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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2012 year, number 4

Historical Demography in Siberia: Problems of Historiography

V.A. Isupov
Keywords: population, reproduction, fertility, mortality, migrations, urbanization
Pages: 3-8

Abstract >>
The article studies main trends in formation and development of a new research area in historical science of Siberia — historical demography. The author reveals the role and significance of historical facts in the demographic process, formulates main objectives of historical demography at the present stage of scientific development.

Demographic Vector of Siberia: in Retrospective and in the Modern Period

M.M Yefimkin
Keywords: demographic policy, demographic dynamics, regional demographic system, reproduction of population
Pages: 8-13

Abstract >>
The paper considers dynamics of demographic processes in the Eastern Parts of Russia (Ural, Siberia, Far East) under the circumstances of overall political and socioeconomic transformations in the XX century. The author characterizes the impact of the two world wars, resettlement policies of P.A.Stolypin, economic and demographic policies of the Soviet government in different periods of history on the formation and controversial development of demographic potential of the eastern regions. The author proves the high importance of the strategy of population preservation and upsurge for the Asiatic Russia, whose geopolitical role cannot be overestimated.

The Population of the Far East in 1895-1914: Dynamics of Natural Reproduction

V.A. Zverev
Keywords: historical demography of the region, natural population dynamics, demographic rates, urban population, rural population, birthrate, death rate, natural increase, Far East, Priamurye,
Pages: 13-19

Abstract >>
For the first time in historiography the author calculates and explains the general rates of natural population dynamics (birthrate, death rate, increase) in the Amur, Maritime and Yakut Regions, and also on the Sakhalin Isle at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. The rates were combined into the dynamical lines, differentiated between urban and rural settlements. Some specific situations have been marked for several distinctive local and social groups: the Amur and Ussuri Cossacs, old timers and resettlers etc.

Family Size of Workers in Western Siberia in the First Quarter of the XX Century

Y.M. Goncharov, V.N. Faronov
Keywords: Siberia, workers, family, demography, family size, children
Pages: 19-22

Abstract >>
The paper describes changes in family size and number of children among the workers in Western Siberia in the first quarter of the XX century. At the beginning of the century there was a tendency of reduction in family size among the workers, replaced in the 1920s by a temporary tendency of growth. A tendency of reduction in the average number of children is also noted. This is explained by gradual decrease in economic need for having a large family so far as the workers became less dependent on agriculture. Other reasons were the increasing involvement of women in industry, low level of capitalism development in Siberia and, as a result, low demand for the cheap child labor.

Demographic Trends in the Industrial Kuzbass (in the Late XIX - Early XX Centuries)

K.A. Zabolotskaya, A.V. Belkov
Keywords: population, natural reproduction, birth rate, death rate, migration, urbanization
Pages: 22-26

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes main factors that determined the population dynamics in the Kuzbass in the turn of the XIX-XXI centuries. Based on these data the author formulates the dominant trends of demographic development in the region: high rates of population growth as a result of active urbanization process; changing demographic structure and fertility as long-term effects of the Great Patriotic War. Since the early 1990s the nationwide trend of population decline along with declining share of urban population has also become apparent.

Demographic Consequences of Famine at the Beginning of the 1930s in Western Siberia

.. Burmatov
Keywords: Western Siberia, population, birth rate, hunger, demographic losses, mortality
Pages: 26-30

Abstract >>
On the basis of archival materials the article analyzes reliability of statistical sources; considers demographic consequences of famine at the beginning of the 1930s in Western Siberia. The author compares his findings with data related to other territories of the USSR.

All-Union Population Censuses in 1937 and 1939 in Yakutia

S.I. Sivtseva
Keywords: All-Union population census of 1937, All-Union population census of 1939, "special contingents"
Pages: 30-34

Abstract >>
The article based on the archival data of 1937-1940 determines the population size and structure inYakutia (including the special contingents: prisoners and servicemen). The author analyzes materials of the 1937 and 1939 population censuses, specifics of census work performed by the statisticians and NKVD officers.

Fertility Dynamics in the Urban Settlements of Western Siberia in 1939-1945

N.S. Korobeynikova
Keywords: natality, deficit of births, the qualitative dynamics of natality, cyclicity
Pages: 34-38

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to studying the impact of endogenous and exogenous factors on the quantitative dynamics of natality during wartime. The author has calculated the coefficient of correlation between the war realities, social processes and birth rate as well as deficit of births. Besides she demonstrates various indicators of natality including the dynamics of mortinatality and abortions for social reasons; shows the effect of qualitative changes of the parental generation on the birth rate.

Family and Marriage Relations in the Republic of Buryatia in the 1970s - 1980s

Y.A Kuznetsova
Keywords: demographic process, family, marriage, Siberia, Republic of Buryatia, the age and sex structure, migration
Pages: 38-44

Abstract >>
The article describes the conditions, factors and trends in family and marriage relations in the 1970s- 1980 s in the Republic of Buryatia, one of the largest multinational regions of Eastern Siberia. Among the determining factors in the development of population of the Republic in this period was intense industrial and transport development of its remote northern areas and the construction of the BAM. This led to large-scale migration of young people and a qualitative change in the population by sex and age, which was reflected in the structure of the family relations. The article analyzes dynamics of demographic development of the country, and reveals general and specific features of development of the family relations in the region.

Journey to the North-East of Siberia as a Turning Point in G.F. Muellers Expedition Activities

A. K. Elert
Keywords: G.F. Mueller, the Second Kamchatka expedition, North-Eastern Siberia, geography, history, ethnography
Pages: 44-48

Abstract >>
The paper studies expedition activities of Academician G.F. Mueller during his stay in the North-Eastern part of Siberia in 1736-1737. The author defines this period of G.F.Muellers life as a turning point in his scientific biography due to the fact that this was the time when G.F.Mueller started his most significant comprehensive studies of Siberia (works on the history of Russian geographical discoveries, history of various regions annexation and development by the Russians, Sino-Russian relations, ethnography etc.). Realization of these research projects during the expedition and after its completion made him a European celebrity and won him glory of the father of Siberian historiography.

Network of Rural Settlements in Siberia in the XIX Century: Typical Structure, Number of Inhabitants and Size

A.I Tatarnikova
Keywords: village settlement, settlement networks, typical structure, the system of settling
Pages: 48-52

Abstract >>
The article following the concrete historical approach characterizes the typical structure, number of inhabitants and size of the network of rural settlements in Siberia in the late XIX century. Based on the analysis of mass statistics it shows a variety of types of rural settlements and their share in the total number of rural settlements of the region. The author determines the average size of settlements (the number of households and inhabitants) in each of the districts of Siberia.

Social Status of the Indigenous Peoples (Inorodtsy) in North Western Siberia (XIX - Early XX Centuries) from their Own Perspective

A. Y. Konev
Keywords: inorodtsy (aliens), estate, identity, North-Western Siberia
Pages: 52-56

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes social self-determination of the autochthonic peoples in the North-Western Siberia in the course of M.M. Speranskys reform implementation. The research traces attitudes of these people towards their status prescribed by the authorities, its correlation with their own understanding of their role in the society. The article also describes constituent elements of these ethnic groups social self-identification developed by the beginning of the XX century. For this purpose the author pays attention to the remaining local ethnic, confessional, territorial and administrative links and identities, which proved the process of inorodtsys consolidation as an estate was incomplete in the region.

New Sources on the Inspection of Eastern Siberia by the Senator I.N. Tolstoy (a Diary by V.D. Philosophov and Letters of N.M. Golitsyn)

N.P. Matkhanova
Keywords: senatorial inspections, power and society, V.D. Philosophov, N.M. Golitsyn, inspection by I.N. Tolstoy, sources on Siberian history
Pages: 56-62

Abstract >>
New sources on the history of Siberia in the XIX century - The Diary by V.D. Philosophov and letters of N.M. Golitsyn - are introduced into the scientific circulation. Both authors took part in the inspection of Eastern Siberia conducted by the senator I.N. Tolstoy in 1843-1845. The everyday life and business activities of the newly arrived officials, their attitudes to Siberian merchants and bureaucrats are shown.

Advanced Training of Engineers and Office Workers in the Siberian Construction Industry during the First Postwar Decade

A.A. Dolgolyuk
Keywords: Siberia, construction workers, engineering and technical personnel, specialists, advanced training, retraining of the personnel
Pages: 62-66

Abstract >>
The article analyzes forms of advanced training of engineers, technicians and office workers in the construction organizations of Siberia during the two postwar five-year plans. The author estimates scale and quality of training, compares it with systems of training that existed in foreign countries.

Chairman of the State Planning Committee (Gosplan) in the System of Top Political Leadership (1955-1964)

V.L. Nekrasov
Keywords: Chairman of State Planning Committee (Gosplan) of the USSR, N.S.Khrushchev, top political leadership, "images of the planners"
Pages: 66-70

Abstract >>
The paper focuses on the issues related to the changing status of the Gosplans Chairman in the top political leadership; factors that determined his political influence; problems of his loyalty to the leader of the country; level of professionalism of the heads of planning bodies; institutional characteristics of the heads of Gosplan and images of planners. The author comes to conclusion that during N.S.Khrushchevs reign the State Planning Committee of the USSR lost its political influence and was entirely submitted to the Party machinery.

Models of Automated Control Systems in the USSR in the 1950s-1980s

E.P. Stryukova
Keywords: automated control system, automated enterprise management system, process control, manufacturing automation, automation control
Pages: 70-73

Abstract >>
The article considers problems of development of the standard projects of automated control systems (ACS); the necessity of their creation; elaboration of such projects; offers classification of standard solutions for ACS. The author pays special attention to the automated control systems for enterprises, features of typification of tasks solved by these systems and to the specifics of creation of standard projects. The author attempts to define the role and significance of standard projects for the automation process of management of the national economy of the USSR, reveals the failure causes of ACS.

Program — 130: Plans and Their Implementation

I.B. Karpunina, A.P Melentyeva
Keywords: projects of agricultural development, social development of the village, cities' patronage over rural areas, Siberia
Pages: 73-78

Abstract >>
The paper introduces for scientific use The Integrated Program for the Economically Weak Farms Development in the Novosibirsk Region for the Years 1989-1993 which was made as a typical agricultural development program adopted in the 1980s. In the article preceding the text of the document the authors evaluate the socio-economic context of its adoption, analyze the contents of the Program, and describe the course and results of its realization.

Structural Transformation of the Publishing Industry in Siberia and the Far East in the 1990s

I.V. Lizunova
Keywords: book industry, book publishing, publishing houses, transformation, Siberia, Far East
Pages: 78-82

Abstract >>
The paper describes the process of formation of multipolar publishing system in Siberia and the Far East under the conditions of social and cultural transformations in the 1990s. The author describes main features of structural changes in regional publishing industry, demonstrates influence of crises on the process of updating the system of book publishing; considers activities of the leaders of the regional book industry such as the Publishing house of the Siberian Branch and Dalnauka of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; the high school publishing centers.

On the Peculiarities of the Jewish Population Formation in Siberia in the First Half of the XIX Century

V.N. Shaydurov
Keywords: Jewish community, the Jewish question, Siberia, migration
Pages: 82-86

Abstract >>
The article deals with the starting period of the Jewish community formation and development in Siberia. This period has not been thoroughly studied in historiography. The analysis presented in the article is based on the archival data and elaborates on governmental policies of Alexander I and Nicholas I towards Jews living in Siberia as well as the consequences of the policies by the mid-nineteenth century.

Citizens Appeals to the Municipal Bodies of the Tobolsk Governorate during World War I

M.S Druganova
Keywords: citizen's appeals, the local government, World War I, mobilization, interdiction of selling alcohol, the prisoners of war
Pages: 86-89

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to characterization and description of the citizens appeals to the local municipal bodies of the Tobolsk Governorate during World War I. The author researched citizens letters on the topics related to the circumstances of wartime. Scientific research has been carried out on the basis of materials from the State Archive of the Tyumen Region and The State Archive in Tobolsk. The author studied 68 letters and came to conclusion that the most popular writing topics were 1) financial aid to families of the mobilized men; 2) prohibition of the sale of alcoholic beverages; 3) location of prisoners of War at the territory of the region; 4) destabilization of the pricing policy.

Aademkniga and its Successors: Problems of Scientific Literature Promotion on the Siberian Book Market

O.N. Alshevskaya
Keywords: book distribution, Academkniga literary shop Capital, bookselling network Aristotle
Pages: 89-92

Abstract >>
The article deals with the reasons and circumstances for which the oldest bookselling company Academkniga specialized in scientific literature ceased to exist in several Siberian cities. The author describes how the niche of scientific book distribution in Novosibirsk was replaced by other booksellers: the literary shop Capital and the Aristotle group of companies. Furthermore, the paper analyzes experience of saving the store Aademkniga in Tomsk where the book company was transformed into a separate division of the municipal institution Museum of Tomsk.

The Open Archive of the SB RAS as an Electronic System for Scientific Heritage Storage

V.A. Lamin, O.N. Shelegina
Keywords: ormatization, historical factography, electronic archive
Pages: 92-95

Abstract >>
The article presents the concept and first results of the Open SB RAS Archive integration project (2012-2014) sponsored by the SB RAS Presidium. The project is carried out by a number of the SB RAS scientific institutes specializing in humanities. The emphasis is placed on application of information technology to historical research and development of the historical factography technology.