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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2008 year, number 3

Effect of the Components of Biological Systems on the Formation of Hydroxyapatite

O. A. Golovanova, E. Y. Ponomareva, O. V. Frank-kamenetskaya
Keywords: synthesis, hydroxyapatite, crystallization, electrokinetic properties, ? -potential, additives, adsorption, Langmuir's and Freindlich's models
Pages: 253-258

Abstract >>
Using the updated procedure for the synthesis of non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatites at the physiological pH and solution temperature, the solid phases with the Ca/P atomic ratio within the range from 1.58±0.01 to 1.67±0.01 were obtained. According to the data of X-ray phase analysis, the samples are hydroxyapatite. The effect of inorganic additives (phosphate, oxalate, carbonate anions, magnesium cations) and organic ones (amine acids) on the crystallization of hydroxyapatite was studied experimentally. The electrokinetic properties of the sols of synthesized hydroxyapatites of different stoichiometric compositions were studied. It was established that the change and ξ-potential of hydroxyapatite particles depend on the atomic ratio Ca/P. It was discovered that the characters of the interaction of amino acids with non-stoichiometric and stoichiometric hydroxyapatite differ. It was shown that the observed adsorption on the samples of the synthesized hydroxyapatite is described within the framework of Langmuir's and Freindlich's models.

Biochemical Mechanisms of Plant Adaptation under the Conditions of Adiation Action

E. P. Khramova, G. I. Vysochina, O. V. Tarasov, K. P. Koutsenogii, E. I. Krylova, L. K. Trubina, S. Y. Syeva
Keywords: : radiation action, plant adaptation, flavonoids, morphological characteristics, Pentaphylloides fruticosa
Pages: 259-267

Abstract >>
The radiation action on Pentaphylloides fruticosa (L.) O. Schwarz plants is investigated. It is established that the press of the radiation factor initiates adaptation processes involving the growth and development of the plants, as well as the physiological and biochemical rearrangement of metabolic processes determining the spatial existence of the population. It is shown experimentally that the radiation action causes enhancement of the biosynthesis of the total amount of flavonoids in the leaves of Pentaphylloides fruticosa. It is established that the flavonol content total and in groups) in the leaves of P. fruticosa increases by a factor of 2.3 in comparison with the reference; the difference increases with an increase in the level of pollution. The concentrations of hyperoside, quercitrin and kaempferol decreases with an increase in radioactive pollution; to the contrary, the concentrations of other flavonoid components increase. The qualitative composition of flavonoids in the leaves of irradiated and reference plants remains constant. A decrease in the leave surface, in the annual growth and in the length of leafstalk and an increase in the number of leaves on a sprout were detected. It is discovered that the differences from the reference plants become more essential while irradiation increases. Different organs of Pentaphylloides fruticosa have different ability to accumulate radionuclides: the concentration of 90Sr in leaves is higher than in stalk, independently of pollution level; no such connection is observed for 137Cs.

Investigation of the Chemical Composition of Saliva Liquid for the Purpose of Diagnostics of Oral Cavity Diseases

L. V. Belskaya, O. A. Golovanova
Keywords: hydroxyapatite, microelements, dental calculi, spectral analysis, diagnostics, discriminant analysis
Pages: 269-274

Abstract >>
The elemental composition of 30 samples of the liquid of oral cavity of the four groups of patients living in the Omsk region was investigated by means of atomic emission spectral analysis with inductively coupled plasma. A comparative analysis of the compositions of saliva liquid for the patients with different oral cavity diseases showed that the elemental composition is specific in each case. It was established that the data on the ratios of Ca/P and Na/K may be used as a basis to carry out diagnostics of a corresponding disease. Using the methods of mathematical statistics, we discovered that the distribution of microelements Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al has its specific features, too.

Combined Extraction, Electrochemical Isolation of Bromine from Natural Brine

D. V. Kuzmin, V. I. Kuzmin, G. L. Pashkov
Keywords: chloride brine, bromine-containing salts, extraction, electrolysis
Pages: 275-281

Abstract >>
A new technology of bromine isolation from bromine-containing brines is proposed. It is based on the anode decomposition of metal chloride, bromine oxidation with evolved chlorine, extraction transfer of bromine from the anode electrolyte to the recycle catholite, and reduction of bromine on a porous cathode. The commercial products obtained by the proposed procedure are individual salts of bromine. It is shown that the developed process is safe and is characterized by the low consumption of energy and reagents.

Numerical Modelling of Gas Combustion Processes and the Problem of Explosion Safety

V. A. Bunev, V. A. Bunev
Keywords: fire and explosion safety, numerical modelling, combustion processes, inhibition, superadiabaticity of flame, cold flame, tracer element method, selective oxidation
Pages: 289-301

Abstract >>
The application of numerical methods to the investigation of combustion processes, including the use of tracer elements in numerical modelling, is considered. On the basis of the analysis of the numerical data obtained, conclusions related to explosion safety are made, in connection with inhibition, experimental determination of the rich limit of flame propagation, and determination of the final pressure after self-ignition in a closed vessel.

Contribution from Aldehyde Oxidation into the Formation of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol

G. G. Dultseva, S. N. Dubtsov, G. I. Skubnevskaya
Keywords: aldehydes, photochemical aerosol formation, minor gas components of the atmosphere
Pages: 303-309

Abstract >>
The process of aerosol formation during aldehyde photolysis is investigated. It is shown that atmospheric aldehydes serve as an efficient source of organic aerosol. Measurements of aldehyde concentrations in urban atmosphere were carried out, the scale of aerosol formation processes was characterized. It was established that the possibility of photochemical aerosol formation cannot be neglected in adequate estimations of the ecological consequences of atmospheric pollution with organic compounds.

Development and Application of Drop Concentrator for the Investigation of Physicochemical Characteristics of Low-Volatile Precursors of Atmospheric Aerosol

S. Kozlov, A. N. Ankilov, S. B. Malyshkin, M. V. Panchenko, V. M. Domysheva
Keywords: gas-to-particle transformation, low-volatile admixtures in the atmosphere
Pages: 311-320

Abstract >>
A procedure for the determination of low-volatile impurities in the atmosphere is developed for the concentrations below 1 ng/m3. The method is based on the absorption of molecules and their clusters by water fog generated during sharp cooling of the atmospheric air with the evaporating liquid nitrogen. The developed experimental set-up was called drop concentrator. A simple and rapid method of calibration of the equipment was developed. It was shown that the error of vapour concentration measurement suing this method does not exceed 10 % within the range of mass concentrations 10 to 3000 ng/m3. The results of tests of the set-up under laboratory and field conditions are presented. The diurnal and seasonal dynamics of the concentration of aerosol-forming compounds and their connection with changes of meteorological parameters, source characteristics are considered.

Spin Chemistry Methods for Establishing the Nature of the Effect of Ordered Media on the Reactivity of Inserted Biologically Significant Compounds

I. Kruppa, S. S. Petrova, V. S. Kornievskaya, T. V. Leshina
Keywords: ? -cyclodextrin, guest-host complexes, photo-CNP, laser pulsed photolysis
Pages: 321-329

Abstract >>
An approach to the investigation of the effect of supramolecular structures on the photo-induced radical processes is proposed. The possibilities of the new approach are demonstrated with the example of the investigation of the host-guest type complex formation with biologically significant photoactive molecules with β-cyclodextrin; the investigation was carried out both by means of spin chemistry and with the help of laser pulsed photolysis. It was shown that the effect of complex formation is exhibited for geminal processes and fort he processes taking place in the volume and participated by radical particles. Investigation of spin and molecular dynamics in these processes will allow one to establish the mechanisms of molecular recognition and the nature of selectivity in biological processes.

Features of Physicochemical Characteristics of Melted Water

N. L. Lavrik, N. L. Lavrik
Keywords: melted water, curative properties, recrystallization, water purity, isotope composition, concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, carbon dioxide
Pages: 331-339

Abstract >>
A comparative analysis of a number of physicochemical parameters of the initial and melted water obtained as a result of freezing - melting is carried out. These parameters include concentrations of organic, inorganic impurities and dispersed phase particles, as well as heavy isotopes of water, hydrogen peroxide, dissolved gases - oxygen, carbon dioxide. It is shown that melted water differs in these parameters from the initial water; the differences have a permanent and time-dependent character.

Investigation of the Efficiency of Water Purification from Phenol by Means of Incomplete Freezing

N. L. Lavrik, V. V. Boriskin, K. L. Danilov, V. A. Brednev
Keywords: : freezing - melting procedures, efficiency of water purification, phenol, distorting factor, polluting factor, purification factor
Pages: 341-350

Abstract >>
With the help of freezing - melting procedure, the efficiency kpur of water purification from phenol is investigated as a dependence on the fraction of frozen solution (g) and freezing temperature T (freezing rate). The following kinds of dependencies are established: 1) a monotonous increase in kpur with an increase in g at T = -3.5, -6.5, -10, -15 oC; 2) an increase in kpur with an increase in the fraction of frozen aqueous solution to g ≈0.2, followed by a decrease, at freezing temperatures -20 and -25 oC (non-monotonous dependence). The influence of reasons preventing high kpur (veiling the purification factor) is discussed. These reasons include the impossibility to separate the solution adhered to the ice surface from ice itself due to the sampling procedure (distorting factor) and trapping the impurities into the interdendritic cavities on the surface of the crystallization front (polluting factor). It is concluded that the most optimal technological conditions for the use of freezing for water purification is freezing at the crystallization front rate about 0.2 cm/h until the value of g ~ 0.5 is achieved.

Physicochemical Tansformations and the Knetics of Potochemical Ractions for the Fnely Dspersed Sate of Matter

Y. N. Samsonov, Y. N. Samsonov
Keywords: photochemistry, photosensitizing, photolysis, aerosol, pesticide, atmosphere
Pages: 351-359

Abstract >>
Chemical substances existing in the finely dispersed phase state (as small aerosol particles 0.1-10 μm in diameter and as very thin films with a thickness of 0.01-1 μm) exhibit specific chemical and physicochemical properties. The processes characteristic of these substances are essentially different from the processes in relatively coarsely dispersed aerosol and thick films, and even more different from the reactions taking place in usual liquid or solid solutions. This specificity is connected with the fact that the rate of evaporation, solidification and layering of a dispersed substance exhibits a reciprocal square dependence on the size of dispersed particles. In turn, this causes essential differences in the volume structures of the chemical material for fine- and coarse-dispersed objects and therefore different mechanisms of chemical reactions occurring in them.

Experimental Investigation of Formaldehyde Absorption by Some Species of Ficus L. Genus for Application in Phytodesign

A. S. Seraya, N. V. Tsybulya, G. G. Dultseva
Keywords: ficus, phytodesign, gas-absorbing ability of plants, formaldehyde
Pages: 361-367

Abstract >>
The absorption of formaldehyde from the gas phase by the plants of Ficus genus is investigated. The species promising for application in phytodesign for the purpose of indoor air purification from formaldehyde are revealed.