem diameter distributions series allowed making reference table in determining the shape of distributions in the forest shelter belts. The evaluation involves allocation of six types of the tree stem diameter series: symmetric, left asymmetric, right asymmetric, peak, flat, and pectinate. Comparing agrotechnical features of creating tree stands and distributions series of the tree stem diameters, the optimal parameters in terms of sustainability for different tree species has been determined.
																								



15.
Resistance to Fungal Diseases of the Siberian (i>Pinus sibirica Du Tour) and Korean (Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc.) Stone Pines in the Provenance Trails at the South of Krasnoyarsk Territory

I. D. Grodnitskaya, G. V. Kuznetsova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: географические культуры, климатипы, кедр сибирский, кедр корейский, грибные инфекции, усыхание хвои, смолотечение, устойчивость к фитопатогенам, юг Красноярского края

Abstract >>
The reason of the epiphytoty in the provenance trials of the Siberian (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) and Korean (Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc.) stone pines in the foothills of the Western Sayan (south of Krasnoyarsk territory) was established. The cause of stone pine needles drying was disease — grey pine–leaf cast (grey Schutte). The causative agent was pathogenic fungus Lophodermella sulcigena. The Siberian stone pine trees of Tashtagolskii climate type were drying (fatally) to the greatest extent (21 %). The populations of the Korean stone pine showed higher resistance to fungal infections comparing to the Siberian stone pine climate type.