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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2007 year, number 4

Synthesis of Macrocyclic Derivatives of Polymethyleneamines of Natural Origin and Their Analogues

L. N. Rogoza, N. F. Salakhutdinov, G. A. Tolstikov
Pages: 385-400

Abstract >>
Data on synthesis routes and the possibilities for modification of the structure of macrocyclic alkaloids of natural origin - derivatives of biogenic polymethyleneamines - are considered and generalized. The data on the synthesis of their synthetic analogues used to develop medical preparations of directed action are also reported.

Basic Trends in the Development of Methods for Obtaining Polyfluoroolefins

G. G. Furin, A. N. Il'in, A. A. Il'in
Pages: 401-415

Abstract >>
Analysis of the new approaches to the synthesis of perfluoroolefins and the conditions for performing thermal decomposition of difluorochloromethane and perfluoroalkyl iodides for the synthesis of tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoropropylene is carried out. Essential simplifications of the technology are stressed. It is established that the production of tetrafluoroethylene is affected by the presence of chlorine and oxygen, the material of reactor walls (quartz glass) and diluter (overheated water vapour). The mechanism of thermolysis is discussed from the viewpoint of the decisive role of difluorocarbene. The possibilities of dehalogenation and dehydrohalogenation of polyfluorohalogenoalkanes in the synthesis of perfluoroolefins and perfluorobutadiene are demonstrated. Decarboxylation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the production of terminal perfluoroolefins are discussed.

Physicochemical Features of Complex Utilization of Solid and Liquid Wastes of Alumina Production

N. V. Golovnykh, V. A. Bychinskiy, I. I. Sepelev, Y. N. Didenkov, K. V. Chudnenko, A. A. Tupitsyn, M. A. Altynnikova
Pages: 417-425

Abstract >>
Complex technology of waste utilization of alumina plant, which provides a stepwise going from the stage of statistically controlled accumulation of technogeneous products and impurities to a system of ecologically safety insulation and preservation of wastes, accompanied by the release of products into the processing cycle, is advanced. Starting from the calculated data as the base, this system ensures the highly efficient localization and rendering harmless of the contaminated areas of the hydraulic works by silt deposition based on the highly dispersed SiO2. The complex technological slime processing in accord with flotation-carbonisation scheme together with neutralization of drainage and slime waters within the regime of carbonisation and clarification make it possible to increase the degree of extraction of the alumina and other valuable components, to reduce the consumption of resources, and to have additional valuable products and additives used industrially.

Investigation of the Composition of Pollutants and Changes in Their Properties during Physicochemical Purification of Wastewater from Diazodinitroquinone Production

A. M. Zaynullin, I. G. Shaykhiev, S. V. Fridland, R. Z. Musin, I. K. Rizvanov
Pages: 427-436

Abstract >>
Composition and changes in the properties of wastewater from the production of diazodinitroquinone as a result of the physicochemical purification are studied for the first time on the basis of UV spectroscopic and chromatographic data. It is established that neutralization of the acid initial wastewater is accompanied by an increase in the molecular chain, while further treatment of the liquid causes a decrease in the length of the molecular chain and the formation of other compounds.

Growth of Seleniferous Wheat with the Use of Natural Zeolite

E. L. Zonkhoeva, V. A. Revenskiy, G. D. Chimitdorzhieva, D. B. Andreeva, S. S. Sanzhanova
Pages: 437-440

Abstract >>
Spring wheat with a high content of selenium has been grown using the complex selenium-zeolite mineral fertilizer. The selenium content varies between 4 and 230 µg/1 g wheat. It has been found that the use of this fertilizer improves the selenium assimilability by wheat from soil as well as increases the wheat mass by 2-11 %.

Degradation of N-Methyl-p-aminophenol by Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation with Active Oxygen at Different pH Values

G. V. Kornienko, N. V. Chaenko, V. L. Kornienko, N. G. Maksimov
Pages: 441-445

Abstract >>
Indirect electrochemical oxidation of N-methyl-p-aminophenol (metol) with active oxygen generated in situ on graphite cathodes and different metal-oxide anode materials has been studied at different pH. Indirect oxidation of N-methyl-p-aminophenol with active oxygen at different pH values has been demonstrated to result in effective mineralization to СО2 and Н2О. In acidic electrolyte in presence of Fe2+ ions the oxidation is accompanied with formation of oxalate complexes of iron stable to oxidation.

Experimental Investigation and Thermodynamic Modelling of Supergen Processes in the Tailings of Apatite-Nepheline Ores

S. I. Mazukhina, A. A. Nesterova, D. P. Nesterov, D. V. Makarov, V. A. Masloboev
Pages: 447-455

Abstract >>
Supergene processes in the tailings of apatite-nepheline ores have been studied by techniques of physical chemical analysis and thermodynamic modelling. It has been found that under washing conditions characteristic of Kola Peninsula, the finest and lightest particles and the products of hypergenesis are removed by suffosion. Newly formed phases are represented with micas (lepidomelane and gieseckite), amorphous silica, oxides of titanium, manganese, and goethite.

Synthesis and Properties of Metal Chelates Based on Natural Оі-Pyrone - Maltol

S. A. Mukha, I. A. Antipova, S. A. Medvedeva, V. V. Saraev, L. I. Larina, A. V. Tsyrenzhapov, B. G. Sukhov
Pages: 457-466

Abstract >>
Chelate compounds of maltol, extracted from the needles of Siberian abies, with the ions of such metals as copper (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II), zinc (II), iron (III), aluminium (III), chromium (III) were synthesized. The features of complexation were revealed and the corresponding conditions were optimised. The composition and structure of metal complexes were confirmed with the help of physicochemical and spectral methods UV, IR, NMR), structural characteristics were obtained with the help of EPR. Stability constants were determined; the complexes were arranged into the stability row under the conditions of physiological pH of the medium. The biological activity of ferric and copper maltolates as potential preparations to cure blood diseases was demonstrated.

Removal of Cu2+ Copper Ions from Water Solutions by Complex Formation-Ultrafiltration Method

V. V. Siyanitsa, V. M. Kochkodan, V. V. Goncharuk
Pages: 467-472

Abstract >>
A process of ultrafiltration purification of water solutions from copper ions with addition of polymer chelating agents of various chemical nature (polyethyleneimine, poly(diallyl dimethylammonium chloride), dextrane, humic acids) has been explored. A possibility to perform a recovery of Cu2+ polyethyleneimine complex with the aim to re-use the chelating agent has been demonstrated.

Quality Enhancement of Straight-Run Petroleum Fractions from High-Wax Mongolian Oils

B. Davaatzeren, A. K. Golovko
Pages: 473-479

Abstract >>
The effect of ozonation and dewaxing of Mongolian high-wax oils on the hydrocarbon type composition of petroleum fractions has been studied. The evolution of composition and properties of straight-run petroleum fractions (IBP 180°C) during reforming on a zeolite catalyst has been examined. It has been demonstrated that after ozonation followed by oil thermolysis the petroleum fractions are enriched with aromatic hydrocarbons while the content of naphthenic ones diminishes. Dewaxing of high-wax oil with liquefied gas has been shown to remove predominantly normal alkanes from petroleum fractions. It has been demonstrated that on catalytic thermal refining of straight-run petroleum fractions the products obtained are depleted of normal paraffin and naphthenic hydrocarbons by 2-5 times, enriched with aromatics by 2-4 times, octane rating of gasoline is enhanced by 18-40 points.

Effect of the Physicochemical Properties of the Soil of West Transbaikalia on the Level of Cadmium Translocation into Plants at Different Pollution Levels

M. D. Dashieva, L. L. Ubugunov
Pages: 481-485

Abstract >>
Buffer capacity of the main types of soil of West Transbaikalia with respect to cadmium under different levels of pollution is studied. The dependence of cadmium intake into plants on the buffer capacity of soil is established. The species ability of watercress to accumulate high cadmium concentrations on the soil of different types in the absence of any pollution source is revealed.

New synthesis of Polymethyleneamine Alkaloid Haplamidine and Its Homologues

R. Y. Mitrofanov, V. P. Sevodin
Pages: 487-489

Abstract >>
A new approach to the synthesis of the natural alkaloid haplamidine and its homologues is developed. The possibility of selective removal of the phthalyl protection by means of hydrazinolysis in the presence of benzoyl group is demonstrated.

Sulphating of Powder Cellulose that Was Obtained by the Catalytic Destruction Method by Titanium Tetrachloride

M. A. Torlopov, S. V. Frolova, V. A. Demin
Pages: 491-496

Abstract >>
Sulphated derivatives have been synthesized around powder cellulose (PC) that was obtained by a procedure of catalytic destruction by titanium tetrachloride. PC involvement in sulphating reaction has been studied as a function of the obtaining conditions. It has been found that sulphates of PC show variable physicochemical properties depending on the obtaining methods.

Functional Group Composition of Ingredients of Mongolian Oils

V. F. Kamyanov, Khongorzul Batchuluun
Pages: 497-502

Abstract >>
Results of complex research of sweet, tarry, high-wax oils that occur in lower Cretaceous horizons at Zuunbayan, Tsagan-Els, and Tamsagbulag fields (Mongolia) are presented. With the use of results of physicochemical and radiospectrometric analysis, average values of structural parameters have been calculated for hydrocarbons and high molecular weight heteroorganic compounds inherent in oils.

Innovative Education Programs in the Fields of Chemistry and Sustainable Development at D. Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Technology

N. P. Tarasova, E. E. Purtov
Pages: 503-507

Abstract >>
Ideas of sustainable development spreading through the educational system form the framework of innovative programs. The problems of sustainable development are recognized as a constituent of professional training in many areas. It is shown with the example of D. Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Technology that the innovative potential of sustainable development becomes the driving force of modern education. The principles underlying education for sustainable development include understanding of interdisciplinary relations and responsibility for social consequences of application of knowledge.