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Philosophy of Sciences

2014 year, number 1

Pseudoscience as a cognitive phenomenon in the context of the modern philosophy of science

A.M. Konopkin
Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I.N.Ulyanov, Ulyanovsk
Keywords: pseudoscience, interpretation, hypothesis, scientific criteria of scientific character, systemacy, astrology, biorhythms theory

Abstract >>
The paper focuses on the structure of pseudoscience as a deviant interpretation of data which has specific cognitive features; those are an indefinite field of application, a limited evidence base, self-inconsistency, etc. The author discusses differences and similarities of pseudoscience and hypothesis as forms of knowledge. Also, he analyzes the systemacy property of scientific knowledge which is that theories and hypotheses support each other while isolation from recognized theories is to be treated as a sign of pseudoscience. Then, he argues the possibility to identify the validity of «here-and-now hypotheses in a mature science and incorrectness of attempts to analyze pseudoscience as «research programs (I. Lakatos). In the context of the proposed approach to definition of pseudoscience, he considers some mixed examples, such as cosmologic and psychological theories.

Truth of Godelian sentence: external and internal approaches

V.V. Tzelishchev
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: Godel, truth, classification

Abstract >>
The article deals with explication of the conception of truth of Godelian sentence in the proof of the first Godel's incompleteness theorem. The author considers several views on establishment of truth of Godelian sentence. He shows that different approaches to the problem proposed by mathematicians and philosophers correspond to Carnaps dichotomy of the external and the internal.

The Frege–Geach problem and ascriptive sentences

V.V. Ogleznev
National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk
Keywords: Frege–Geach problem, ascriptive sentences, descriptive sentences, legal language, non-cognitivism

Abstract >>
The paper presents a possible solution of the Frege–Geach problem by means of the model of ascriptive legal language. It shows that modification of modus ponens and use of ascriptive sentences as statements and inferences lead to solution of the Frege-Geach problem. Also, it disproves some Peter Geachs critical arguments against Herbert Harts semantic conception.

Semantic information and approaches to its assessment.
Part 1. Semantic–pragmatical and logical-semantic concepts

O.V. Zerkal
Moscow State University, Moscow
Keywords: information, semantic logic, conception

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes approaches to solution of the problem of semantic content of the conception of information within the semantic theory of information, the latter includes semantic-pragmatical, logical–semantic and semiotic conceptions. It shows that the semantic-pragmatical approach bases on assessment of the semantic aspect of information solely through its pragmatical component and the concept "contents of information" is coordinated with the concept "information value". Also, the paper considers the modal, probabilistic, and systemic approaches within the theories of "weak" and "strong" semantic information (TWSI and TSSI by L.Floridi) and gives critical remarks on basic positions of "the theory of strong semantic information".

The unity of philosophical theory and medical practice in Galens views

D.A. Balalykin, A.P. Shcheglov, N.P. Shok
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow
Keywords: history of medicine, history of science, Galen, Hippocrates, natural philosophy, natural science

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the famous work «Quod optimus medicus sit idem philosophus («On that the best physician is also a philosopher). The authors translated the original text to let using it by Russian-language scientists within the complex study of medicine of 1st–2nd centuries C.E. in the context of the history of natural science. At present, the study of natural philosophy prerequisites of the appearance of Galens anatomic-physiological system closely connected with knowledge in medicine is one of the most promising scientific areas in the history of medicine.

The evolution of the ancient cosmogonies: a trial to analyze rational bases and content transference in cosmogonical myths of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Greece – III

I.I. Litovka
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: cosmogony, mythology, natural philosophy, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, rational content

Abstract >>
The paper deals with the search and study of rational bases in the content of ancient cosmogonical myths of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Greece in order to retrace interconnection of conceptions of the origin of the world and changes in them in comparison with views of first ancient natural philosophers (presocratics). The analysis is carried out by means of semantic unification of basic [key] concepts in the spirit of more rational Greek philosophy of nature. It makes possible to reveal the substantial structure of knowledge, as well as to find out and compare signs of transcultural evolution of the ancient cosmogonies.

Russian psychiatry from 1975 to 2010

Ye.V. Kosilova
Moscow State University, Moscow
Keywords: psychiatry, paradigm, sociology of science, statistical analysis of science

Abstract >>
The paper studies changes in Russian psychiatry which occurred from 1975 to 2010. An effort is made to analyze how scientific paradigms changed when Soviet psychiatry transited through the "hard times" in this science to its current state. The results of the analysis show that there are no cardinal changes in paradigms. Just the part of studies carried out by physiological methods as compared with those carried out by psychological ones diminished. Also, the rate of works on schizophrenia decreased.

The modern philosophic turn in neuroscience: the Anniversary Interdisciplinary Symposium «Reflexes of the Brain by I.M. Sechenov: 150th anniversary

A.Yu. Alexeev1, A.V. Savelyev2, Ye.A. Yankovskaya3
1Moscow State University of Culture and Arts, Moscow
2«Radio Engineering Publishing House, Moscow
3National University of Science and Technology «MISIS, Moscow
Keywords: Ivan Mikhailivich Sechenov, Meditsinskiy Vestnik, culture, philosophy, medicine, neuroscience, psychology, biology, sociology, cybernetics, informatics, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, neurocomputing

Abstract >>
The paper presents an analytical review of main reports delivered at the Anniversary Interdisciplinary Symposium devoted to the 150th anniversary since the first publication of «Reflexes of the Brain by I.M. Sechenov in «Meditsinskiy Vestnik on November, 23 (December, 6 stilo novo), 1863. This work made a cardinal turn in methodology of neuroscience. For the first time in the last 150 years the Symposium was hold at the historical place, i.e. at the Department of Normal Physiology of the I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (P.K. Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology,). The editorial board of the journal «Neurocomputers: Design and Applications and the «Radio Engineering Publishing House took part in its arrangement.

Discussions on Science at the World Congress of Philosophy

S.B. Bondarenko
Russian State University of Trade and Economics, Kursk
Keywords: science, philosophy, methodology, logic, picture of the world, globalization, ecology, ethics

Abstract >>
The paper presents the review of discussions on science at the World Congress of Philosophy in Athens, Greece, 2013. Five themes are covered: features of modern science, methodology of science, scientific picture of the world, the role of science in the modern society, ethics of science.