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Thermophysics and Aeromechanics

2011 year, number 3

Gas dynamics of spacecraft and orbital stations (review)

V.N. Yarygin1, YU.I. Gerasimov2, A.N. Krylov2, L.V. Mishina2, V.G. Prikhodko1, I.V. Yarygin1
1 Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS
2 Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia
Keywords: spacecraft, orientation and control thrusters, exhaust plumes, contamination processes, modeling in vacuum chambers
Pages: 333-358

Abstract >>
This is the review of joint research executed during last 30 years at Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia and Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS on the problem of gas-dynamic and contaminating impact of exhaust plume of orientation thrusters and systems of refueling on spacecraft and space stations.

Aerodynamic characteristics of passenger and transport aircraft models at harmonic oscillations on the pitch angle for high angles of attack

V.I. Petoshin, E.A. Chasovnikov
Chaplygin Siberian Research Institute of Aviation (SibNIA)
Keywords: models of passenger aircraft, harmonic oscillations, normalized frequency, high angle of attack, experimental data, complexes of aerodynamic derivatives
Pages: 359-368

Abstract >>
A systematic analysis has been performed for many-years experimental data obtained in the wind tunnel T-203 (SibNIA) for testing the models of passenger and transport aircraft for the case of harmonic oscillation at the pitch angle for low subsonic velocities. The key features of behavior of aerodynamic derivatives coefficients and dependencies of current values of normal force coefficient and longitudinal moment coefficient on the angle of attack have been demonstrated for the stalling modes of streamlining. It was demonstrated that at near-critical angles of attack, we have a strong dependency of aerodynamic derivatives of pitch moment on the normalized oscillation frequency for the range of natural values; this makes the traditional mathematical model of aerodynamic loads (uses the aerodynamic derivatives at fixed frequencies of oscillation)  unfit for the considered scope of experimental tasks.

An experimental study of pressure fluctuations generated by an open shallow cavity performed using joint time-frequency techniques of data analysis

D.S. Mironov
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS
Keywords: shallow cavity, subsonic flow over cavity, pressure fluctuations, wavelet transform, Hilbert - Huang transform
Pages: 369-379

Abstract >>
An experimental study of the flow over a single open shallow cavity is reported. Pressure fluctuations were measured using two cavity models at free-stream Mach numbers 0.3, 0.5, and 0.6. At certain conditions, resonance of acoustic waves inside cavity with disturbances in the shear layer over cavity was observed. Pressure fluctuation characteristics were analysed using Fourier, wavelet, and Hilbert - Huang transforms. Those methods have allowed us to accurately examine the transition of the flow over cavity into resonant state.

A pressure recovery system for chemical oxygen-iodine laser based on an active diffuser

V.M. Malkov1, I.A. Kiselev2, A.E. Orlov2, I.V. Shatalov2
1 Advent Scientific Production Association
2 Laser Systems Ltd,
Keywords: supersonic chemical laser, pressure recovery system, diffuser, ejector, experiment, numerical simulation
Pages: 381-395

Abstract >>
An open-type pressure recovery system (PRS) for chemical oxygen-iodine laser was designed and fabricated. As a first stage, an active diffuser was used in which the ejecting gas supply was organized through nozzles disposed around the channel periphery. The second stage was a supersonic ejector. Numerical simulation data for the viscous turbulent flow with heat release through the diffuser gas-dynamic channel, and also data obtained by testing the active diffuser in operation on a model facility equipped with a vacuum chamber, are reported. The obtained data were used to develop a full-scale setup with exhaust of laser gas into the atmosphere; this has allowed us to optimize the performance characteristics of the setup and substantially improve its mass-dimensional characteristics. Special attention was paid to parameter matching and synchronization of laser start with the operation of PRS components.

Discharge characteristics of a hydrocyclone with built-in injector

L.L. Minkov1, A.V. Krokhina2, I.G. Dueck3
1 Tomsk State University
2 Bauman Moscow State Technical University
3 University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
Keywords: hydrocyclone, injector, radial injection, tangential injection, split parameter, numerical simulation, experiment
Pages: 397-409

Abstract >>
On the basis of experimental research and numerical simulation, flow regularities in a 50-millimeter hydrocyclone with injector have been revealed. It is shown that the injected liquid comes out mostly through the lower outlet. At tangential injection toroidal vortex impeding main flow discharge through the lower outlet is formed.

Physical-mathematical model of condensation process of the sub-micron dust capture in sprayer scrubber

M.I. Shilyaev, E.M. Khromova, A.V. Grigoriev, A.V. Tumashova
Tomsk State University of Civil Engineering
Keywords: condensation dust collecting, sub-micron particles, counter-flow sprayer scrubber, Venturi scrubber, dust collecting efficiency, Stokes number, capture coefficient
Pages: 411-424

Abstract >>
A physical-mathematical model of the heat and mass exchange process and condensation capture of sub-micron dust particles on the droplets of dispersed liquid in a sprayer scrubber is proposed and analysed. A satisfactory agreement of computed results and experimental data on soot capturing from the cracking gases is obtained.

Numerical simulation of wave formation in the falling liquid films

A.N. Pavlenko, A.N. Pavlenko
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS; Novosibirsk State University
Keywords: hydrodynamics, wave formation, liquid films, numerical simulation
Pages: 425-431

Abstract >>
The process of wave formation in the falling films of liquid nitrogen was simulated numerically in the framework of the hydrodynamic model of Kapitsa ⎯ Shkadov. The typical wave characteristics were calculated for different inlet Reynolds numbers. The effect of parameters of small initial perturbations on wave formation was studied. Satisfactory agreement of numerical simulation results and experimental data is shown.

Application of the continuum surface force model to the Rayleigh - Taylor instability problem

S.N. Yakovenko1, K.C. Chang2
1 Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS; Novosibirsk State University
2 National Cheng-Kung University
Keywords: Rayleigh - Taylor instability, surface tension model, volume fraction function
Pages: 433-445

Abstract >>
The surface tension effect is introduced according to the continuum model for the surface tension force. A smooth variation of the mollified function of the volume fraction (the color function) across the interface between immiscible fluids occurs due to the convolution of the original color function with the smooth kernel function. The polynomial eighth-degree kernel formulated for plane two-dimensional flows bounded by solid walls or symmetry planes is tested for the Rayleigh - Taylor instability problem.

Unsteady conjugate thermogravitational convection in a cylindrical region with local energy source

M.A. Sheremet
Tomsk State University
Keywords: conjugate heat transfer, natural convection, cylindrical region, unsteady regime, numerical modelling
Pages: 447-458

Abstract >>
The mathematical modelling of unsteady regimes of natural convection in a closed cylindrical region with a heat-conducting shell of finite thickness was carried out in the presence of a local heat source under the conditions of convective heat exchange with the ambient medium. The mathematical model was constructed in dimensionless variables "stream function - vorticity vector - temperature" in the cylindrical coordinate system. The influence of the Rayleigh number, 104 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, of the unsteadiness factor 0 < τ < 300, of the thermal conductivity ratio λ2,1 = 5.7·10−4, 4.3·10−2, and the energy source sizes on both local characteristics (streamlines and temperature fields) and on the integral complex (the mean Nusselt number on typical boundaries) was analysed in detail. Thermohydrodynamic peculiarities due to the geometry of the object of research were established.

Modelling of radiant-conductive heat transfer in the layer of semitransparent medium in approximation of the classical solution to the single-phase Stefan problem

N.A. Rubtsov, S.D. Sleptsov
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS
Keywords: phase transition, single-phase Stefan problem, radiant-conductive heat transfer, grey medium, reflection factor, emissivity, transmission capacity
Pages: 459-467

Abstract >>
The single-phase Stefan problem was modelled numerically in approximation of the classical solution in application to melting of a flat semitransparent sample by radiant-conductive technique in a wide range of emissivity of the phase transition front.

Temperature dependences of kinematic viscosity of bismuth, lead, and their mutual solutions

M.A. Guzachev1, N.YU. Konstantinova1, P.S. Popel1, A.G. Mozgovoy2
1 Ural State Pedagogical University
2 Joint Institute of High Temperature RAS
Keywords: bismuth-lead melts, kinematic viscosity, viscous flow activation energy, microheterogeneity
Pages: 469-475

Abstract >>
Measurement results for temperature dependences of kinematic viscosity in Bi-Pb melts are presented. Measurements were carried out in the temperature range between liquidus and 1400 K. The distinctive feature of experiments was their performance at heating after sample melting and further cooling. On the experimental temperature dependences of kinematic viscosity the values of viscosity at fixed temperature and activation energy of viscous flow have been calculated. Special attention was paid to non-coincidence of the curves obtained at heating and cooling. The specified anomaly is explained by the concept of metastable micro-coherence of the studied melts.

Determination of thermophysical characteristics of materials at thermal effect of constant power

V.G. Zverev1, V.A. Nazarenko2, A.V. Teploukhov2
1 Tomsk State University
2 FSUE Moscow Institute of Heat Technology
Keywords: thermophysical characteristics, coefficient inverse problem of heat conductivity, semi-infinite solid, one- and two-layer plates
Pages: 477-486

Abstract >>
On the basis of the solution to the coefficient inverse problem of heat conductivity we have proposed a method for determination of thermophysical characteristics of material according to temperature measurement in its depth as an approximation of semi-infinite solid, plate of finite thickness, and plate with a layer of ideal conductor at thermal effect of constant power on their surface. The method does not require experimental data smoothing, serves to remove restrictions for heating mode selection, and increases accuracy of thermophysical parameters determination.

Numerical investigation of heat and mass transfer in the reactor of a plasma-chemical plant purposed for polychlorinated biphenyls treatment

I.А. Bassina1, YU.P. Malkov1, G.A. Troshchinenko1, I.М. Zasypkin2
1 FGUP Russian Scientific Center Applied Chemistry
2 Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS
Keywords: plasma-chemical reactor, pyrolysis, decontamination, trichlorbiphenyl, gas dynamics and heat exchange, reactor design, optimal geometrical parameters
Pages: 487-496

Abstract >>
Gas-dynamic and thermal characteristics of the gas flow in the flow part of a small-scale plasma-chemical reactor for trichlorbiphenyl decomposition were calculated numerically. The investigations were performed with no regard to the chemical interaction of the components: in the calculations, the treated substance was replaced by a simulator (water steam), water steam was also used as an oxidant. Mathematical model of the flow is based on the complete system of Navier - Stokes equations in the context of axisymmetric task statement, with due regard to the gas flow swirling. The calculation results enabled us to choose the optimum geometrical parameters of the reactor design.

Evolution of turbulent kinetic energy in a perturbed turbulent boundary layer

O.M. Oyewola1, S.M. Adaramola2, S.K. Fasogbon3
1 School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ibadan
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan
3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University
Keywords: turbulence, structures, suction, boundary layer, Reynolds number
Pages: 497-500

Abstract >>
The paper considers the evolution of turbulent kinetic energy in a turbulent boundary layer perturbed by suction. The results show that the boundary layer equilibrium is altered in a non-linear manner due to suppression of the structures near the wall. The behavior, however, suggests that the wavelength of alteration of the equilibrium of the layer is unaffected by a change in Reynolds number and suction rate.

About the effect of microtexture on liquid film formation on a vertical surface

B.V. Perepelitsa
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS
Keywords: falling liquid film, regular structures, microtexture, waves
Pages: 501-504

Abstract >>
Formation of a liquid film on the surface of a cylinder with microtexture was studied visually. The effect of microtexture on evolution of waves on the surface of viscous liquid falling over the outer surface of a vertical cylinder under the action of gravity depending on Reynolds number is shown. The phenomenon of microwave formation on the film surface was determined; the size of these waves is comparable with the microtexture pitch.