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"Philosophy of Education"

2019 year, number 4

1.
"ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY" AS A MODEL OF TRANSFORMATION OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: THEORETICAL APPROACHES AND RUSSIAN EXPERIENCE

E. V. Kudryashova, S. E. Sorokin
Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M. V. Lomonosov, Arkhangelsk, Russia
Keywords: , , , , " ", university, entrepreneurial university, third mission, education, "triple helix"

Abstract >>
Introduction. The model of «entrepreneurial University as a direction of transformation of educational institutions of higher education in the Russian Federation at the present stage is considered. Methodology and methods of the research. Theoretical approaches to understanding the essence and main characteristics of «entrepreneurial universities offered by foreign and Russian scientists are analyzed. The focus of the study is on the problems of adaptation of foreign experience to the conditions of the Russian education system. The problem is considered through the prism of the theory of the «third mission of universities related to the active role of universities in society. The results of the research. An overview of the main theoretical approaches to the essence of entrepreneurial universities, the features of their functioning is given. The foreign and Russian experience of creation of universities of entrepreneurial type, the received effects and the achieved results are considered. Conclusion. Conclusions are drawn about the factors that determine the choice of the University model of «entrepreneurial University as a reference point of transformation. These include the presence of innovative and economic potential in the region of its location, the interest of authorities, business and production in cooperation with the University, the willingness of the staff and management of the University to new approaches to activities, based on the principles of the entrepreneurial University. The challenges to the development of «entrepreneurial universities in our country are highlighted: the lack of experience of such activities in groups and administration of universities, the mutual unwillingness to cooperation of universities and business framework of the existing system of management and financing of universities. Ways to overcome these limitations are suggested.



2.
EDUCATION AND CREATIVITY IN MODERN WORLD-SYSTEM CIRCUMSTANCES

A. A. Izgarskaya1,2, M. V. Izgarskaya2
1Novosibirsk Military Institute of National Guard Troops of Russian Federation, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , , "" (. ), , world-system, education system, domestic pedagogy, creativity, inequality, peripheralization, "geoculture" (I. Wallerstein), comparative education

Abstract >>
Introduction. The paper is devoted to the problem of the human capital development in Russia and the modern world-system. The success of society in many respects depends on the opportunities for development and self-realization available for its members. However, the modern world-system is hierarchical, therefore, inequality of opportunity is one of the characteristics of social relations both within societies and in the system as a whole. Existing education systems reflect this inequality. The authors draw attention to the contradictions in the development of the domestic education system in the post-Soviet period; they pose the question about the objective reasons for the changes observed in it in the implementation of human capital development tasks. Methodology and methods of the research. The theoretical developments of the world-system approach (I. Wallerstein) were used as a research methodology. The authors point out the advantages of this approach in comparison with the modernization theory and the basic general postulates of globalization theories. The authors claim that the results of studies in the field of comparative education obtained on the basis of the world-system approach are consistent with the results and can be supplemented by the data of the world culture theory (J. W. Meyer) and decolonization theory (W. D. Mignolo, J. Kerr, Sousa Santos B. de, K. Bennett). The results of the research. In 1980 on the basis of the world-system approach a direction was formed that studies problems in the field of comparative education (R. F. Arnove, T. G. Griffiths, M. Demeter). The authors of the paper systematize the main theses of this direction, relying on the ideas of I. Wallerstein about the presence of inequality of subjects in the world-system, the escalation of class conflict and the crisis of the modern world order. Using the obtained results, the authors describe the situation in Russian education. The paper argues that, after the collapse of the USSR, an education system in Russia is being formed that reflects and reinforces inequality both within society and in regard to the position of Russian society in the periphery of the world-system. Conclusion. The peripheralization of the Russian economy determines the gradual peripheralization of Russian education. Borrowing Western models of education without proper financing and abandoning domestic pedagogical traditions does not lead to development of the Russian education system, but to a transformation that limits the development of human capital to the level of peripheral capabilities, namely - a «qualified consumer, but not a «human-creator.



3.
CORRELATION OF "OWN" AND "ALIEN" IN THE LEGAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL CULTURE OF MODERN RUSSIA AND IN LEGAL EDUCATION: A SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS

M. N. Kokina
Altai State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia, Barnaul, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , , , culturology, legal culturology, constitutional culturology, legal culture, constitutional culture, Own and Alien in legal culture, legal education

Abstract >>
Introduction. The issues of legal and constitutional culture have become relevant from the end of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century in Russia in connection with the growth of international legal problems, as well as the complexity of national legal constitutional problems within a federal state. Methodology and methods of the research. The dialectic, systemic, sociocultural approaches are applied; scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, comparative studies, integration of the results. The results of the research. The socio-philosophical analysis of the formation of general cultural studies in the twentieth century, the differentiation of modern culture into anthropological and social culture is carried out. It is shown that in the social culture such directions as political, legal culture are developing. In legal culture, its essential component is formed - the constitutional culture. Knowledge of the laws of legal and constitutional culture is important in solving the national legal problems of a federal state, including Russia. In addition, the described problem is important at the level of international legal relations, it allows identifying the specifics of national legal cultures of different countries, finding ways of optimal interactions and cooperation of states in solving common international and global problems. The author reveals the general problem of «Own and «Alien in culture, applied to the legal and constitutional culture. Achievements in the cognition of philosophical-legal, theoretical-legal and applied legal problems of legal and constitutional culture should be included in the educational disciplines of legal education. As separate topics, issues of a new integrative direction, legal and constitutional culturology, are considered. Conclusion. Thus, we can assume that the study of issues of legal and constitutional domestic culture should be based on fundamental legal and cultural knowledge, and the most important results obtained should be included in a professional legal education in a timely manner.



4.
FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM OF EDUCATION OF VISUAL CULTURE IN RUSSIA

O. I. Barkova1, V. A. Vlasov2,3, A. A. Tamarovskaya4
1Law firm «Crisis Management Group, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
2Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
3Siberian Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
4Krastsvetmet OJSC, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , -, PR, , education, visual culture, visual metaphor, simulacrum, media subject, media object, territory branding

Abstract >>
Introduction. One of the most pressing problems in the process of carrying out sociocultural activities in modern civil society is the creation and promotion of the cultural image of individual constituent entities of the Russian Federation or municipalities, referred to in the scientific doctrine as «territorial branding. The formation of an aesthetic taste in this area is connected with the problem of attitude to video content - the source of symbolic resources of modern society. The unlimited possibilities of the language of video images to influence the subconscious mind are actively used in territorial branding. Setting the goal of actively engaging a person in the world of photography, creating a positive space for his/her territory, mastering practical skills and cultural and leisure activities, requires the philosophy of education to educate, discuss and clarify the forms and methods of instilling visual culture based on images, symbols and receptions based on traditional values of domestic culture. Accordingly, the presence in modern realities of the corresponding territory of its own brand will be not only one of the main conditions for quality development, but also the realization of its existing cultural potential. Methodology and methods of the research. Strategies of propaganda and «soft power technologies are examined in terms of their ability to exert a consolidating effect on public consciousness and the setting of value priorities. Based on the methodological principles of the theory of visualization of Aristotle, Leibniz, Husserl, P. A. Florensky, as well as the French philosophers of postmodernists J. Derrida, J. Baudrillard, J.-F. Lyotar, M. Foucault and others. Elements of visual culture are studied (metaphor, propaganda, simulacrum, visual images, functions and goals of the manipulator, etc.). The results of the research showed that since, with the help of technological machines, visual images, it is possible to quickly and efficiently give the desired image to individuals, communities and territories, the visual environment acquires the ability to both integrate and disintegrate society. Any society can be divided into its active and passive parts. A person, creating and «consuming video images, can act actively, creatively - as a media subject (subject of information policy); or passively, consumer - as a media object (an object of information policy). In this regard, the territorial local community can rightfully be considered as a collective media object. Hence, one of the most important tasks for education is to determine the type of media audience as an object of education (impact). If the audience is passive, then there is a need to analyze the causes of passivity, since the predominantly passive audience is not able to recognize the manipulation of their consciousness and absorbs the content prepared by the communicator without thinking about its metaphorical meanings. Conclusion. The study showed that by cultivating certain tastes in the field of the visual sphere, it is possible to both strengthen and destroy the bonds between people. Visual images, including the symbolic resources of society, should be used for positive branding of the territory, consolidating the mass consciousness around images containing significant symbols. It is in this area in the future that the protection of the right to the dignity of the individual, society and its territory should be extended.



5.
ACTUALIZATION OF THE SYSTEM-SYNERGETIC APPROACH IN UNDERSTANDING SOCIETY: SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL AND EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS

O. P. Karnaukhov
Barnaul Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Barnaul, Russia
Keywords: - , , - , , , , system-synergetic approach, the era of globalization, socio-philosophical education, order and chaos at different levels of society, types of social order, types of social chaos

Abstract >>
Introduction. The cognition of society and the most complex social transformations in the era of globalization requires the use of an adequate theoretical and methodological basis, an appropriate conceptual apparatus, with which it is possible to understand the specifics of social processes at the beginning of the 21st century. Methodology and methods of the research. A system-synergetic approach to the cognition of a globalizing society is used as the main one. The necessity of its use in philosophical education, for the training of modern socio-humanitarian specialists, theorists and practitioners, is substantiated. The results of the research. The content of the system-synergetic approach, the methods of modern socio-philosophical cognition associated with it are revealed. An important role of the results of scientific and philosophical cognition of a globalizing society based on systemic synergetic patterns is shown. The results of such studies in socio-philosophical education are of vital importance, since modern humanities specialists must be able, in theory and in practice, to solve a number of complex problems of society emerging from crisis conditions, to determine ways to stabilize social life at different levels of the organization - from individual areas of life of the country to the solution of the most important national tasks, international and global problems of preserving the sociosphere. The authors results on the specifics of understanding order and chaos in the era of globalization are presented. Different types of order in society are distinguished: a balanced stable order and disharmonious unstable social order, as well as their varieties. The duality of the types of social chaos is shown: organizational-creating and deformation-destructive, their varieties are also revealed. Possible forms of relations of different types of order and chaos in society are determined. The specificity of the manifestation of systemic synergistic patterns at different levels of the organization of society (supranational, state and domestic) is investigated. The significance of the socio-philosophical analysis of systemic-cyclical, synergetic and hierarchical interactions with the help of a triad of the categories «order - disorder - chaos at different levels of sociosphere organization in the context of globalization is substantiated. Conclusion. Using a system-synergetic approach in socio-philosophical cognition and education will allow future professionals to better understand the complex social transformations of society in the era of globalization.



6.
CONDITIONS OF INTEGRATION OF INNOVATIVE AND TRADITIONAL APPROACHES IN EDUCATION (axiological aspect)

I. V. Yakovleva1, G. N. Glios2
1Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Altai State Medical University, Barnaul, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , , innovative approaches, traditional approaches, proportion, interconnection, philosophy of education, axiology of education

Abstract >>
Introduction. The paper considers the relationship and proportion of the value-oriented aspects of innovative and traditional approaches for the development of the modern paradigm of Russian education in order to identify the initial definitions and explore new forms, ways and conditions of organization and self-regulation of educational activities. Methodology and methods of the research. The analysis of educational technologies (traditional and innovative) is based on the educational axiological methodology, the revealing of the conceptual framework of traditional and innovative educational approaches, as well as the philosophical and axiological interpretation of the concepts of «proportion and «interconnection. The considered conceptual framework may be of interest both in terms of a scientific and philosophical analysis of the sociocultural situation in Russia, and in terms of organizing the education system in unfavorable modernization conditions. The results of the research. It is shown that the integration of innovative and traditional approaches in education is possible with the establishment of optimal proportions and interconnections between these processes due to the globalization of education, the commercialization of the educational system, the emergence of new functions and forms of socio-scientific and educational activities. Variants and directions are highlighted of the proportion and interconnection of traditions and innovations, which in Russian education so far with a high degree of probability have an adaptive or attenuating character between the goal-setting, requirements and activities of the educational system reformers. Conclusion. The combination of innovative and traditional approaches, in our opinion, is a successful solution to educational problems, provided we do not consider them as mutually exclusive categories. The main task is axiological determination of the most significant features of the development of this educational system or individual institution. One of the key innovative problems is the development of integration options due to a global, state or local-social order for education.



7.
COMPETENCES OF THE XXI CENTURY IN NATIONAL STANDARDS OF SCHOOL EDUCATION OF THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EAST ASIA

N. V. Tarasova1, K. V. Tarasova2
1Federal Institute for education development of the Russian presidential Academy of national economy and public administration, Moscow, Russia
2National Research University «Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: XXI , , , , competencies of the XXI century, metasubject educational results, assessment, school reform

Abstract >>
Introduction. The study is based on a comparative analysis of educational policy in terms of reforming the education system in five countries, including PRC, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea. All five societies are among the most advanced economies and are therefore among the first to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. Without exception, all systems have undergone significant, substantial and comprehensive educational reforms, which are still ongoing. These countries were chosen for their approach to school reform - they begin with an understanding of the changes in society, look to the future and develop aspirations for the future. The paper discusses the features of the last decade of reforms in the field of education in each of the countries, as well as the competencies that a student must have who has received secondary education in order to successfully live and work in the XXI century, the new digital era. Thus, education reforms in selected East Asian countries are of special interest for the Russian researchers. The aim is to present the experience of East Asian countries in the creation and implementation of the competence model of the XXI century for students of the basic General education. Methodology and methods of the research. The work is based on the comparative and system approach which make possible the analysis of the research subject as a whole evolving structure that is built in to other system-structural formations; theoretical methods: analysis and synthesis of literature on the research problem, comparison, generalization, comparison and systematization of the received data. The results of the research. On the basis of the analysis of modern scientific researches, framework, legislative documents and educational programs, the basic formed competences and skills at pupils in the course of training in the countries of East Asia are described. Conclusion. The study allowed us to draw conclusions about the model of competencies of the XXI century for students of basic General education in East Asia. At the same time, in each of the countries, the implementation of the model required reforms and significant changes in the field of education both at the institutional level and at the school level. The study is of great theoretical importance, especially for managers in the field of education, as well as researchers and educators. Analysis of the experience of foreign countries allows choosing the most effective approaches to school reforms in East Asia and implementing them considering the Russian reality.



8.
"SCIENTIFIC WARS" AND CANON-STRAGGLE IN AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES

A. V. Khlebalin
Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: , " ", " ", , , university canon, "cultural wars", "scientific wars", scientific rationality, axiology of education

Abstract >>
Introduction. The flared up scientific wars in the field of the philosophy of science were one of the most striking phenomena in the history of the humanitarian and social disciplines of recent decades. The issues discussed in their course concerned various aspects of scientific rationality, research methodology, and the practice of teaching the relevant disciplines. In fact, since its inception, scientific wars began to include issues of politics and practice of organizing higher education, its axiological characteristics. The content of this debate allows us to consider scientific wars as the continuation and development of cultural wars for preserving the canon as the axiological and ideological basis of university education in the United States. Methodology and methods of the research. The subject of the study involves the use of a cultural and philosophical approach that allows, on the basis of the analysis of the discourse of cultural and scientific wars, to present the cultural and ideological struggle for the axiological content of university education in the USA. The results of the research. The analysis of the content of the discourse of cultural and scientific wars, as well as their dynamics, allowed us to conclude that the debate on the standards and values of scientific rationality raised during the scientific wars should be considered as a new stage in the development of cultural wars, related to the opposition of conservative and liberal ideologies of university education organization regarding the axiological, cultural and political functions of university education in the USA. Conclusion. The deep integration of university education in the political and cultural life of the United States determines the political commitment of the academic debate about the culturally identifying and axiological role of the content of university disciplines. A particular manifestation of this feature is the cultural and scientific wars.



9.
IMPORT OF EDUCATION IN COOPERATION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND MONGOLIA

D. V. Ushakov
Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , , , , , , education, Russia, Mongolia, cooperation, import, language, students, priorities, professions, Universities

Abstract >>
Introduction. The long-term strategic partnership between Russia and Mongolia, in the spirit of mutually beneficial cooperation in various fields of politics, economy, social and cultural spheres, significantly increases the need for the training of highly qualified professional personnel. The importance of the development of educational cooperation between Russia and Mongolia lies in the need to train specialists to promote new production technologies, joint business projects, as well as to establish a mechanism for the reproduction of groups of language and culture translators for neighboring territories in the future. Methodology and methods of the research. The general methodological basis of the study is the system-genetic approach, according to which the education system is presented as a multi-level, structured holistic phenomenon that develops both in internal relationships and in connection with the external environment. The study was carried out using: analytical method, dialectical logic, the principle of unity of the logical and the historical; specific methods: analysis of statistical data and documents, mass sociological surveys, personal observations, expert surveys. The results of the research. The current nature of educational cooperation between Russia and Mongolia today requires adjustment, it is necessary to listen to the ideas and goals of partners. This is impossible without obtaining data on the structure of needs, the content of the educational process, organizational features, determining the vector and possible directions of interaction in the future. The paper considers the priorities of Mongolias needs in the professional training of specialists in certain sectors of the economy in general, and in particular, based on the specifics of various regions. The problems of Russian language development in Mongolia are connected with the attractiveness of education in Russia and the activities of the RCSC (Russian center of science and culture) and its branches in Mongolia. The analysis of the obtained data makes it possible to formulate up-to-date proposals for cooperation in the field of higher education. Conclusion. It is concluded that the relevance of language learning is related to the acquisition of a profession and opportunities for further employment of Mongolian and Russian youth.



10.
EXISTENTIAL APPROACH IN PEDAGOGICAL PERSONALISM

O. Yu. Poroshenko
Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering, Kazan, Russia
Keywords: , , , , «» , , , pedagogical anthropology, pedagogical personalism, existential pedagogy, existential personalism, «deep» psychology, courage, meaning of life

Abstract >>
Introduction. The paper describes the research results devoted to the problem of searching for the new conceptual philosophical and anthropological approaches in order to develop contemporary educational technologies which are adequate to the «human situation in the modern world. The need for research and descriptions of the new fundamental foundations in contemporary pedagogical anthropology, which is a section of humanitarian knowledge, is associated with the increase of socio-psychological problems of individuals and society in the era of globalization. Methodology and methods of the research. Rational-individualistic and socio-collectivist paradigms that exist today in the humanities and pedagogy, in particular, do not solve the underlying existential problems associated with the disclosure of inner world of modern person, both in the West and in Russia. However, in the history of philosophical thought of the 20th century, there were developed the concepts of existentialism and personalism, which can be used to solve contemporary problems within the framework of educational anthropology. The results of the the research. The purpose of this research is to formulate the subject area of existential approach in pedagogical personalism, within which it can be possible to discuss the change of ideology of a fragmented individual of consumer society into the new perspective ideology of a holistic personality of the «knowledge society. Conclusion. Based on the analysis of the concepts of existential phenomenology and logotherapy, it is concluded in the paper that, within the framework of the existential version of pedagogical personalism in modern Russian pedagogy, it is possible to expand and supplement the technologies of mental activity and systemic approaches by the so-called «fifth dimension - measuring the depth of the inner world of the person with such characteristics as uniqueness, subjectivity, sense-positioning, integrity in order to form a «multidimensional personality capable of withstanding «the challenges of contemporary man-made society and individualistic culture.



11.
ARCHITECTURAL AND HISTORICAL HERITAGE IN THE EDUCATION OF VALUE ORIENTATIONS OF FUTURE DESIGNERS

N. S. Zhdanova, A. V. Ekaterinushkina, Yu. S. Antonenko
G. I. Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , value orientations, culture, architectural monuments, historical heritage, methods of teaching future designers

Abstract >>
Introduction. Cultural integration affects the development of modern civilization. Within the framework of the global problems of politics, economy, social life and culture, there is an increasing interest in the preservation, revival of the architectural and historical heritage of the country. This requires constant identification of historical, cultural, value patterns and trends of their further development. This process is crucial in the education of the younger generation. Methodology and methods of the research. Our research is aimed at the implementation of the method of formation of value orientations of future designers, through the study of the architectural and historical heritage of the country. The methodological basis is the scientific works N. S. Zhdanova, O. M. Veremey, J. V. Sokolov, I. K. Beloyarskaya, G. I. Saganenko, A. V. Kiryakova, A. V. Ekaterinushkina, J. S. Antonenko and others. Historical-cultural and aesthetic dimension of the study focused on the works of V. A. Surovtsev, Yu. A. Chayka, L. G. Averkieva, Kh. E. Mamalova The results of the research. The authors emphasize the importance of the process of education of Patriotic and artistic and aesthetic values as the basis of the worldview of young people, especially when it comes to the recognition of civil identity, tolerance, preservation of historical traditions. One of the effective ways, according to the authors, is to involve students in the study of historical monuments of architecture. The developed method is aimed at the implementation of value-oriented activity approach, which is based on the research component that ensures the preservation, revival, reconstruction and modernization of existing buildings or lost monuments. Such training leads to the obvious identification of the theory and its connection with social practice, to the gradual formation of value orientations through acquaintance, understanding and acceptance of values as their own. The formation of value orientations can be carried out in the study of various architectural monuments: religious, Palace, public, residential, industrial, etc.when choosing an object of study, one of the main criteria is its historical significance or artistic merit. Over the years, several dozens of objects have been made with students, in this article the experience of the study of Pashkov House in Moscow is presented. Conclusion. The study conducted by the authors confirmed that architecture is a fertile research topic and an effective means of forming value orientations of students - future designers.



12.
FEATURES OF TEACHING HUMANITIES IN MILITARY-ENGINEERING INSTITUTE

L. A. Elizova
Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: , , - , - , education, upbringing, formal-state approach, social-Patriotic approach

Abstract >>
Introduction. One of the important characteristics of the domestic education system is close connection and conditionality of educational and upbringing tasks. This aspect, according to the author, is of particular importance in the Military engineering Institute, where the cadets are trained who, by definition, are the defenders of the Fatherland. Investigating the problems faced by teachers of humanitarian disciplines in the cadet environment, we aim to analyze the practice of teaching social and humanitarian disciplines, indicating that the effectiveness of the assimilation of material by students of technical universities is closely related to the process of upbringing. Methodology and methods of the research. The study is based on a dialectical method that allows identifying the relevant internal and external contradictions, as well as the specifics of the studied processes. On one hand, we discuss the formal-state approach to the problems of education and upbringing, and on the other, the social-Patriotic approach, which includes various methods. The results of the research. The author emphasizes that the result of upbringing cadets is a formed person, a patriot of his homeland. Attention is drawn to the leading methodological approaches that contribute to the understanding of the essence and goals of the process of education and upbringing of cadets. Attention is focused on the specifics of the entry of Russian humanitarian education into the modern world discourse, the author points out that a fundamental role in optimizing this process is played by the use of the achievements of Russian pedagogical thought and domestic educational traditions. Conclusion. In the process of forming a global educational space, it is necessary to preserve domestic education as a self-sufficient system. The effectiveness of such processes is directly related to the level of teaching humanities in the military engineering environment.