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Geography and Natural Resources

2022 year, number 1

1.
THE DIFFERENCE IN CLASSICAL GEOPOLITICS OF COUNTRIES OF THE CONTINENTAL AND OCEANIC TYPES, AND THE POSITION OF MODERN RUSSIA

P.L. Popov, A.A. Cherenev
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: lassical geopolitics, oceanic, continental and transitional types of countries, territorial, population distribution and activity aspects of continentality

Abstract >>
This article deals with the categorization of Russia as the continental type of countries typical of classical geopolitics and the concepts based on its approaches. An analysis is made of the main aspects of continentality of countries: the territorial, populaton distribution and activity aspects. A number of indicators have been proposed to reflect these aspects. The resulting sample of countries, including Russia, are characterized according to the degree of continentality based on these indicators. It is pointed out that in terms of transport and geographic continentality, the number of seaports, the cargo turnover of the countrys largest port and the location of the capital city relative to the sea, Russia should be classified as a continental country. In terms of the ratio of sea and land borders, the potential of the Navy, the number of merchant ships and fish catch, Russia should be assigned to the oceanic type of countries. It has been determined that integrally Russia can be assigned to the transitional continental-oceanic type. A positive correlation was found between the number of merchant ships per capita and gross domestic product per capita, exports per capita and life expectancy. This correlation shows (confirms) that the more continental a country is, the less economically developed it normally is. It is noted that within the framework of classical geopolitics, the classification of Russia as a continental country is associated with the concept the difference between «sea and «land which gives rise to international conflicts. A departure from the idea of explaining the conflict between Russia and the West by these geographical factors also entails a rejection of the image of Russia as a purely continental country. The use of military-political and economic advantages of both the sea and continental location was characteristic of Russia in the past and is relevant at present.
																								



2.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE RESOURCE BASE ON INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF OIL-PRODUCING REGIONS OF RUSSIA

I.V. Filimonova, A.V. Komarova, V.Yu. Nemov, Yu.A. Dzyuba, A.V. Chebotareva
Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk,Russia
Keywords: oil, hard-to-recover reserves, innovations, economic development, oil-producing regions, cluster analysis

Abstract >>
This article considers the deterioration trends in structure and quality of the oil-producing regions of Russia and systematizes the criteria for distinguishing the category of hard-to-recover oil reserves in the domestic literature. We investigated the characteristics of the resource base of hydrocarbons and their impact on the innovative development of the oil-producing regions of Russia. A unique information base for study of resource regions has been compiled: total recoverable reserves, the share of small and very small deposits, the average size of the deposit, and degree of exploration are among the resource factors; the factors of the fluid property included the contribution from dense, sulphurous and viscous oil, and the oilfield factors involved water cut and the degree of depletion. The analysis included the factors of regional innovative development: the share of innovative goods in the volume of shipped products, the work done and services rendered, the share of technological innovation costs, and the share of internal research and development costs for gross regional product. Thus the hierarchical clustering method has been used to classify the oil and gas regions of Russia according to the quality and structure of the resource base, as well as to the level of innovative development. Calculations identified three clusters (groups of regions): one cluster included regions with a high degree of innovation and a high degree of hard-to-recover reserves, the other cluster involved regions with a medium degree of innovation and a low degree of hard-to-recover reserves, and the third cluster included regions with a low degree of innovation and a moderate degree of hard-to-recover reserves. This study verified and confirmed the hypothesis that a low quality of the resource base of hydrocarbons in oil-producing regions of Russia stimulates innovative development. The results of the study indicate that production of hard-to-recover oil has an extensive innovative component which has a multiplicative effect on the related industries and economy of the regions as a whole.
																								



3.
SYNCHRONISM OF VARIATIONS IN THE ANNUAL RUNOFF OF MAJOR RIVERS IN THE ASIAN PART OF RUSSIA

V.I. Babkin, A.V. Babkin, O.V. Merzlyi, E.L. Skoryatina
State Hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: river runoff, method of estimation, mean value, cycles of water discharge, years of low, high and moderate water discharge, correlation coefficient

Abstract >>
The synchronism and asynchrony of variations in the annual runoff of 18 major rivers (153 pairs of the rivers) in the Asian part of Russia were estimated by the new original methodology. The methodology is based on taking into account three groups of water discharges of the rivers (years of low, moderate and high water discharges) and on the numeric rating of the runoff in the years being compared. The runoff of the rivers is assigned to a particular group of water discharge by using its mean value over many years. The years in which the runoff was less than 0.95 of its mean value over many years were assigned to the years of low water discharge, and the years with the runoff larger than 1.05 were assigned to the years with high water discharge. The years with moderate water discharge included the values of the runoff in the interval 0.95-1.05 of the multiannual mean value. The runoff of the years with low, moderate and high water discharge was identified by number 1, 2 and 3, respectively. A comparison of water discharges was made for all 153 pairs of river basins for the correlative periods of observation under investigation. The years with identical water discharges (1 - 1, 2 - 2, 3 - 3) were assigned number 1; the years with opposite water discharges (1 - 3, 3 - 1) were characterized by number -1, and the years with adjacent water discharges (1 - 2, 2 - 1, 2 - 3, 3 - 2) were identified by number 0.5. For each pair of the rivers we estimated the numeric sum expressed in fractions of the total period of observation: the parameter of synchronism (asynchrony) of variations in the runoff. For 18 pairs of river basins the values of the parameter of synchronism were equal or exceeded 0.5. For these pairs of the rivers it was determined that the contribution from the years of low, high and a moderate discharges to the synchronism averaged 45.1 %, 36.3 and 10.7 %, respectively. The years with adjacent discharges showed an increase in the synchronism parameter by 29.2 %, whereas the years with opposite discharges decreased the synchronism by 21.3 %. The synchronism was also assessed by using the method of correlation.
																								



4.
FORMATION OF THE SPECIES STRUCTURE OF PLANT COMMUNITIES ON THE NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF THE KRASNOYARSK FOREST-STEPPE OVER THE LAST 6000 YEARS

A.D. Koshkarov, V.L. Koshkarova
Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: Krasnoyarsk non-zonal forest-steppe, macrofossils, Holocene, C dates, biodiversity dynamics, Yenisei Siberia

Abstract >>
Results of a paleobotanical (paleocarpological) layer-by-layer study of three peat sections located near the Pogorelskii Bor experimental station operated by the Institute of Forest SB RAS (the interfluve of the Buzim and Sukhoi Buzim rivers) are presented. The study area is located in the transitional zone between subtaiga grassy small-leaved and coniferous forests and the Krasnoyarsk non-zonal forest-steppe. The climate of the region is extreme continental, moderately warm and insufficiently humid. The objects of paleocarpological analysis were macrofossils (macro-residues of fossil plants (generative and vegetative parts of plants)). Data from each section were used to construct carpograms (histograms showing the quantitative distribution of macro-residues in the identified fossil complexes, in accordance with the section stratigraphy). As a result of a comparative analysis of the species composition of paleocarpological complexes, taking into account the data on radiocarbon 14C dating (nine dates), the evolution of the vegetation cover of the territory of Pogorelskii Bor was reconstructed by using hypsometric levels and seven time intervals, starting in the second half of the Atlantic period of the Blytt-Cernander chronological scheme of the Holocene. On this basis, digital maps of paleophytocenoses were compiled. An analysis of the formation of vegetation over the last 6000 years has shown that in the first half of the period under consideration the birch-larch forest-steppe with an alternation of shallow lakes prevailed on the territory. The onset of cooling and humidification (5000-3500 BP) contributed to the development of a subaiga forest-vegetation complex with the involvement of dark coniferous species. The subsequent warming (3500-3000 and 1300-800 BP) contributed to the return of forest-steppe and the development of steppe complexes. The leading tree species in the first half of the period under consideration were Siberian larch and birch, and, later, Scotch pine. A decrease in the role of larch, and an enhancement of the position of pine and steppe elements in forest phytocenoses during a later period (300 BP) were caused by climate change as well as by the increased influence of the anthropogenic factor. The regional features of the paleoclimatic regime of Pogorelskii Bor forest in the latest Holocene are highlighted.
																								



5.
TRITIUM IN NATURAL WATER OF THE LENA RIVER BASIN

L.S. Lebedeva1, V.V. Shamov2, V.V. Goryachev3, N.A. Pavlova1
1Melnikov Permafrost Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk, Russia
2Pacific Institute of Geography, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia
3V.I. Ilichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia
Keywords: interaction of surface and ground water, Lena river basin, permafrost, tritium, water chemical composition

Abstract >>
This study aims at the description of the long-term dynamics of tritium content in atmospheric precipitation and in surface and ground water of the Lena river basin, based on new data obtained received in 2019 and 2020, and on historical information. The relationship of tritium content with the concentration of dissolved chemicals was analyzed. In 2019 and 2020, during the periods of winter and summer low water, 44 water samples were taken from the Lena river, its large, medium and small nonfreezing tributaries, interpermafrost and subpermafrost groundwater, snow cover and liquid precipitation. Data on tritium concentrations in the upper and middle Lena river and its tributaries are reported for the first time. Tritium content in samples from river water, snow cover and rain is consistent with the long-term tritium decline curve. The tritium concentration in river waters during the winter low-water period is lower than in the summer period, when tritium content in the rivers approaches its values in atmospheric precipitation, which is evidence of the contribution of groundwater to the alimentation of the rivers river feeding, in spite of the widespread occurrence of permafrost in the region. Statistically significant correlations between tritium content and redox potential, the content of bicarbonate ions, lithium and sodium ions, total dissolved solids and pH were found.
																								



6.
ASSESSMENT OF THE ASSIMILATION POTENTIAL OF PORT WATER AREAS

O.E. Medvedeva1, V.S. Tikunov2, A.I. Artemenkov3
1State University of Management, Moscow, Russia
2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
3Westminster International University in Tashkent, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Keywords: ecosystem services, assimilation of pollution, environmental damage, rent, seaports, pollution charges in ports

Abstract >>
The methodology of economic valuation of ecosystem services of the marine environment is considered, which implies identification and valuation of the benefits obtained by humans from using marine ecosystems. It was found that the previously done research has disregarded and has not assessed the assimilation potential of port water areas, which consists in the absorption and dispersion of pollution arising in the course of port activities. A methodological approach is proposed for its assessment as well as an algorithm for calculating the rent-based assimilation potential by the amount of saving of expenses of economic entities that they do not pay to compensate for the damage caused or do not invest in its reduction and prevention, that is, by the amount of environmental damage caused by sea-going ships and port activities. The rent of the assimilation potential for the largest ports of Russia, the European Union (EU) and China was calculated based on the monetized metrics of environmental damage applied in the EU countries and the indicator of pollutant emissions per 1 million tons of cargo transshipments carried out in ports as well as the costs of cleaning polluted water discharged by ships. The latter value is calculated only for the ports of Russia.
																								



7.
VEGETATION RESISTANCE OF GEOSYSTEMS IN THE DEPRESSIONS OF NORTHEASTERN CISBAIKALIA TO THE PYROGENIC FACTOR

A.P. Sofronov1, I.N. Vladimirov1, V.I. Voronin2, E.V. Sofronova1
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
2Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: vegetation resistance to pyrogenic factor, geobotanical mapping, Northern Baikal and Upper Angara depressions, forest fires

Abstract >>
The study of vegetation stability remains an important and poorly developed issue of geobotany. Results from studying of resistance to the pyrogenic factor of plant communities of vegetation cover of the North Baikal and Upper Angara depressions are presented. In recent years, fires have become catastrophic in Siberia as well as on the territory of the country as a whole; therefore, the pyrogenic impact came to be one of the main negative anthropogenic factors. We suggest an original technique for determining the parameters of vegetation resistance to the pyrogenic factor, based on assessing the ignitability. The susceptibility to fire of both individual plant species and plant layers of cenoses, and also the degree of damage by fires have been comprehensively studied, with due regard for the mesoclimatic conditions and areal distribution throughout the territory. It was established that the resistance of the communities can vary according to on their hierarchical rank. As a result of the research, a legend and a medium-scale map of the vegetation resistance in the region to the pyrogenic factor have been generated. It was revealed that the most stable communities are sparse alpine tundras, alpine meadows and meadow-swamp communities of the Upper Angara floodplain and wet forests of mountain valleys. The medium-stable cenoses include tundra watersheds and sloping summits with well-developed shrub-lichen cover, sparse communities of Pinus pumila, small-leaved forests, steppe slopes and forest communities of the floodplain. The smallest degree of stability is typical for closed P. pumila thickets, subgoletz dark coniferous-larch forests, mountain taiga dark coniferous forests, as well as for pine forests of the submontane-depression belt. An important characteristic of the stability of the communities is the duration of recovery of the primary (conventionally primary) state. It is shown that the accessibility of natural communities to humans significantly affects the resistance of vegetation to the pyrogenic factor, because this greatly increases the likelihood of fire in any of the cenoses considered.
																								



8.
ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE CITIES OF IRKUTSK, ULAN-UDE AND ULAANBAATAR

L.M. Korytny1, L.B. Bashalkhanova1, I.A. Belozertseva1, O.V. Gagarinova1, N.V. Emelyanova1, A.A. Sorokovoi1, S. Enkh-amgalan2
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
2Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Keywords: urbanized centers, population, ecological situation, soil pollution, self-purification of the atmosphere, water supply

Abstract >>
Geoecological studies of urbanized centers of the Baikal region are aimed at identifying the specifics of anthropogenic impact on the natural environment in order to find rational solutions to environmental problems of the territories and improve the quality of life of the population. The article considers the features in the natural and ecological state of the cities of Ulaanbaatar, Ulan-Ude and Irkutsk as well as analyzing the relationship between socio-economic conditions and environmental problems of the territories.The information base of the study consisted of statistical and archival material, cartographic and literary works and data of experimental observations. The urbanized centers of the Baikal region are characterized by different socio-economic conditions, but they also have some common features of modern agglomeration processes: an intense concentration of the population in the capital cities, problems with engineering communications, and an increase in environmental tension and discomfort. The analysis revealed a high level of technogenic load from the fuel-and-energy complex and automobile transport. Natural factors, such as the atmospheric circulation, the state of natural waters and the conditions of migration of chemical elements in soils, have a significant impact on the formation of the ecological situation in the cities. Assessments of the level of anthropogenic impact on the components of the natural environment revealed extremely low conditions for self-purification of the atmosphere in Ulan-Ude and Ulaanbaatar, and the highest air pollution is recorded in Ulaanbaatar. The greatest pollution of soil cover is observed in Irkutsk, which is due to large industrial emissions and favorable conditions for the accumulation of pollutants in the soil of the territory. Ulaanbaatar is experiencing problems with the quality of water resources and drinking water supply to the population. Anthropogenic pressures on the natural environment of the cities create prerequisites for the development of diseases in the population as a result of the entry of toxic pollutants into the air and into water bodies.
																								



9.
CLIMATIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIR TEMPERATURE AND WATER TEMPERATURES IN DIFFERENT LIMNIC AREAS OF LAKE LADOGA

M.A. Naumenko, V.V. Guzivaty
Institute of Limnology Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: temperature hysteresis, dimictic lake, integral temperature of the water column, seasonal course of parameters of the near-water layer, climatic norm, heating and cooling periods of the lake

Abstract >>
Based on an extensive database, it is shown that for different limnetic regions of Lake Ladoga there occurs a temperature hysteresis phenomenon for the period of open water from May to November. The heating and cooling features of both the water surface and the integral water temperature of six different areas of the lake have been revealed, depending on air temperature of near surface layer. The approximation of dependencies between these parameters, the second- and third-degree polynomials, has shown that there are stable, meaningful relationships (p < 0.05) between them, with the determination coefficient of 0.8-0.9. Analytical dependencies allowed to calculate the increase in water temperature when the air temperature changes by one degree. On Lake Ladoga, a dependence of the rate of change in water surface temperature on air temperature is found. The biggest changes occur during the heating period. In August, at maximum air temperatures, the rate of increase in water surface temperature, especially in the deep-sea region, exceeds the rate of increase in air temperature. Canadian limnologists obtained similar results on Lake Ontario. Two important periods have been identified when the lake cools: the first one, when the surface temperature has a constant value with minimal spatial variance; and the second one, when the entire water thickness of the lake has the same water temperature with minimal spatial variance. These periods and values of water and air temperatures can serve as climatic norms in climate studies. Climatic changes in air temperature will affect the increase in water temperature in different ways in different seasons and in different areas of a large lake.
																								



10.
SPATIO-TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION OF TAIGA GEOSYSTEMS IN THE SOUTH OF WESTERN SIBERIA AND SOUTHERN TRANS-URAL REGION

E.I. Kuzmenko1, Sh.Sh. Maksyutov2, A.A. Frolov1
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
2National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa, Japan
Keywords: forest geosystems, forest genetic type, structural and dynamic landscape science, anthropogenic impact, automated interpretation of satellite images, geographic information mapping

Abstract >>
We present the results from studying the spatio-temporal organization of southern and subtaiga and forest-steppe geosystems of regions of the South of Western Siberia, including the Irtysh, Tobol, Ishim and Tobol-Tavda interfluve area, and the southern Ural, reflecting spatio-temporal variability of landscape structure in these regions, conducted its mapping, the estimation of the dynamic state variables of geosystems with the purpose of solving practical, forward-looking, environmental protection and expert tasks. The landscape structure of the study area was mapped based on the principles of structurally dynamic landscape science and the genetic classification of forest types using modern GIS technologies, including automated interpretation of Earth remote sensing data (ERS). This approach allows us to use forest taxational data in landscape studies. The geographic information landscape mapping scheme, implemented on the basis of Hansen mosaic data, made it possible to construct digital raster landscape maps of the study area, reflecting the spatio-temporal organization of geosystems and the zonal distribution of forests in the region. Automated processing of ERSdata enabled determination of the landscape structure as well as calculating the areas of different anthropogenically disturbed territories (felling areas and burning) and correlation of various types of geosystems.
																								



11.
GEOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE RELIEF OF THE IYA RIVER BASIN

M.Yu. Opekunova, A.V. Bardash
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: river valley, floodplain-channel complex, plan curvature, profile curvature, flood

Abstract >>
Based on analyzing geomorphometric indicators of the floodplain relief of the Iya-river valley, we identified specific features in the distribution of flows during flooding within different morphological areas. A digital elevation model was used in calculating the horizontal and vertical curvature of the valley of the Iya-river, and for representing their distribution in space, maps were compiled for a number of key areas that were located within the development of the wide-floodplain, the adapted and inscribed types of channel. It was revealed that the distribution of flows within the wide-floodplain area, in addition to the width of the floodplain, was influenced by the development of segment and hollow-island floodplains, as well as the general predominance of wetland flat surfaces which are zones of accumulation, which contributed to the retention of water within this area. In the downstream section with the adapted channel, the curvature of the surface did not play a significant ole in the distribution of flows. The position of this segment between the two extended sections of the valleys, and also a complex combination of forced bends, served as an additional factor in the concentration of flow in the narrow valley and the development of areal erosion, which led to significant material damage. A part of the city of Tulun is located in the spur of an adapted bend with fairly flat floodplain surfaces, which contributed to the spreading of the stream. The change of the downstream channel type from a broad-bottomed to an adapted one could provoke back water and retention within the urban area.
																								



12.
THE MODERN STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL AND RAW MATERIALS BASE OF SUBSOIL USE IN THE FAR EASTERN FEDERAL DISTRICT

G.I. Arkhipov
Mining Institute, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk, Russia
Keywords: developed deposits, unallocated fund, resources, production, gross regional product

Abstract >>
The modern structure mineral resource base of solid minerals (TPI) and macroeconomic indicators of the results of their extraction in the territory of the far Eastern Federal district, where 16-18 types of ore mineral raw materials are extracted, are considered. The main production is gold (more than 170 tons in 2019) and silver (more than 930 tons). The total value of the volume of production of all types of minerals (DPI) in monetary terms for the far Eastern Federal district is about 2,4 trillion rubles (45 % of the total gross regional product (GRP) of the region, equal to 5 trillion rubles). There is a slower growth in TPI production in the total TPI. About 3100 enterprises and organizations (without small businesses) with a total number of 142,6 thousand people working in the DPI industry, which is 3.5 % of the total number of employees. The turnover of organizations is more than 2 billion rubles. The largest number of enterprises associated with DPI and the number of employees is observed in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The number of small businesses in the region is almost 2000 with a total of more than 9100 employees. In the region, there is a need to develop intraregional use and processing of raw materials to final products, and create metallurgical enterprises.
																								



13.
ANALYSIS OF REMOTE SPECTRAL INDICES IN THE STUDY OF SUCCESIONAL CHANGES OF TUNDRA VEGETATION IN POST-AGROGENOUS BIOGEOCENOSES

D.A. Kaverin, A.N. Panjukov, A.V. Pastukhov
Institute of Biology, Komi Science Center, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar, Russia
Keywords: spectral indices, vegetation, climate, post-agrogenic biogeocenoses, Bolshezemel’skaya tundra

Abstract >>
A comparative analysis is made of the remote spectral indices in investigating changes in vegetation cover in post-agrogenic biogeocenoses of the Bolshezemelskaya tundra. In agricultural use, meadow biogeocenoses, compared with the surrounding background areas, were characterized by relatively high indices characterizing the moisture and photosynthetic activity of plant phytomass (NDVI, LWCI, NDMI, and B5). To assess the changes in the amount of dead biomass, the PSRI index was used, the values of which were minimal during the period of agricultural use of meadows during their regular mowing. During self-healing succession in post-agrogenic biogeocenoses, the values of spectral indices gradually approach those of the background sections. In the post-agrogenic period, the values of the LWCI, NDMI and NDVI indices gradually decreased in meadow biogeocenoses, and the PSRI and spectral channel B3 values increased. The dynamics of the spectral indices is affected by the changes in the species composition. In the post-agrogenic period in meadow biogeocenoses, seeded cereal grass stand is thinned out, a shrub layer is formed, and species introduced from surrounding communities become dominant and subdominant. The activation of the self-healing succession of tundra vegetation in post-agrogenic biogeocenoses takes place against the backdrop of climate warming. Statistical relationships are determined, which reflect the influence of climatic parameters on changes in spectral indices in post-agrogenic and background biogeocenoses. A decrease in the severity of the climate is accompanied by an increase in the values of spectral indices characterizing the vegetative activity of tundra vegetation. An increase in the amount of precipitation contributes to an increase in the values of the indices reflecting the supply of plants with moisture.
																								



14.
GAS GEOCHEMICAL RESEARCH AS A METHOD OF EXPLORING GAS HYDRATES AND DETERMINING HYDROCARBON DEPOSITS

A.I. Obzhirov, Yu.A. Telegin, R.B. Shakirov, N.S. Syrbu, V.Yu. Kalgin, N.S. Lee, A.L. Ponomareva, A.I. Eskova
V.I. Ilichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia
Keywords: natural gases, methane, Sea of Okhotsk, marine sediments, faults, seawater

Abstract >>
Gas geochemical research as a method of exploring gas hydrates and determining hydrocarbon deposits A wide range of applications of gas geochemical investigation in science and practice and for solving various geological and engineering problems are considered in the paper. The method we developed represents a package of technical solutions for extracting gas from water and sediments, and for determining the following gas components on a gas chromatograph: methane (CH4), heavy hydrocarbon gases (C2-C5), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2), helium (He), oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2). It is shown that hydrocarbon gases and hydrogen are an indicator of the possible presence of hydrocarbon deposits, carbon dioxide - of the presence of intrusive activity, and helium shows the gas flow from deep horizons and the mantle. Based on the data of gas geochemical studies, the amount of gas hydrates in the upper layer of the gas hydrate strata was calculated. The possibility of using gases to clarify the stratification processes in the sea is shown. The important role of combining the gas geochemical method with other methods for searching for oil and gas fields, mapping fault zones, determining their seismic-tectonic activity and other geological studies is noted.
																								



15.
TREND OF STANDARDIZED PRECIPITATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION INDEX (SPEI) OVER TURKEY

R. Jamal1, S.J. Hadi2, M. Tombul1
1Eskisehir Technical University, Eskisehir, Turkey
2University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq
Keywords: droughts, climate change, trend slope coefficient, monthly mean air temperature, amount of precipitation

Abstract >>
The paper examines drought trends in Turkey due to climate change. Therefore, forecasting periods of drought, which is one of the major negative side effects of climate change, is essential. The authors used data from drought indicators according to the SPEI (Standardized Precipitation and Evotranspiration Index) for the period between 1901 and 2015. Values obtained at intervals of 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. The data was subjected to several statistical tests: the Mann-Kendall test to determine the direction and significance of the trend, the Theil-Sen estimator to assess the trend slope coefficient, and the Pettitt-test to determine the most probable year of change. The period under study was divided into two intervals (1901-1981 and 1982-2015), and their comparison was performed. A GIS program was used to isolate spatial characteristics from the results obtained. It was concluded that Turkey is mainly divided into two zones of drought, most of which is an increase in moisture in the northern regions, while a decrease in moisture is observed in the southern regions. The trend towards dry periods was more significant until 1981, but since 1981 the situation has changed due to the onset of the trend towards excess moisture, with the exception of southeastern Turkey, where the trend towards droughts persisted.
																								



16.
RURAL POPULATION DYNAMICS AND SETTLEMENT IN GUBA-KHACHMAZ ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHIC REGION (AZERBAIJAN)

T.Sh. Bairamov
G.A. Aliev Institute of Geography, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan
Keywords: rural population, migration, migration balance, able-bodied population, resettlement, rural settlements

Abstract >>
Rural population dynamics and settlement in Guba-Khachmaz economic-geographic region (Azerbaijan) We analyzed the dynamics of growth in the number and share of the rural population of the Guba-Khachmaz economic-geographical region for 1989-2019. As a result of a sociological survey conducted in the villages, the factors influencing the standard of living of the rural population and its demographic development were studied, and a grouping was carried out according to the size and structure of the population. The corresponding tables, maps and graphs have been compiled. As a result of the economic crisis of the early 1990s, which forced people to leave their settlements, there was a negative balance of migration, and the natural increase in the population in rural areas decreased. Due to its favorable geographical position, the region has good reserves of oil and natural gas, favorable conditions for the development of fruit and vegetable growing, grain growing, animal husbandry and food processing enterprises. However, the problems that arose in the transitional, post-Soviet period, associated with the production of agricultural products, the work of processing enterprises, the provision of services to the population, had a negative impact on resettlement and increased the intensity of internal migration. After gaining independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan in 1991, the socio-economic development of the Guba-Khachmaz region, the availability of sufficient jobs and the improvement of the quality of services in accordance with the needs of the population had a positive impact on the population in the region, created conditions for demographic development.
																								



17.
ASSESSMENT OF THE FEATURES OF THE ECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF TOWNS IN THE SOUTHERN REGION OF KYRGYZSTAN

A.G. Nizamiev1, G.A. Momosheva1, A.A. Osmonalieva1, B.M. Aitykulova1, A.A. Isaev2
1Osh State University, Osh, Kyrgyzstan
2Andijan State University, Andijan, Uzbekistan
Keywords: region, city-forming object, urban population, innovation, economic potential, development

Abstract >>
The necessity of developing measures for the regional development of Kyrgyzstan, increasing their economic potential and improving the infrastructure for industrial and social purposes is shown. In this regard, the development and revival of the economy of towns, including small ones, are considered as a priority direction in the implementation of these goals. It was revealed that the small towns of the country, due to the diversity of historical formation, economic-geographical location (EGL) and socio-economic values, differ from each other. Their main problems are the lack of economic assets, the scarcity of the city budget, remoteness from large centers, unemployment, and a decrease in living standards. The necessity of a comprehensive study of the potential and development prospects of small towns has been substantiated; a thorough analysis of their economic and geographical position is considered as the most important. As a result, the individualizing features of the towns under consideration were revealed. For this purpose, an assessment was made of the economic and geographical position of small towns in the southern region of Kyrgyzstan concerning their well-being in transport, industrial, agricultural, recreational, market and innovation relations. The results showed that, the towns in the region follow from 3.8 (Kochkor-Ata) to 2.3 points (Sulukta) according to the degree of EGL by components. To generalize these series, the towns were combined into three groups: with the most advantageous economic and geographical location; with a favorable economic and geographical location; towns with a comparatively favorable economic and geographical position. It was proved that the degree of profitability of the economic and geographical position of small towns in the region does not have a territorial sequence, i.e., it is not determined by the center-periphery pattern. The study enables determination the general potential for the development of the urban economy, planning the construction of infrastructure facilities, and revival of the industrial sector of the economy as a city-forming factor.
																								



18.
TRINITARIAN-FRACTAL STRUCTURE OF GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES

A.N. Novikov
Transbaikal State University, Chita, Russia
Keywords: geographical methodology, cognitive geography, classification of sciences, worldview, science studies, triplicity

Abstract >>
We investigated the classifications of geographical sciences to find new scientific directions that are not included in any of their existing classifications. A methodology is proposed that combines three concepts: structuralism, trinitarianism and fractality. The paper provides examples of the Trinitarian approach in geography. Several traditional trends in geography have been identified (constructive geography, applied geography, and theoretical geography) that are not reflected in existing classifications. In our research, we found that the existing classifications do not reflect the trends in the development of science. The names for already existing directions are proposed: encyclopedic geography, world outlook geography, inventory geography, subject geography, and poly-scale geography. A study and grouping of cognitive functions of geography: monitoring, popularization, relevantization, conceptualization, methodologization, education, expertise, planning, forecasting, and information support of policy has been carried out. Geographic sciences were united in hierarchical triads, inscribed in each other. An overview of the Soviet and Russian practices of combining geographical areas is given. The classification is presented not as a branching tree, but as a scientific research algorithm looped inside a fractal triangle. Difficulties that arise in implementation of this algorithm are indicated. The historically established logic of the development of geography in switching the focus of research to various subjects of study: structure, process and environment is substantiated. The differences in interpretation and content between Russian and foreign cognitive geography are revealed. The advantages in the development of both directions are indicated and an attempt is made to combine them in a single algorithm. The harmonious coexistence in geography of two ideological formulas (dichotomy and trichotomy) is demonstrated.