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"Philosophy of Education"

2015 year, number 3

Global world as a single axiological system: problems and prospects

I. A. Pfanenshtil, L. N. Pfanenshtil, M. P. Yatsenko
Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Ave., Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660041
Keywords: global world, principles of integrated development of civilization, a single axiological system, axiological aspect of globalization, history

Abstract >>
The article considers the global world as an axiological system. The necessity is indicated of taking into account the fact that the functional unity has a limit of optimization, since with all the manifoldness of variants of the exchange and distribution of the products of labor between social groups, their number is always finite and, therefore, the potential of optimization of their combinations can be exhausted. A qualitative transformation of the very set of social groups marks a transition from one type of functioning to another, whereas their sequence is embodied in the process of alternation of the organization epochs, each of which forms the dynamics of their labor division. The problem of formation of a unified axiological system is exacerbated by the inadequacy of the Western model of globalization with respect to the survival needs of modern humanity, its current status can be defined as ôcivilizationalö destruction or a special type of transition state, where relatively new and extremely dangerous processes are closely linked: the ecological, demographic, anthropological, social-political, economic and financial, ethical, religious and other crises. The axiological dimension of globalization is revealed in the fact that one of the stable ôpervasiveö needs in all known human societies is the need to anticipate and predict the future. It is conditioned by the specificity of the object-practical activities related to the planning and designing as a manifestation of goal-setting. In order for the knowledge of the past to serve as a basis for predicting the future, one needs to have special cognitive structures, that is, a special logical mechanism ensuring correctness of the transfer of information about the past which no longer exists to the future which does not exist yet. The axiological aspect of modern global world is conditioned by the fact that in our historical consciousness the idea of mankind becomes concrete and visible only in real history, in its entirety. There the idea becomes a refuge in those origins, from which there comes to us the true scale, when we find ourselves helpless, lost in the face of a catastrophe, the destruction of all thinking habits that used to defend us. The axiological unity of the global world is determined by the general course of development of all the peoples involved in the movement of history, because there are common trends in the growth and progress, although during certain periods of history the development may slow down.

Safety of the educational environment in modern geopolitical conditions

O. O. Andronnikova
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28 Viluiskaya St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630126
Keywords: geopolitics, globalization, safety of the educational environment, victimization

Abstract >>
This article focuses on the security of educational space in modern geopolitical conditions. The purpose of the article consists in the analysis of the current state of development of interaction between geopolitics and globalization and its influence on the education system in Russia. The article presents an analysis of the major transformations of modern society, reveals the influence of globalization on the victimization of people and social institutions in Russia. The specificity is shown of the psychological approach to the study of the impact of geopolitics on the world community. An approach is presented which examines the impact of global processes through the triad of Globalization - Hegemonism - Geopolitics. The expansion is characterized of foreign norms and values, as well as their influence on the specifics of ongoing social processes. There are considered the threats, resulting from the ongoing changes, to the safety of educational space as one of important social institutes. There are noted the qualitative changes in the system of Russian education which engender the need of modernization of the system. The risks and threats connected with the geopolitical processes leading to violation of safety of the educational environment are noted. The levels of safety are characterized, the criteria for assessment of safety of the educational environment are proposed. The safety of education space should be evaluated in terms of a model of education: a system capable of ensuring quality education. The system determines the victimized or safe development vector of the child. An analysis is carried out of the psychological safety of educational environment; the factors of its formation and violation are described. Psychological safety is understood by us as such condition of the educational environment in which there is no psychological violence in interaction, the basic needs of the personal - confident communication are satisfied, the mental health of all participants is preserved. The components are identified which are in complex hierarchical relationships and which ensure the efficient functioning of safe educational environment, as well as the specifics of creating a culture of safety. There are designated the specific characteristics and needs of modern society, determining the model of development of Russian education taking into account ensuring its safety.

The role of higher education in the implementation of the anti-crisis concept of Russiaĺs development

T. A. Vaneeva, I. V. Mzhelskaya
Siberian State University of Railways, 191 D. Kovalchuk St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630049
Keywords: social-economic system, higher education, scientific research, theory and practice, modernization of higher education, optimal development

Abstract >>
In the article, the authors try to find answers to the main questions about our future social development. It is time to set new long-term objectives and outline possible ways of progressive development of the Russian society. The main task of Russiaĺs development now is to find the primary factors of the national growth. The authorsĺ analysis includes the realization of right methods of management in todayĺs higher education. The role of higher education as a mechanism of optimization of social development and business activity has been always very impotent. The higher education system trains professional personnel necessary for the development of the country. These people should have a progressive world outlook on the basis of ethnic priorities and the national development strategy that is needed to save the Fatherland in the stressful conditions of the current century. To counter the crisis tendencies it is necessary to decisively reject the cult of market ideology, choose socially important landmarks in the development of society and return to the primary social institutions, including quality education, socially-oriented upbringing, civil responsibility on the basis of an ideological component in people's behavior. To restore them is not easy, but necessary. Instead of exclusive pursuit of profit, at the present moment we should use the reserves of the society and production for the development of science and education, which will bring the national economy to a new technical level and will provide a new quality of life to all people of our country. In this regard, it is necessary to unite the efforts of the state and the population, the center and the regions. Indeed, the development of any civilized society is objectively linked to the system of social institutions, among which the leading role belongs to education of the population, affecting the quality of the construction of social relations in all spheres of life.

Re-industrialization in the risk society: university mission

V. V. Petrov1,2
1Institute of Philosophy and Law of SB RAS, 8 Nikolaeva St., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090
Keywords: post-industrial society, information society, knowledge society, risk society, reindustrialization, university autonomy, management, education policy

Abstract >>
The paper focused on the dominant role of information and knowledge in a rapidly changing society. The basic concept of modern society (postindustrial - information - knowledge society - risk society), revealed similarities and differences are identified the key characteristics that determine its further development. It is shown that in the conditions of re-industrialization of the education system have predominated: that it should make the training of specialists who are ready not only to work in the new changed circumstances with information and knowledge, but also to make fundamental and applied knowledge. For example, Western societies identified the main principles of the classical university, considered a positive experience to overcome the contradiction that arises between the education system and the demands of society in the era of change. It is proved that in compliance with the basic principles of the organization of education in the conditions of re-industrialization, domestic universities have the chance to act as a leader of innovative development of Russian society.

Education and a new approach to national safety

S. V. Kamashev1, N. V. Nalivayko1,2
1Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28 Viluiskaya St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630126
2Institute of Philosophy and Law of SB RAS, 8 Nikolaeva St., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: education, national safety, globalization, geopolitics, structural socio-cultural changes, concepts of upbringing, development of economy, science and culture

Abstract >>
Russian society today, being in a state of deep structural social-cultural transformation, is facing the need to develop new educational concepts that meet the requirements of societyĺs development. The transition of Russian society to the current phase of development has led to realization of the fact that the meanings, stereotypes of activity and behavior, educational and training concepts should be subject to complete rethinking in the changed social, political or other conditions. The specifics of Russian education in the new geopolitical and global conditions, the study of the nature and content of domesic education are the most important issues for the philosophy of education, especially in the context of formation of national safety of modern Russia. (This is very important because, after the collapse of the USSR as a result of the Belavezha Accords, the balance of power in the world has significantly changed: the world was no longer bipolar, and the West imposes on Russia its own rules on the world stage, is trying to create a new world order at the expense of Russia, which mat lead to unexpected onsequences all over the world). In such circumstances, the societyĺs safety is largely conditioned by the factor that education provides, along with professional skills and orientations, the bases of moral and spiritual upbringing, reproduces the social (the set of mental and cognitive programs of human activity in the globalized world). From the national security perspective, the most important task of Russian education (upbringing) is, on one hand, the formation the studentsĺ entrepreneurship, rationality, the ability to make their own informed decisions in the situation of choice, predicting the possible consequences, as well as the mobility, dynamism, and, on the other, the upbringing of the people able to become worthy citizens of Russia, who love their family, their homeland, their work, ready to moral behavior and performance of civic duties; willing and able to cooperate and have the sense of resposibility for the fate of the country.

Multiculturalism as a problem of modern education in the epoch of globalization

T. A. Rubantsova
Siberian State University of Railways, 191 D. Kovalchuk St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630049
Keywords: multiculturalism, poly-culturalism, postmodernity, innovative education, constructivism, culturological approach, cultural pluralism

Abstract >>
The purpose of the article is the analysis of multiculturalism as a current trend in education during the globalization era. In the article a culturological approach to education is revealed, it is noted that from the beginnings of the XX century the educational centers has been, at the same time, the centers of culture, the subjects of its creation and consumption by the individual. In the modern global world these two processes have become complicated and differentiated, there has occurred division of the uniform cultural-educational space, which has led to their weak interaction in the conditions of weak integration processes. First of all, the cultural context of education is connected with assimilation of cultural universals, the system of languages of culture, identification of those dominating ideas and values that are incentives for the development of cognition in a certain direction. It is connected with a certain type of civilization. In the XXI century a new multicultural space of education has been formed. It is a dynamic system of various cultural fields which were created as a result of interaction of the subjects of education which are carriers of various cultural experiences. There are revealed in the article some approaches to the post-modern condition of society which describes new tendencies in culture, to the phenomenon of poly-culturalism in the modern world and to a new type of education which is being formed.

Virtual trends in the global educational space: Smartľtechnologies

I. G. Borisenko
Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Ave., Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660041
Keywords: information process, globalization, virtual trends, educational space, SmartÔÇôTechnologies

Abstract >>
The article examines the virtual trends in the global educational space. Modern society is experiencing a new technology wave based on the nano-, cyber- and other innovative technologies. One of the components of this wave is Smart-technologies, Smart-devices, Smart-resources, which are combined in the Smart-systems. Smart-technologies are changing the education system, which is manifested, in particular, in the following: the introduction of the principles of learning throughout life; usage of the latest distance learning technologies and e-learning technologies; simplification of the procedures of licensing and accreditation. Smart-education is a prerequisite for the formation and development of a Smart-society, because it is an important means of its development. The goal of Smart-education is the development of the human being as a subject of Smart-interaction as well as the formation of Smart-competence of subjects as a part of their information competencies. Many questions of functional orientation of information processes in modern education are connected in one way or another with the Smart-education, which is able to provide the highest level of education that corresponds to the challenges and opportunities of today's world; adaptation of young people to the rapidly changing conditions of the educational environment; guarantees the transition from the book content to the interactive content. Therefore, there arises an urgent need: already today it is necessary to train specialists with the skills of working in the modern Smart-society, where the totality of the expertsĺ use of technological innovations and the Internet leads to a new, higher level of society, particularly evident in the educational, scientific research and social results of activity. Virtual trends in education are also manifested in the fact that now there appear new high information and communication technologies, electronic services, social networks; Internet is acquiring global character, covering all spheres of vital activity of the society; there is being formed the information and communicative unity and diversity of human civilization. With the help of the means of informatization, there has become possible the access of each person to various information resources.

Motivational potential of the interaction of the communication and linguistic-pantomime factors in the methodology of teaching the subjects connected with foreign languages

V. V. Erokhin1,2, S. I. Vezner1
1I. K. Yakovlev Novosibirsk Military Academy of the Interior Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 6/2 Klyuch-Kamyshenskoe plateau St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630114
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 ╩. Marx Ave., Novosibirsk, 630073, Russia
Keywords: motivation, innovative teaching technique, foreign language, linguistic pantonime, communicative approach

Abstract >>
In the article there is an attempt to illustrate such kinds of motivational potential of interaction between the communication and linguistic-pantomime factors in the methodology of teaching the subjects connected with foreign languages as the actualizing, organizing, diagnostic and correcting ones. The topicality of the suggested subject is conditioned firstly by the problem of motivation in English learning, which is interesting for modern researchers. Despite the difference of approaches, motivation is understood as a combination of various psychological factors concerning human behavior and activity. The motivation problem (including learning motivation), despite the accumulated experience of reflection on this issue, has remains controversial. The problem of motivation of learning foreign languages in higher education is extremely topical for researches. Secondly, in modern higher education the increasing of learning motivation in the subjects connected with foreign languages is extremely important goal for linguists and non-linguists. The statistic studies which we conducted have revealed the non-coordinated character of new academic approaches and the low level of studentsĺ motivation in foreign language learning. Two thirds of the students understand the necessity of learning this discipline as an important factor to pass a test or exam. One third of the respondents acknowledge the necessity of English learning for cultural development but does not understand the importance of the subject for future specialty. A negative factor is the low level of school knowledge of foreign language. To solve the problems, we should pay attention to the factors which improve motivation. Thirdly, there is some methodological motivation for this research. It is important to constantly work on methodology, to analyze the communicative process between teacher and student in terms of its efficiency, to improve the methodological base. This range of issues is covered by this article.

Semantic aspect of perception of foreign-language text at the non-linguistic departments

N. G. Zarechneva
Tomsk State University, 36 Lenina Ave., Tomsk, Russia, 634050
Keywords: semantics, semantic field, the notions of źsense╗ and źdenotation╗ (by G. Frege)

Abstract >>
The article notes that the role of the «Foreign Language╗ discipline in the modern world at the non-linguistic departments of higher educational institutions is increasing significantly because foreign language communication in the context of global integration is not only an essential component of future professional activity, but also is one of the most relevant professional competences. Another important condition for the professional activity of any professional is to work with the information, including the foreign-language texts which are professionally oriented. Therefore, at present the knowledge of at least one foreign language is vital. Learning a foreign language at the departments of natural sciences and technology has a communicative-oriented and professionally-directed character. However, in the methods of teaching foreign languages there is a fundamental problem of the lack of a developed system (semantic system) which allows forming and expanding the foreign-language thinking of the students. The paper is dedicated to the method of semantic fields as a method of systematization and description of the philosophical processes of getting sense, discovered by N. P. Chupakhin, in teaching foreign languages to the students of non-linguistic departments. The foundations of this method are considered. Applying this approach allows improving the quality of learning the foreign languageĺs lexical elements by establishing relationships between languages by «semantization╗ of the foreign languageĺs vocabulary. The model of semantic fields allows determining dialectic connections of linguistic units and the non-language reality. The semantics can be said to study the semantic form of information, that is, the semantic aspect is the type of information in terms of its meaning, content. The paper also discusses the notions of «sense╗ and «denotation╗ as basic notions in the translation theory included in the conceptual apparatus of semantic analysis.

Problems of patriotism and nationalism in the context of language and language education

L. P. Zagorulko
I. K. Yakovlev Novosibirsk Military Academy of the Interior Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 6/2 Klyuch-Kamyshenskoe plateau St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630114
Keywords: patriotism, nationalism, language, language education

Abstract >>
The purpose of the article is to study the socio-philosophical problems of patriotism and nationalism in the context of language and language education. The relevance of the study is determined by the role that language, being an integral part of the national consciousness of the people, plays in socialization. Problems of language education are of particular importance in the present conditions, as inadequate language policy of the state can have disastrous consequences. The ideological influence of language education is manifested in the fact that it begins to change the views of the population. Indicative of this is the modern linguistic situation in the education system in Ukraine.From the point of view of the Ukrainian authorities, to promote the Ukrainian language is a manifestation of patriotism and love for their country, but from the point of view of the Russian-speaking population living in the territory of Ukraine, it is a manifestation of nationalism in its worst form, fascism, because Ukrainian nationalists through the language form a hostile attitude towards people who does not speak the Ukrainian language. Thus, the line between patriotism and nationalism disappears, and language, as shown by this example, may have aggressive character. Language is needed to the human being as the spirit of the people, his/her worldview. The policy of preservation of national languages in some countries of the former Soviet Union leads to the division of society into citizens and non-citizens and, as a consequence, to internal conflicts. For example, the residents of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria) appeared outcasts in their own country because they speak a different language. For the same artificially created reason, the residents of Ukraine, concentrated in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions, revolted against the oppression by language, «against the expansion of the spirit╗. Language education can contribute to both strengthening and destruction of the relations between speakers of different languages. Therefore, further study is necessary of how this or that language reproduces itself as a set of relationships in the global space of existence, taking into account all the factors that determine its specificity in a given period of development of society in the ontological and axiological aspects.

Specifics of individuality: giftedness and its individual manifestations

T. V. Gudkova, N. S. Matveeva, S. V. Geybuka
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28 Viluiskaya St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630126
Keywords: giftedness, individuality, abilities, teaching strategies

Abstract >>
The authors consider the question of complexity of such socio-psychological phenomena as individuality and giftedness. The topicality of this study is conditioned by that the level of social consciousness leads to the realization of a change in the attitude of society to the problem of human individuality, the feasibility of realization of his/her interests and abilities. An important role in the development of individuality is played by natural inclinations, innate characteristics. The question about the nature of individuality, natural inclinations, abilities and the possibilities of their development is of interest among researchers. The category of individuality is used in different ways not only in psychology but also in other sciences. Manifestation of abilities, talents, their nature and the possibilities of their development are the study subject of various scientific fields, which leads to the formation of different methodological research approaches. Their study in different aspects made it possible to identify the structure and characteristics of giftedness. In this regard, a multi-layered structure of individuality is indicated. It is shown that giftedness is a complex psycho-physiological phenomenon which manifests itself in intellectual development, the dominant role of cognitive motivation, creativity and research activities, special abilities. According to a number of researchers, the key to understanding this phenomenon lies in the interaction between the individual and the age-related. Most researchers note that giftedness is the conditions and properties of the person which are formed during lifetime. However, it is stresses the importance of social conditions for the successful development of abilities and talents. Of particular importance is the successful self-realization of gifted children in the society: because of their specialness, they often experience behavioral and cognitive difficulties. The «measurement╗ of giftedness allows giving orientation in the individually intellectual development of the person. The basic strategies are considered of teaching children with high intellectual potential, which include acceleration and enrichment. In conclusion, the authors point out that taking into account the individual characteristics of each child, the level of his/her intellectual development, the direction of the interests and aptitudes allows developing the all-round, creative personality, which, at the present stage, is a priority task connected with creating conditions for the development of gifted children and their potential.

Development of creative potential of students in the learning process in a pedagogical university

R. B. Dondokova
Buryat State University, 24a SmolinÓ St., Ulan-Ude, Russia, 670000
Keywords: creative potential, humanistic paradigm, professional training of students, creativity, structure of creativity

Abstract >>
The article reflects the ideas of development of the creative potential of students in the process of their professional-pedagogical training. Creativity in the psychological-pedagogical sense is the development of higher potentials of the teacher, pedagogical values in professional activity. There is presented an overview of the opinions of first- and second year students concerning the development of their creative potential in the cycles of academic disciplines. The analysis of the results has showed the need for this kind of work with the future teachers. In the process of development of the creative potential of students we have identified the following stages: the motivational and value-related one (mastering values of pedagogical work, the orientation of students toward creativity and self-development); the creative one (inclusion into independent solving creative pedagogical tasks in the learning process, involving various forms and types of real professional activities, participation in seminars, competitions and olympiads); the reflexive one (analysis of oneĺs own activity, building self-esteem and willingness to work in a variety of types of pedagogical work). Some aspects of the development of students' creative potential are considered and the pedagogical conditions of its formation are identified: 1) formation of creative environment in which the educational microenvironment has a formative effect on the activity of the subject, only if it has, in addition to the subject-information content, the samples of creative behavior; 2) encouraging reflective activity, where reflection is understood as a procedure including the analysis of thinking or activity, critical attitude toward them and search for the new, which gives the person an opportunity to make his/her own decisions; 3) dialogization of the educational process; the importance of this condition is that the personality is a manifestation of the person in a dialogue, so the dialogical character of the subjects of educational process in the university determines the quality of pedagogical activity and the efficiency of the process of formation of professional competence of the teacher.

Modeling and opportunities of implementing subject training of the masterĺs degree students in the changing conditions of the higher education development

E. V. Andrienko, I. I. Shulga, N. S. Matveeva, T. V. Gudkova
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28 Viluiskaya St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630126
Keywords: higher pedagogical education, Master's Degree program, psychological-pedagogical education, module of subject training, labor action, educational outcomes, educational technologies

Abstract >>
In the article, a topical problem is considered of professional training of students in the modern conditions of modernization of higher education, the requirements for its content, organization and results. We present the experience of creation of the module of subject training «Psychology and pedagogy of creating a safe learning environment╗ for the implementation of the Master Degree program. This module is included in the educational program 44.04.02 ôPsychological and Pedagogical Education╗, the profile of «Psychology and Pedagogy of the general and vocational education╗. The training in this module takes place after the completion of the module of general cultural training and a part of the module of general professional training. The module is aimed at mastering by the Masterĺs students of professional competencies relevant to the professional activities. In developing the module there were taken into account the following interrelated components of educational outcomes: labor actions, competences, measurable educational outcomes. The parameter estimation and designing a psychologically safe and comfortable learning environment are defined as the main labor actions, while distinguishing three professional competences in accordance with the Federal Educational Standards 3+ and the teacher professional standard. The article also describes the corresponding measurable professional educational outcomes. The moduleĺs content includes two disciplines of the basic block and six disciplines of the variable block, allowing revealing topical issues of pedagogy and psychology of creating a safe learning environment. There is described theoretical training in the disciplines of the module which includes a concentrated form of educational practice. In this module, there are assumes new forms of organization of work with the students (webinars with the participation of domestic and foreign colleagues, virtual tours, collaborative learning, consulting advice, web quests). Evaluation of the module of subject training is completed in the form of examination, which includes case studies and projects. The article suggests some examples of the test and project tasks. Finally, some conclusions are made concerning important factors of efficiency of creation and implementation of this module.

The essence of consciousness development in the transition periods of the society: a social-philosophical analysis of the educational crisis

L. D. Rasskazov
Prof. V. F. Voino-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, 1 Partizana Zheleznyaka St., Krasnoyarsk , Russia, 660022
Keywords: leading forces of modernity, upbringing, ideology, crisis, crisis consciousness, education, transition period of society, consciousness, social-philosophical analysis, essence

Abstract >>
Cognition of the essence of consciousness and discovery of its regularity is one of the most difficult tasks of philosophy, social sciences and humanities. Hence the purpose of the article is to analyse the essence and the crisis phenomena of awareness and education as interrelated processes, which form the basic contradictions of modernity. Today, in the conditions of globalization, it is increasingly claimed that consciousness is formed either by the dominant social groups in society, or consciousness is a product of the entire social history. In the first case, consciousness is the result of ideological influence of a particular class; in the second, the consciousness is closely connected with practice, depends on it and determined by it. This article attempts to explore the nature of consciousness and its manifestations in the periods of society transition, as well as the methods of analysis of consciousness during the crisis of the education system. In the article, education is regarded as the leading force of modern times, which today is in need of radical qualitative changes that meet the realities of the present. The transition period of society identified two global contradictions between the education system of the society as a cultural social institution and the expectations of society from education. Lagging behind of the spiritual sphere of society, which includes education, from the rapid changes in the economy raises a question about the place and role of upbringing in the educational institution. The crisis phenomena in education are not just something negative, devastating, but also promising, innovative. On one hand, education and upbringing are rooted in the depths of national identity; on the other hand, they form the identity of the student through spiritual and manual ômakingö. In today's conditions there is required a combination of traditional and innovative forms and methods of teaching, education and administration, where didactic and heuristic components are balanced in their potencies and reveal huge reserves of the psychosomatic and spiritually-moral origins in the human being. The fast pace of life and the conservatism of consciousness are the problematic components, the contradictions between which should be resolved in the context of the educational and social processes in the conditions of crisis. Today, the educational institution, along with the family, is a basic social institution, where the healthy, active individual is formed as well as the cultural, moral personality. The student and the teacher today are two leading forces of the education itself, interaction between which should be further examined by the society undergoing crisis. In the article, the author raises the question of the labor as a way of obtaining knowledge and transforming the world inside the person and around him/her.

Conceptual model of consciousness as the self-organization of Leibniz's monads

Yu. N. Belokopytov, G. V. Panasenko
Siberian State Technological University, 82 Mira Ave., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Keywords: Leibniz as a philosopher of Modern Age, monadology, principles of monadsĺ existence, spontaneity of the unconscious and nonlinearity of consciousness, fractal models of consciousness and manifoldness of worlds

Abstract >>
The article focuses on the philosophical and psychological analysis of the model of «Leibnizĺs self-organization of monads╗. A characteristic feature of Leibnizĺs philosophy is the doctrine of many possible worlds. «A world is possible, if it does not contradict the laws of logic╗. In the real world the good far exceeds the evil. These two concepts are interrelated. There exist infinitely many possible worlds. The most important thing is that a world must not contradict the laws of logic. Leibniz suggested that the world we live in is «the best of all possible worlds╗. It is like a corollary which follows from the pre-established harmony, for the worlds can be seen from the point of view of logic and the laws of nature. Our unique, real world is more perfect in terms of harmony. The pre-established harmony is expressed in the optimal architectonic of the abstract, sensual and physical worlds. The authors consider «monadology╗ in the light of the synergy paradigm, from the viewpoint of a new postnonclassical paradigm. In addition, an emphasis is made on the processes of self-organization of the primary elements and the emergence of the phenomenon of consciousness. It is substantiated that the self-organization of small perceptions is the basis of the phenomenon of consciousness. In Leibnizsĺs theory, a level of the unconscious is distinguished. The harmony of the real world in a variety of existing worlds is revealed.

Research object of social sciences

V. V. Bobrov
Institute of Philosophy and Law of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva St., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: factors of the social, social objects, processes and phenomena, social relations, the individual, social-group and state interests, social sciences, conceptual complex, passport of the special field

Abstract >>
Unlike natural sciences, social scientists have no conventional object of the research. According to the author, the main reason of this situation is the absence of a conceptual complex unequivocally reflecting the characteristics of objectively existing social objects, processes and phenomena that testifies to a state of pre-standard in social sciences. In the article, an analysis of the reasons of this situation is carried out and the ways of solving the problem are shown. First of all, it concerns the concept of «the social╗, the essence and content of which are defined by the factors forming «inter-corporal╗ connections between individuals. According to the author, there are among them the needs of the individuals for the joint life activity, possibilities and functions of the information exchange between them, the presence and social appointment of leaders, and also an order of interaction of the community members while satisfying the common needs. The indicated factors of the social are embodied in the content of «social relations╗, which are a collection of the subject-subject and subject-object relations regulated by customs, traditions, laws and bylaws. In the article, we consider the dominating in public consciousness ideas about some social sciences, give some scientific-practical recommendations concerning realization of their social purposes, make the conclusion that the object of their research is social relations.

Complementary of the interethnic relations of the youth of Russia and Mongolia in new geopolitical conditions

D. V. Ushakov
Institute of Philosophy and Law of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva St., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: interethnic relations, mindsets, the youth, sympathies, antipathies, complementarity, peoples, Russia, Mongolia

Abstract >>
In the post-perestroika period and the era of reform, the Russian politicians focusing on the US and European powers were engaged in domestic socio-economic and political problems, not paying much attention to our nearest neighbors including Mongolia. In the conditions of breaking down the bipolar system, Mongolia also started to build a more independent political line with regard to Russia, focusing on closer contacts with the United States, Europe and the East Asian region. However, today we can observe a new round of relations between Mongolia and Russia. We should particularly note that in the new multipolar world the contacts between Russia and Mongolia are developing in the spirit of positive political, socio-economic and cultural cooperation. The article presents the results of surveys of Russian and Mongolian youth, the residents of Novosibirsk and Ulan Bator. Whereas the majority of Russian youth have sympathy for European peoples, but to a lesser extent to the Asian ones, including the Mongols, the Mongolian youth expresses its sympathy to both European and Asian peoples, and in relation to Russians the rate of sympathy is greater than to other nations. What will be the relationship in the future depends largely on ethnic attitudes and political orientations of young people of both countries, on those value-related positions which are shared by the current younger generation, and the priorities that they will take from the teachers and parents.

Personality in the virtual educational space

I. G. Borisenko1, S. V. Kamashev2, T. S. Kosenko2, E. V. Ushakova3
1Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Ave., Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660041
2Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28 Viluiskaya St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630126
3Altai State Medical University, 40 Lenina Ave., Barnaul, Russia, 656038
Keywords: globalization, open system with complex evolution, personality, virtual educational environment

Abstract >>
Globalization is a process which is unfolding literally before our eyes, and so the way of its understanding should be the most adequate and effective. Diverse studies of the contemporary researchers often share a common idea of globalization as an open system which evolves in a complex fashion and causes a lot of problems in the world. Identifying and analyzing the depth of these problems condition their solving, and therefore the prospects of the development of modern civilization, including education. In any case, the ultimate goal of the educational process is the person. Education as an innovative process is directed towards the future and, accordingly, is gradually assuming the forms of advancing knowledge; that is, all educational technologies will be aimed not at the preservation of the existing system of values, but at the potential new information in the future. This futuristic orientation of the contemporary global education along with positive innovative strengths can create additional axiological difficulties. The possibilities of the virtual educational space in training cannot be considered unlimited, because of the impersonality of computer programs which are not able to replace the personality of the teacher, on one hand, and, on the other hand, because of the arising of psychological dependence of the person from the computer, which is manifested in the fact that students are beginning to abandon the «real╗ life, giving preference to the virtual reality. This problem is associated with characteristic social-psychological problems and may manifest itself in different ways: too much time spent in the internet; increasing anxiety while in the real world; lies or hiding the amount of time spent in cyberspace; dispirited functioning in the real world, and others. In this regard, the determination of the limits of computer use in the educational process is by far more important thing than the identification of its positive results.

Elderly people education: social effectiveness and personal significance

T. V. Sokhranyaeva
Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, Russia, 119991
Keywords: ageing, elderly people education, intergenerational solidarity, social effectiveness, personal potential

Abstract >>
The article analyzes elderly people education as a fastest-growing field of educational practice, which is of great importance for the modern society. The problem of elderly people education has become especially topical in the context of the global trend of population ageing. Elderly people education is examined as one of the ways of solving new social, economic and cultural challenges to the society related to population ageing. The role of elderly people education in increasing the quality of life of individuals and providing sustainable development of the society as a whole is investigated. The elder adult education is regarded from point of view of its social effectiveness and personal significance. It is shown that education prevents reducing of cognitive skills and abilities of seniors people, helps to maintain or increase their productive potential, forms active societal attitude of elder persons, promotes the acquisition of significant social competences, provides opportunities for independent living, decreases risks of social exclusion. The article then moves on to analyze the significance of education for forming adequate understanding by elderly people of the meaning and value of old age as a human existenceĺs phenomenon. The article reviews the conception of old age as a natural stage of the life circle, which is of great importance for understanding the life in its entirety. Old age is a social construct. Therefore, one of the main tasks of elderly people education is to help elder persons in recognizing the positive sense of old age and finding out the new ways of self-realization to be a contributing member of the society. The education in that existential aspect is considered to be a way to overcome gerontophobia and to reveal for the person new opportunities and goals of life. In the final portion of the article, the significance of elder adult education for the development of intergenerational cultural dialog is emphasized. The article concludes by suggesting that social effectiveness and personal significance of elderly people education are determined by its role in solving the social tasks related to the demographic shift and in meeting the demands of elder adults to maintain and develop their creative potential.

The ethics code of modern higher education: on the history of the problem

M. N. Chistanov, S. S. Chistanova
N. F. Katanov Khakass State University, 90 LeninÓ St., Abakan, Russia, 655017
Keywords: professional ethics, Russian academic community, education in the megalopolis, commercial educational institutions, provincial higher educational institution, ethical code, ethics of higher education, ethical problems of higher education, N. F. Katanov Khakass State University

Abstract >>
This article is devoted to the problem of creation of an ethical code of the teacher of the higher educational institution in Russia. After political changes in our country, the system of higher education has also changed. The reform of higher education was carried out not always systemically that resulted in substantial distinctions in the work of the state and commercial universities, universities in the capital and the province. In the article, the contradictions of professional ethics of the Russian academic community with surrounding social realities are considered in detail, an example of an attempt to resolve these contradictions is given, namely, the creation of "The concept of the professional ethics code of educational community" offered by the Russian Union of rectors in 2012. The authors distinguish specific problems of small provincial higher education institutions and substantiate the reasons of inefficiency of such higher education institutions. In the province, where there are one or two higher education institutions in the city, the defining qualities of the teacher are not professional merits but social communications. Respectively, the ethical problems of analogous provincial higher education institutions differ from the ethical problems of the universities in the capital. In the article, the process of formation of professional ethics as a scientific discipline is analyzed, as well as the purposes of modern professional ethical codes which allow each individual to realize his/her potential. It is justly considered that the professional ethics appeared together with the division of labor. But in the antiquity or in the Middle Ages ethics served to isolate social group; such "tribal" ethics turned out to be powerless in the universal society; it is succeeded by personal ethics in which there was no place to professional interests. Rational ethics are formed this way. There the creation of a right society is required in which the person is able to become happy. In such society the person starts looking for a community which is larger than the family, but less global than the nation or the state. The professional group is ideal for this purpose. Setting of the behavior standards in such groups is the beginning of modern professional ethics. A hypothesis is proposed bout the subject domains of ethics of the external and internal relations of the teacher of higher education institution. Four such areas are distinguished: the first is the teacher and his/her subject, the second is the teacher and the student, the third is the interaction of the teacher with other teachers, the fourth is the teacher and scientific ethics. At each level there can arise ethical problems, which are also described in detail in the article. In conclusion, the program is presented for the introduction of Ethical code of the teacher at the Khakass State University in the spring of 2015.

Formation of legal consciousness in the process of legal socialization of the person in education

I. I. Shatsionok
Siberian State Transport University, 191 D. Kovalchuk St., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630049
Keywords: legal consciousness, legal socialization, socialization, education, primary and secondary socialization, legal culture

Abstract >>
The purpose of article is the analysis of formation of legal consciousness of the student youth in the process of legal socialization. Various approaches are revealed to education as a system which has several functions, the leading one being socialization. Education is a rather independent social system, whose goal is the transfer of sociocultural values. It is a social reality where the subjects reproduce multiple relations and communications, carrying out various functions on the development of the individual and his/her socialization. It is also possible an internally formed, individual educational space, which forms in the experience of everyone, that is, his/her socialization. Definitions of legal consciousness and legal socialization are given, the factors promoting formation of the developed legal consciousness of the student youth are considered. Legal socialization of students promotes formation of legal consciousness of the adults who have small life experience. It leads to some difficulties connected with the need to find a proper relation between the already absorbed values and the values, the following of which is demanded by new knowledge and acquired skills. Legal socialization is understood as a process of assimilation by the person of the standards of normative, lawful behavior. Though legal socialization is carried out in line with the general socialization, it has some specific features and a historically conditioned character. As is known, each society has its specific type of the state system, the idea of law, the rules and the ways of participation of the individuals in the affairs of society. Legal socialization consists in assimilation by the individual of these norms and rules of social existence in the given society. It is possible to identify three types of legal socialization: socialization by means of learning, socialization by transfer of experience and «symbolical socialization╗.