Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia



Advanced Search

Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2015 year, number 6

1.
Cyclicity of Changes in Air Temperature and Water Discharge Reconstructed from Tree Rings in Mountainous Regions of Inner Asia

M. V. MUKHANOVA, M. V. SYROMYATINA, K. V. CHISTYAKOV
Saint-Petersburg State University, 199034, Saint-Petersburg, Universitetskaya quay, 7-9
Keywords: cyclicity, tree ring chronologies, air temperature and water discharge reconstruction, South-West Tuva, North-West Mongolia, upper and lower limits of the forest

Abstract >>
Interdecadal cyclicity of tree ring increment on the upper and lower limits of the forest in mountainous regions of Inner Asia was estimated. This data and records from Teeli meteorological station were used to reconstruct June and July temperatures since 1715 and May and June water discharge of the Buyant River (Mongolia) since 1474. Verification of the detected cycles using the instrumental hydrometeorological data allowed concluding that 2145-year cycles of tree ring growth had been caused by climtic oscillations.



2.
Climate-Induced Lake Dynamics in the Trans-Baikal Forest-Steppe Ecotone

S. T. IM1,2,3, V. I. KHARUK1,2, N. M. RAKITYANSKAYA2, A. S. GOLYUKOV2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Academgorodok, 50/28
2Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodnii ave., 79
3M. F. Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University, 660014, Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarskii rabochii ave., 31
Keywords: lake dynmics, Trans-Baikal forest-steppe, Landsat, GRACE, altimetry, SPEI

Abstract >>
Quantitative dynamics, water surface area, and water level of lakes in the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe zone were studied by means of spectroradiometry (Landsat satellite), gravimetry (GRACE satellite) and altimetry (Envisat satellite). The number of lakes and their water surface area correlated with precipitation (r2 = 0.840.85), summer and annual temperature (r2= −0.77−0.9) and drought index (r2 = 0.950.97). During extremely dry periods (20062010) the number of lakes decreased by four (compared to 1989) and their water surface area decreased by three (compared to 2000) were observed. The rate of change in the water level of the lakes (~29 years) was determined.



3.
Postcatastrophic Succession of a Rodent Population

L. E. LUKYANOVA
Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, UB RAS, 620144, Ekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: anemogenic succession, pyrogenic succession, rodents, total abundance of species, microhabitat, reserve, windfall, fire

Abstract >>
The succession of a rodent population was investigated in forest biocenoses of the Visim Nature Biosphere Reserve (Sverdlovsk region, Middle Ural) after a windfall and two fires. The differences in the total abundance of rodents and their ratio in the community before natural catastrophes and at different postcatastrophic regenerative succession stages were noted. Structural reorganizations in the rodent population were connected with different response of the species to the wind- and fire-induced transformation of their habitats. These reorganizations can be considered compensatory mechanisms which support the stability of small mammal communities during natural disasters.



4.
Adaptation Reserves of Soil Biofilms with the Dominance of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Phormidium

A. I. FOKINA1, E. A. GORNOSTAEVA2, S. YU. OGORODNIKOVA1,3, YU. N. ZYKOVA2, L. I. DOMRACHEVA2,3, L. V. KONDAKOVA1,3
1Vyatka State University for the Humanities, 610002, Kirov, Krasnoarmeyskaya str., 26
2Vyatka State Academy of Agriculture, 610017, Kirov, Oktyabrskiy ave., 133
3Komi Science Centre, Institute of Biology, UB RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28
Keywords: cyanobacteria, biofilms, adaptation, biosorption, biotesting, potential

Abstract >>
The effect produced by copper ions on physiological and biochemical parameters of natural biofilms was studied. Biofilms are multispecific formations of phototrophic microorganisms with the dominance of the Phormidium cyanobacteria. It was established that the impact of Cu2+ ions (20 mg/dm3) after 1 hour caused a decrease of chlorophyll in the biofilms. It also resulted in the appearance of pheophytin in the cyanobacterial suspension, and an increase of lipid peroxidation. In 24 hours the microorganisms got adapted, which was testified by the increased catalase activity, reduced liid peroxidation, and restoration of chlorophyll. During a 1-hour contact of homogenized biofilm with copper solution (the ratio of 0,031 g. per 100 cm3 of the solution), copper ion (II) concentration reduced to the level of MPC. The purification rate constituted 99 %. This feature of biofilms could be used for creating a biosorbent.



5.
Spring Migration of Falconiformes in the South Baikal Migratory Corridor: Peculiarities of Migration and its Connection with Landscape-Climatic Conditions

A. I. POVARINTSEV1,2, I. V. FEFELOV2
1Irkutsk State Agricultural University nmed after A. A. Yezhevsky, 664038, Irkutsk, Molodezhny, 1/1
2Scientific Research Institute of Biology at Irkutsk State University, 664003, Irkutsk, Lenin str., 3
Keywords: Falconiformes, Baikal, South Baikal migratory pass, abundance, migratory behavior, weather

Abstract >>
After a research on spring migration of Falconiformes in 2011 and 2013, a key importance of the South Baikal migratory corridor as a zone of bird concentration in spring was discovered additionally to its well-known autumn importance. Conclusions on numbers, species list, and features of migratory behavior were made. During long-time observation of Falconiformes, three patterns of their migratory movement through the southernmost part of Lake Baikal were determined. The patterns depended on cloud, wind, and ice situation. The relation between migratory activity and meteorological situation on the migratory route was found. Species-specific differences in the birds reaction on weather changes during spring migration were shown on the example of four common migrating raptor species.



6.
Changes of Population Structure of Homogyne alpina (L.) Cass. (Asteraceae) on Carpathian Subalpine Meadows During the Demutation of Plant Communities

G. G. ZHILYAEV
Institute of Ecology of the Carpathians Nationl Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 79026, Lvov, Kozelnitskaya str., 4
Keywords: micropopulation, natural population, vitality, viability, self-regulation, ontogeny

Abstract >>
The results of long-term monitoring (19742014) of a model population of Homogyne alpin (L.) Cass. (Asteraceae) during demutational changes on Carpathian subalpine meadows were summarized. Patterns of structural transformations and self-regulation princiles of this population were determined. A special role of micropopulations in the formation of plant generations and preservation of heterogeneity of population elements was noted.



7.
Comparative Assessment of the Population Strategy of Hedysarum alpinum L. (Fabaceae) on the Territory near Lake Baikal

N. A. KARNAUKHOVA1, D. V. SANDANOV2
1Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
2Institute of General and Experimental Biology SB RAS, 670047, Ulan-Ude, Sakhyanovoi str., 6
Keywords: Hedysarum alpinum, plant communities, cenopopulations, population and individual parameters, morphological plasticity, tolerance strategy

Abstract >>
The assessment of 16 cenopopulations of Hedysarum alpinum including individual and population level was conducted on the territory near Lake Baikal. Floodplain meadows proved to be the most favorable habitats for the studied species. Cenopopulations from the permafrost zone and cenopopulations under human impact were characterized by pessimal state with the lowest values of the species parameters. The ability of H. alpinum to grow in unfavorable conditions by means of decreasing individual parameters and population characteristics has the adaptive significance. This ability determines the main integral property of the species which is tolerance.



8.
Analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 of Ribosomal DNA in Populations of Planorbarius corneus Snails (Gastropoda) from Leningradskaya Oblast and Kaliningradskaya Oblast (Russia)

E. E. PROKHOROVA, E. A. ZHEMCHUZHNIKOVA, G. L. ATAEV
Herzen State Pedagogical University, 191186, Saint-Petersburg, the Moyka quay, 48
Keywords: gastropoda, Planorbarius corneus, genotyping, rDNA, internal transcribed spacers

Abstract >>
Nucleotid sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of rDNA were obtained and analyzed in populations of Planorbarius corneus snails from Leningradskaya Oblast and Kaliningradskaya Oblast. Close similarity between ITS1 and ITS2 of the snails from different areas proved the fact that Planorbarius corneus was a polymorphic but a uniform species.



9.
Population Structure and Differentiation of the Siberian Representatives of the Genus Nitraria L. (Nitrariaceae) Based on the Composition and Content of Phenolic Compounds in Leaves

E. V. BANAEV, M. S. VORONKOVA, G. I. VYSOCHINA, M. A. TOMOSHEVICH
Central Siberian Botanical Garden, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Nitraria sibirica Pall, Nitraria schoberi L, biologically-active substances, seasonl and interpopulation variability

Abstract >>
The composition and content of phenolic compounds in aqueous-alcoholic extracts from the leaves of Nitraria sibirica Pall. and N. schoberi L. (Nitrariaceae) were studied using the high-performance liquid chromatography method. Nineteen components were detected, of which four components were identified: quercetin-3-galactoside (a hyperoside), isoramnetin-3-rutinoside (a narcissine), quercetin (a flavonol) and luteoline (a flavone). It was determined that the species had different phenolic compounds complexes. The differences were most pronounced during the flowering period of the plants. The correlation between the content of phenolic compounds in the leaves of Nitraria sibirica Pall. with the species habitat conditions was found out.



10.
Anatomic Structure of Aboveand Underground Organs of Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel in Mangistau Natural Populations

A. A. IMANBAYEVA1, K. N. SARSENBAYEV2, M. S. SAGYNDYKOVA1,2
1Mangyshlak Experimental Botanical Garden, SC of MES RK, 130000, Kazakhstan, Aktau, Micro-District, 10
2L. N. Gumilyev Eurasian Nationl University, 010000, Astan, Munytpasova str., 5
Keywords: Ferula foetida, anatomic research, structure of vegetative organs, Mangistau, Tuyesu sands

Abstract >>
The results of the study of above- and under-ground organs of Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel growing in Tuyesu sands in the south of Mangyshlak peninsula were presented. It was found that the diagnostic characteristics of Ferula foetida raw material were: the form and structure of epidermis cells, presence of simple mono- and multicellular trichomes, location of conductive bundles and structure of schizogenous and schizo-lysigenous conceptacles in the bark parenchyma of roots, in leaves, leafstalk and above the stems conductive bundles. Resin and gum accumulation of Ferula foetida was associated with schizogenous and schizo-lysigenous conceptacles. Stem and leaves of many-aged plants had similar anatomical structure in which all types of tissues were well expressed. Roots of many-aged individuals of Ferula foetida differed by the number of elements in the conductive zone and the thickness of basic elements (bark parenchyma, diameter of xylary vessels and holes of conceptacles).



11.
In vitro Propagation and Conservation of the Rare Species Fritillaria meleagris L. from Floral Explants

D. S. MURASEVA, T. I. NOVIKOVA, A. A. ERST
Central Siberian Botanical Garden, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Fritillaria meleagris L, in vitro regeneration, floral explants, morpho-histological anlysis, adventitious shoot formation, biodiversity conservation

Abstract >>
The peculiarities of in vitro regeneration of the rare species Fritillaria meleagris L. from floral explants was studied for the first time. At the establishment of in vitro culture and during the multiplication stage the most effective was the use of the 5 nutrient medium supplemented with 0.44 m BA, 3.22 m NAA and 2.28 m IAA. During the multiplication stage the regeneration rate reached 80 % and the number of bulblets per explant was 3.9 0.3. It was established that morphogenesis of the de novo formed structures depended on the mineral composition of the medium: the use of mineral-based B5 led to adventitious shoot formation (gemmogenesis), while the use of BDS caused morphogenic callus formation and gemmorhizogenesis on its surface. The stimulating effect of low temperatures (+7 o) on bulblets development and adaptation to ex vitro conditions was noted.



12.
Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Plants of South Dagestan under the Conditions of Natural Geochemical Anomaly

I.V. DROZDOVA, N. V. ALEXEEVA-POPOVA, I. B. KALIMOVA
V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute, RAS, 196376, Saint-Petersburg, prof. Popova str., 2
Keywords: heavy metals, macroelements, natural geochemical anomaly, accumulation of heavy metals by plants, species of the family Brassicaceae

Abstract >>
The comparative study of the concentrations of chemical elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ca, Mg, K) in plants and soils of South Dagestan was conducted in two districts distinguished by different level of heavy metals in rock formations. It was established that plants and soils in the area of natural geochemical anomaly (southern schistic region of Inner Dagestan mountain province) were characterized by higher content of the most part of the studied elements, except Ca and Cr, as compared to those in the reference area (northern limestone region of Inner Dagestan mountain province). High content of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co in plants and soils - the most important components of any ecosystem - allowed us to consider the south schistic region of Dagestan as a biogeochemical province with high concentration of the above mentioned heavy metals.



13.
Hydrocarbons and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Bottom Sediments from the Nakhodka Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea): Assessment of Pollution Level and Potential oxicity

E. V. ZHURAVEL1,2, A. P. CHERNYAEV1,3, L. I. SOKOLOVA1, E. M. CHUDOVSKAYA1, M. A. PROSHINA1
1Far Eastern Federal University, 690600, Vladivostok, Sukhanova str., 8
2A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, FEB RAS, 690041, Vladivostok, Palchevskogo str., 17
3Pacific Research Institute of Fishery and Oceanography (TINRO), 690091, Vladivostok, Shevtchenko str., 4
Keywords: pollution, bottom sediments, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated bihenyls, the Nakhodka Bay

Abstract >>
The content of hydrocarbons, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated bihenyls in the bottom sediments of the Nakhodka Bay was studied. It was shown that the content of the pollutants was similar to that of low polluted areas of the World Ocean. PAH and PCB concentration in the Nakhodka Bay did not exceed the toxic thresholds and did not pose any threat to the existence of aquatic organisms.



14.
Response of the Soil Microbial Community to Simultaneous Influence of Metals and Organic Substance

P. Yu. GALITSKAYA, A. A. SAVELIEV, S. Yu. SELIVANOVSKAYA
Institute of Environmental Sciences Kazan Federal University, 420008, Kazan, Kremlyovskaya str., 18
Keywords: soil, composts, microbial biomass, respiration, metabolic quotient, metals

Abstract >>
Organic substances and metals have multidirectional effects on soil microorganisms. The response of a soil microbial community to simultaneous introduction of an organic substance and metals was assessed (the metals were a part of a sewage sludge compost). The increase of Corg to 2,1 0,4 % and mobile Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn forms to 1,1 0,03, 3,8 0,8, 6,0 1,2, 2,1 0,5, 3,2 0,7 and 12,3 2,7 ppm1 correspondingly resulted in the growth of microbial biomass in comparison to the control soil, two seasons after soil treatment. Respiratory activity of the studied soils increased during the first season and decreased by the end of the second season to the level of control plots. The value of metabolic quotient did not exceed the control level. The principal components analysis of the obtained data revealed that the major factor defining variability of the microbial community was the content of organic substance in the soil.



15.
Comparative Characteristics of the Fractional and Group Composition of Humus in Embryozems of Technogenic Landscapes in the Mountain-Forest Zone of the Kuznetsk Basin

V. G. DVURECHENSKIY1,2, V. P. SEREDINA3
1Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Lavrentieva ave., 8/2
2Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 630008, Novosibirsk, Leningradslaya str., 113
3Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin ave., 36
Keywords: technogenic landscapes, embryozems, technozems, humus, group and fractional composition of humus, trends of soil formation

Abstract >>
The study of soils of technogenic landscapes showed that the fractional and group composition of humus in different types of embryozems, unlike reference brown taiga soils, had a certain specificity. This specificity was due to the fact that embryozems, being young soil formations, served as a syngenetic reflection of a particular successional stage of phytocenosis, microbiota and other cenoses. The study showed the trends of humus formation in the soils of technogenic landscapes of mountain taiga belt of Kuzbass.



16.
Impact of Genetic Modification of the Antioxidant Defense of Tobacco Plants on the Streptomycetes Complex in the Rhizosphere

I. G. SHIROKIKH1,2, Ya. I. NAZAROVA1, A. A. SHIROKIKH1, S. Yu. OGORODNIKOVA2, E. V. TOVSTIK1, E. N. BARANOVA3
1N. V. Rudnitski Zonl Research Institute for Agriculture of the North-East, 610007, Kirov, Lenin str., 166
2Vyatka State University of Humanities, 610002, Kirov, Krasnoarmeyskaya str., 26
3All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, 127550, Moscow, Timiryazevskaya str., 42
Keywords: soil, streptomycetes, structure of the complex, rhizosphere, tobacco, transformant plant, Fe superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD1), oxidative stress

Abstract >>
Tobacco plants (Nicotian tabacum L.) modified with the gene of Fe superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD1) from Arabidopsis thaliana L. were studied. The gene of Fe-SOD1 conferred resistance to the plants against the damaging effects of oxidative stress. The number and structure of complexes of actinomycetes of the genus Streptomyces in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of the original cultivar Samsun and independent transgenic lines Ttrf3 and Ttrf13 were estimated. The plants were grown under optimal conditions (control) and on acid sod-podzolic soil with aluminum (stress). The impact of incorporation of the heterologous sequence in the genome of tobacco plants on the abundance, species diversity and functional activity of streptomycetes in the rhizosphere of the plants was detected.