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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2011 year, number 3

Spatial-Typological Differentiation of the Ecosystems of the West Siberian Plain Communication I

V. P. Sedel'nikov1, Y. S. Ravkin2, A. A. Titlyanova3, I. N. Bogomolova2, O. N. Nikolaeva4
1 Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS
2 Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology SB RAS; Tomsk State University
3 Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry SB RAS
4 Siberian State Geodesic Academy
Keywords: ecosystem, vegetation, spatial differentiation, West Siberia, cluster analysis
Pages: 311-323

Abstract >>
On the basis of the data on the air-dry mass of plant species - dominants and subdominants in five life forms (mosses, lichens; herbs; subshrubs; shrubs; trees), quotients of similarity for ecosystems were calculated over the types of formations in the map Vegetation of the West Siberian Plain. By means of the cluster analysis of thus obtained similarity matrix, two classifications were compiled (over apportionments and over groups of apportionments of the indicated map). The calculated self-descriptiveness of the proposed schemes, estimated by the value of included dispersion, is higher by 11-16 % in comparison with division of vegetation on the initial map.

Spatial-Typological Differentiation of the Ecosystems of the West Siberian Plain Communication II Underground Phytomass, Mortmass and Humus of Soil

V. A. Khmelev1, A. A. Titlyanova1, V. P. Sedel'nikov2, Y. S. Ravkin3, I. N. Bogomolova3, I. P. Kokorina4
1 Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry SB RAS
2 Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS
3 Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology SB RAS; Tomsk State University
4 Siberian State Geodesic Academy
Keywords: humus, mortmass, underground phytomass, spatial differentiation, West Siberian Plain, cluster analysis
Pages: 325-330

Abstract >>
Cluster anlysis of ecosystems over the plant cover, mortmass and the underground part of the biota (including soil humus) showed that the effects of zonal heat supply and wetting (swamping) may be considered to be approximately equal to each other for the differentiation of vegetation, while the effect of swamping obviously dominates for the underground part of ecosystems. Intra-type differences of the underground block are determined by the zonal-subzonal inhomogeneity in heat and humidity supply, composition of vegetation and flood during high water. In this situation, there is no clear coincidence with the subzonal division. Integration has more likely group character (with respect to this index) for similar flood during high water and the composition of forest-forming species.

Consequences of Fire Events in the Ribbon-Like Pineries of the South of Siberia

L. V. Buryak1, A. I. Sukhinin2, O. P. Kalenskaya1, E. I. Ponomarev2
1 Siberian State Technological University
2 V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS,
Keywords: ribbon-like pinery, forest fire statistics, crown fire, forest mortality, forest recovery, steppe formation process
Pages: 331-339

Abstract >>
Conditions of the rise and development of fire events and evaluation of forest fire statistics are presented for the ribbon-like pineries of the south of Siberia - Tsacucheisky, Balgazynsky, Minusinsky and Shushensky. The consequences of the effect of fire events on vegetation, including the state of tree stands and reafforestation processes, are evaluated. It is demonstrated that a decrease in the area occupied by ribbon-like pineries in the south of Siberia as a result of the impact from crown fire brings about steppe formation processes at these territories

Ecological Niches of Pathogenic Micromycetes of Berry Plants of the Vacciniaceae Family

I. G. Vorob'yova1, V. A. Chulkina2, A. B. Gorbunov3, M. A. Tomoshevich3
1 Siberian University of Consumers Cooperation
2 Novosibirsk State Agricultural University
3 Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS
Keywords: athogenic micromycetes, general ecological niche of the first order, general ecological niche of the second order, additional ecological niche, berry plants of the Vacciniaceae family
Pages: 341-348

Abstract >>
General and additional ecological niches of the first and second order of pathogenic micromycetes of berry plants of the Vaccinioideae subfamily are considered in the article.

Introduction of Woody Plants Originating from the Far East in the Middle-Taiga Zone of Komi Republic

L. G. Martynov
Institute of Biology Komi SC UrB RAS
Keywords: Botanical Garden, introduction, tree plants, Far-Eastern species, winter-resistance
Pages: 349-355

Abstract >>
The paper shows introduction prospects for many species of woody plants from the Far East in Komi Republic. About 65 % of 68 species and forms collected in the Botanical Garden are highly winter-resistant. Woody species from the Far East are similar in seasonal development cycles to local woody plants.

The altitudinal Belts of the Southern Macroslope of West and East Tannu-Ola: the Main Types of their Vegetation Communities

N. I. Makunina
Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS
Keywords: altitudinal belt column, vegetation, classification, Tannu-Ola
Pages: 357-377

Abstract >>
Three types of altitudinal belt columns were recognized on the southern macroslope of the Tannu-Ola ranges. The main vegetation communities of every belt were described, their classification scheme according to Braun-Blanquet approach was accomplished.

Coenotical Positions and Ecological Amplitudes of Mosses in Vegetation of the Great Vasyugan Swamp

O. Y. Pisarenko1, E. D. Lapshina2, E. Y. Muldiyarov3
1 Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS
2 Yugra State University
3 Research Institute of Biology and Biophysics at the Tomsk State University
Keywords: mire, bog, swamp, mosses, ecological amplitude
Pages: 379-393

Abstract >>
Results of long-term bryological investigations in the Great Vasyugan Swamp are summarized. Coenotical and moss diversity is described: 8 types of mire communities and 122 moss species inhibiting them. Ecological optimums and amplitudes in Ramensky scale are calculated for all the types of mire communities and common moss species.

Structure of the Phytomass of Alpine Humid High-Mountain Associations of the Eastern Sayan (for the Kryzhin Ridge as an Example)

E. G. Zibzeev1, C. N. Sambyla2
1 Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS
2 Tuva State University,
Keywords: alpine vegetation, phytomass, alpine meadows, tundra, Eastern Sayan
Pages: 395-403

Abstract >>
Results of the anlysis of reserve and the structure of the overground phytomass of the prevailing alpine associations of Eastern Sayan are presented for r. Kryzhin (Eastern Sayan) as an example.

Pyrogenic Traumas of Plants Under the Conditions of Coniferous-Deciduous Forests in the Middle Priamurie and Their Indicator Significance

N. R. Sukhomlinov, V. V. Sukhomlinova
Fas-East State Social Humanitarial Academy,
Keywords: ground fires, disafforestation, pyrotraumas, pyrogenic factor, pyrogenic degradation
Pages: 405-413

Abstract >>
Traumatic effect on plants under ground fire of different kinds is investigated. The classification of traumas of herbs, tree trunks and crowns, as well as other transformations caused by fire is given. Types of pyrogenic traumas are compared with the character of fire events and the degree of pyrogenic transformation of biocoenosis. The possibility to use them as indicators of the pyrogenic intensity, the state and trends of biocenosis transformations is determined.

Living State and Biological Disease of Tree Leaves in the Green Areas of Syktyvkar

N. A. Mingaleva1, S. V. Pestov2, S. V. Zagirova2
1 Syktyvkar State University, Department of Chemistry and Biology
2 Institute of Biology Komi SC UrB RAS
Keywords: green plantations, life state, biological disease
Pages: 415-425

Abstract >>
The living state and biological disease of the leaves of trees in the green areas of Syktyvkar are studied. Birch and poplar are dominant trees among 103 species. The living state of trees is evaluated in general as good. The rise of leave damage by sucking and gnawing insects and a decrease in the activity of miner insects and gall forming agents are observed. We detected 56 species of arthropods, including ten new ones for Komi Republic.

Morphophysiological Evaluation of the State of Sorbus sibirica Hedl. in the Zone Affected by Vehicle Emission

E. Y. Kolmogorova, V. A. Kaidorina
Institute of Human Ecology SB RAS,
Keywords: photosynthetic ability, reduced assimilates, life condition, crossroad, motor transport emission
Pages: 427-430

Abstract >>
Evaluation of the photosynthetic ability and life condition of Sorbus sibirica Hedl. growing at crossroads with heavy traffic is presented. Results of the investigation showed that the photosynthetic activity of sorbus decreases in the local pollution points, and therefore its life condition worsens.

Distribution and Biological Productivity of Caragana ussuriensis (Regel) Pojark in Oak Forests of Southern Primorye

V. A. Poleshchuk
V. L. Komarov Mountain Taiga Station FEB RAS
Keywords: Caragana ussuriensis (Regel) Pojark, biological productivity, resource potential, oak forest
Pages: 431-437

Abstract >>
Distribution and biological productivity of Caragan ussuriensis in different phytocoenotic conditions in oak forests of Southern Primorye were studied.

Morphological Variability and the Quality of the Seeds of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.

A. P. Barchenkov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS
Keywords: morphological features, seeds quality, variability, hereditability, Gmelin larch
Pages: 439-446

Abstract >>
The results of the investigation of variability of the morphological features and the quality of seeds of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. in Eastern Siberia are presented in this paper. The main regularities and characteristics of the variability of some qualitative and quantitative features of this larch species were obtained. The perspectives for the selection of more productive stands of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. in Eastern Siberia were defined.

Population and Subpopulation Dynamics of Soldanella hungarica Simonk. in Spruce Forests of the Karpaty

G. G. Zhilyaev
Institute of Ecology of the Karpaty, NAS of Ukraine
Keywords: population, subpopulation locus, vitality, vital capacity
Pages: 447-452

Abstract >>
Regularities of the dynamics of naturalistic populations of Soldanella hungarica Simonk. in the spruce forests of the Ukrainian Karpaty are generalized on the basis of the results of long-term monitoring (1974-2009). It is proved that the size and vitalitent composition are major prerequisites of the asynchronous principle of functioning and the large amplitude of the dynamics of elements in subpopulation loci. The rate and scale of the local dynamics are smoothed out at the population level. Reversibility of population number and low amplitude of the dynamics with long-term cycles of natural substitution of the generations are characteristic of the populations. It is suggested that the use of the term small population is incorrect with respect to subpopulation loci.

Communities of the Artemisietea jacuticae Gogoleva et al. 1987 lass in the lasy of Central Yakutia

L. D. Gavrilyeva
Institute of Applied Ecology of the North
Keywords: ommunities, association, alasy, degradation, habitat, trampling down
Pages: 453-460

Abstract >>
Characterization of the communities of Artemisietea jacuticae Gogoleva et al. 1987 class on the alasy of the territory between the Lena and the Amga in Central Yakutia is presented. Comparison of the plant syntaxons revealed during the investigation with the sytaxons published previously showed that the communities revealed previously only in settlements were now detected in the alasy.