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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2013 year, number 6

Characterization of the Communities of Microorganisms from Lake Baikal Developing on a Steel Plate and in Natural Water Surrounding This Substrate

1Limnological Institute, SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 3
2Siberian Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Plants, SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Lermontov str., 132
Keywords: biofilm, Lake Baikal, microorganisms, 16S rRNA, RNA-polymerase, rpoC gene, cloning

Abstract >>
Analysis of the microbial community developing on a plate made of stainless steel is presented. The sample was analyzed for the rpoC gene from this plate. Identification of dominant species (clones) of the biofilm was performed using molecular cloning and determination of the nucleotide sequence of the region of 16S rRNA gene. A comparison between the activities of the microorganisms of the plankton way of life and those adherent in the biofilm is presented. It was discovered that 7 of 19 treated sequences (37 %) belonged to the Sphingobacteria group. Analysis of nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, cloned from natural biofilm samples from Lake Baikal, revealed a broad variety of microorganisms incorporated in the biofilm. The following taxonomic groups were revealed among them: sphingobacteria, α-proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, verrucomicrobia, bacilli, γ-proteobacteria, flavobacteria and β-proteobacteria. The analysis of this kind has been performed for Lake Baikal for the first time.

Dynamic Trends in the Biological System of Turbellarians in Water Bodies Adjacent to Lake Baikal ( Phagocata sibirica) in Response to Stress Impact: a Model of Associated Bistable Oscillators

A.A. Klyuchevskaya
Research Institute of Biology, Federal State Budgetary Educationl Institution of Higher Professionl Education Irkutsk State University, 664003 Irkutsk, 3 Lenin St., P. O. Box 24
Keywords: system, Turbellaria, homeostasis, adaptation, phototaxis, synchronization

Abstract >>
Experimental investigation of the behavior of turbellarians in water bodies located in the basin of Lake Baikal (Phagocata sibirica (Zabussov, 1903)) in response to the impact of light, toxic substances and combined effect of these factors allowed us to determine specific features in the behavior of the biosystem under the conditions of impact beyond the homeostasis. It has been determined that under the impact of light of increasing intensity, the system demonstrates oscillatory behavior of turbulent type with the effects of synchronization and desynchronization. Analysis of experimental results within the framework of non-linear dynamic systems theory has indicated that the behavior of turbellarian system is conformant with the model of associated bistable oscillators, which are synchronized by the internal system noise.

Fish in the Tributaries of the Novosibirsk Water Reservoir

Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology, SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
Keywords: fish population, ichthyofauna, introduced species, small rivers, Novosibirsk water reservoir

Abstract >>
Data on the species composition of fish population in the tributaries of the Novosibirsk water reservoir are presented. The structure of fish communities and environmental factors determining it are revealed. A connection between the non-uniformity of fish communities with the depth and length of rivers, relief, flow velocity, the area of flood-plain and estuarial zone, the presence of riffles and the order of influx was analyzed.

Allozyme Variability of the Common Shrew Sorex araneus in Western Siberia

Tyumen State University, 625003, Tyumen, Semakov str., 10
Keywords: Sorex araneus, genetic variability, allozymes, Western Siberia, chromosome races

Abstract >>
Allozyme variability of the common shrew Sorex araneus in Western Siberia was studied. The low level of genetic variability and the lack of significant differences in performance polymorphism of populations living in the taiga, subtaiga and forest-steppe regions were revealed. The high level of genetic differentiation of populations belonging to the adjacent chromosomal races – Novosibirsk and Serov ( FST = 0.3) was shown.

Body Size and Shape Variation in Ground Beetle Carabus aeruginosus F.-W., 1822 (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

1State Budgetary Establishment Research Institute for Problems of Ecology and Mineral Wealth Use of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, 420087 Kazan, Daurskaya str., 28
2Kemerovo State University, 650041 Kemerovo, Krasnya str., 6
Keywords: morphometric variation, carabids, size and shape sex dimorphism, environmental factors, multivariate anlysis

Abstract >>
We studied the variation of morphometric traits in Ground Beetle Carabus aeruginosus F.-W. Beetles were sampled in Kemerovo region in the gradient of urbanization: the city, its suburbs and natural biotopes outside the city. We used General Linear Models, Principal Component Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling to show that all environmental factors (anthropogenic disturbance, vegetation of biotope) contributed significantly into the size variation of the beetles. Females and males reacted in different ways to the environmental factors. These phenomena lead to the different values of size sex dimorphism (SSD). Factors “City” and Suburbs decreased the value on SSD in the species investigated, but factor Meadows increased SSD. Our results indicated shape sex dimorphism (ShSD) in Carabus aeruginosus as well.

The Lime Leafminer Phyllonorycter issikii in Western Siberia: Some Ecological Characteristics of the Population of the Recent Invader

V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok
Keywords: Lime leafminer Phyllonorycter issikii, invasion, Western Siberia, Novosibirsk, host colonization, mortality, parasitoids

Abstract >>
Detection of the invasive lime leafminer Phyllonorycter isskii in Novosibirsk in 2008–2009 is reported. The pest mines were found on small-leaved lime Tilia cordata and Siberian lime Tilia sibirica , but not on Amur lime T. amurensis , the usual host of the moth. T. cordata carried 23 times more mines than T. sibirica . On both hosts, parasitism of matured larvae and pupae did not exceed 7 %. Lack of control by local parasitoids may give the pest an opportunity to increase population density and to spread further in Western Siberia.

Ornithofauna of the Forest-Tundra and Ecotone Effect in the Regions of West Siberia Adjacent to the Urals

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, UrB RAS, 620144, Ekaterinburg, 8 marta str., 202
Keywords: forest-tundra, ecotone, birds, abundance

Abstract >>
The applicability of the notion of ecotone to the ornithofauna of forest-tundra near the Ob river is considered. Within the left-bank territory of the Ob, from the flood-plain and the Ob Bay to the Polar Urals and the eastern coast of the Baydarata Bay, from northern taiga to shrubby tundra, nesting of 177 bird species was proved by 2009. Nested avifauna of forest-tundra at the latitude of the Polar circle includes 140 species. For the northern extreme end of the taiga (6465 n. l.), nesting of 151 species is known; for the shrubby tundra of Middle Yamal (6869 n. l.), nesting of 73 species was established. The taiga-related species penetrate into the southern forest-tundra through flood-plain forests and the taiga islands of the placore, into the middle and northern forest-tundra only through flood-plain forests gradually loosing a part of the listed composition. Enrichment of the fauna of forest-tundra by the birds of tundra occurs at the placore: in the regions of tundras, tundra-like bogs and in depressions of forest-tundra lakes. The abundance of birds in the main biotopes in forest-tundra is somewhat lower than in northern taiga, and higher than in southern tundra. It is created by birds with large ranges. Open woodlands of the placore that distinguish forest-tundra from taiga and tundras for the majority of birds are the tundra, but richer in invertebrates due to the developed shrub stratum. At present, the forest-tundra does not have its own avifauna. It is likely to be forming because the species diversity of nesting birds increases, and the species having the maximum of population density in forest-tundra have appeared. However, at present there is no pronounced cumulative effect of faunas superposition.

Spatial Structure and Dynamics of the Populoation of Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus valentinae (Flerov, 1933)) in the Central Part of the Western Sayan

1National Part Shushenskiy Bor, 662710, Krasnoyarsk Region, Shushenskoe , Lugovaya str., 9
2V.P. Astafyev Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Lebedeva str., 89
Keywords: Rangifer tarandus valentinae, Sayan population, number dynamics, migrations, limiting factors

Abstract >>
The spatial arrangement and the dynamics of the number of forest reindeer in the central part of the Western Sayan during the period from 2004 to 2012 is considered. The territorial positions of sub-population groupings of reindeer, their migrations, sex and age structure, the effect of abiotic and anthropogenic factors are considered.

Comparison of Zoobenthos and Zooperiphyton in Large and Medium Rivers

1Institute of the Problems of North Development, SB RAS, 625003, Tyumen, 2774
2State Natural Reserve Yuganskiy, 628458, Tyumen Region, Ugut
Keywords: zoobenthos, zooperiphyton, number, biomass, rivers, West Siberia

Abstract >>
The results of the investigation of zoobenthos and zooperiphyton in two rivers in the basin of the middle reach of the Ob River are presented. Comparative analysis of two ecological groups of hydrocoles in zoobenthos and zooperiphyton showed differences in their taxonomic composition and dominating complexes. The similarities in total abundance and biomass of zoobenthos and zooperiphyton in a large river were detected, and higher values of the quantitative development of zooperiphyton in the medium river were observed.

Current Status of Zooplankton in the Vasyugan River

Institute for Water and Environmental Problems SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Morskoy prosp. 2
Keywords: zooplankton, Vasyugan, dominant complex, biological testing, saprobity, rotifers, copepods

Abstract >>
The species diversity and quantity of zooplankton in the middle and lower reaches of the Vasyugan River, as well as in the estuaries of major tributaries were studied. Change in the dominant species complex in comparison with the data obtained 50 and 10 years ago was detected. There is a succession of plankton community, perhaps related to global warming and restructuring of the entire ecosystem of the Vasyugan land. Oil pollution of the river was not revealed with bio-indication methods.

Seasonal Variations of the Structure of Arachnida, Opiliones Population in a Yew-Boxtree Grove in the Caucasus State Natural Biosphere Reserve (Russia)

1Institute of Zoology, NAS of Azerbaijan, AZ1073, Azerbaijan, Baku, Proezd 1128, quarter 504
2Caucasus State Natural Biosphere Reserve, Republic of Adygea, Maykop, Sovetskaya str., 187
Keywords: Arachnida, Opiliones, yew-boxtree grove, the Caucasus, phenology

Abstract >>
Data on the seasonal variations in the populations of Arachnida, Opiliones in a yew-boxtree grove in the Caucasus State Natural Biosphere Reserve are presented. The structure of populations, seasonal changes in populations were studied. Data on the distribution and occurrence of Arachnida, Opiliones are presented.

On Spiders Population in the Environs of the Teletskoe Lake (North-Eastern Altai)

1Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze Str. 11
2Altaisky State Nature Biosphere Reserve, 649000, Gorno-Altaisk, Naberezhny side-street 1
Keywords: spiders, steppe meadow, motley grass pine forest, species composition, structure, dynamics of population, dominants

Abstract >>
Investigations are carried out in the area adjacent to the Teletskoe Lake of the Altai Reserve. Check-lists of species for studied habitats and their comparative analysis are given. The previous data about spiders fauna of the Altai Reserve are supplemented by 39 species. Three species are newly recorded for Altai Mts. Dominant species complexes are revealed. Peculiarities of seasonal dynamics of population for the order as a whole and for separate herpetobiont spiders groups are considered.

Threshold Concentrations of Cations in Environment Determining the Borders of Area of the River Crayfish (Astacus astacus) in Fresh Water Reservoirs

Papanin Institute of Biology of Inland Waters RASciences, 152742, Yaroslavl Region, Nekouz District, Borok
Keywords: river crayfish, threshold concentration, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium

Abstract >>
The content of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium in the haemolymph of the river crayfish caught naturally, was maintained at the levels of 178.0 2.5, 7.1 0.5, 17.3 0.7, 3.0 0.1 mmol/l, respectively. It is shown that the threshold concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium in water, determining the borders of the area of river crayfish in fresh water reservoirs, make 0.00870.0174, 0.00460.0087, 0.01050.0222, 0.00120.0033 mmol/l, respectively. Reduction of water mineralization was accompanied by essential increase in the gradients of cation concentrations between an organism and the environment, strengthening the load on the systems of water-salt exchange maintenance. The comparative analysis on the threshold concentration obtained for river crayfish, roach, perch, goldfish, crucian, two species of two-folding molluscs and filamentous alga Spirogyra is carried out.

Influence of Heavy Metals on Feeding Rate of Daphnia magna under Different Feeding Conditions and Age of Crustaceans

Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodniy ave., 79
Keywords: bioassay, heavy metals, Daphnia magn Straus, 1820, feeding rate, Chlorella vulgaris Beijer, chlorophyll fluorescence

Abstract >>
The influence of Daphnia exposure conditions on the feeding rate and sensibility to heavy metals was studied. To record the feeding rate of Daphnia, we used the changes of the intensity of zero level of rapid fluorescence of alga which was used as feed. The optimal conditions (stocking density, the age of test organisms, feeding schedule and exposure time) which provide the high level of feeding rate and sensibility of Daphnia to pollution were determined. The experiment design proposed includes at first the exposure of Daphnia to the toxic pollutant, and then Chlorella suspension is introduced into water solution.

Reaction of Mollusk Population to the Emissions from the Middle Ural Copper Smelter

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, UrB RAS, 620144, Ekaterinburg, 8 March str., 202
Keywords: terrestrial mollusks, grassland, industrial pollution, copper smelter, heavy metals, calcium, the Middle Urals

Abstract >>
Quantitative studies of the population of mollusks in the herbaceous layer were carried out during the years 20062008 in secondary dry meadows in the gradient of pollution with the emissions from the Middle Ural Copper Smelter (Revda, Sverdlovsk Region). The number of mollusks at the territory with moderate pollution is decreased by a factor of 1,3 in comparison with the reference regions. In the direct vicinity of the smelter, mollusks in the grass stand disappear completely. The reasons of the change of the structure of mollusk population may be the toxic effect of heavy metals under the conditions of acidification of environment, the lack of available Ca due to its removal from the upper soil horizons by washing out, depletion of the species diversity and simplification of the architecture of meadow grass stand, causing modification of the hydrothermal regime in the herbaceous layer. A combination of these types of action is likely to cause elimination of the mollusks of herbaceous layer, which is not observed in the case when the environment is polluted only with heavy metals.