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Geography and Natural Resources

2021 year, number 4

1.
EARTH INSOLATION AND TENDENCIES OF ALPINE ICE RESOURCES VARIATION

V.M. Fedorov, P.B. Grebennikov, D.M. Frolov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: insolation contrast, total mass balance, mountain glaciers, correlation analysis, regression model, forecast

Abstract >>
On the basis of high-precision astronomical ephemeris with a high spatial and temporal resolution, the insolation of the Earth at the upper boundary of the atmosphere was calculated for the period from 3000 BC through 2999 AD. The differences from the earlier calculations of insolation are associated with the initial astronomical data and new calculation algorithms. In our calculations of insolation, the time interval of 5999 years and the entire surface of the Earth are covered in detail. The Earth is not identified with a sphere, but is approximated by an ellipsoid. Previously, calculations of high-frequency variations in insolation were performed for individual parallels (in space), and in time for four or five separate points of the year (equinoxes, solstices and, sometimes, points with a geocentric longitude of 120 degrees). We have calculated insolation for the surface of latitudinal zones at 1 latitude and time intervals equal to 1/360 of the duration of a tropical year (approximately a day). Correlation analysis of the total mass balance of alpine glaciers (for the period from the balance years 1948/1949 to 2009/2010) with summer and winter insolation and summer, winter and annual insolation contrast of the northern hemisphere, which in a summarized forms (by regions of heat source and sink) reflects long-term changes in the meridional insolation gradient. It has been determined that the long-term variability in the total mass balance of alpine glaciers on average (for glaciers covered by balance observations) is accounted for by the trend by 94.3 %. The trend in the reduction of alpine glaciers by an average of 90.6 % is determined by the annual insolation contrast, which reflects an increase in the meridional heat transfer, determined by an increase in the meridional contrast of radiant energy (on the Earths surface, excluding the atmosphere). Based on the close correlations determined by using a regression model, a forecast of the total mass balance of glaciers up to 2050 AD was made, which indicates a catastrophic development of the degradation of the modern glaciation of the Alps.
																								



2.
GLACIER RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING IN THE MOUNTAINS OF EASTERN SIBERIA, MONGOLIA AND NORTH-WEST CHINA

V.M. Plyusnin1, LI Zehong2, Chen Xiaona2
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Irkutsk, Russia
2Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing,China
Keywords: dynamics of glaciers, monitoring, cold content, south of Eastern Siberia, Mongolian Altai, eastern ridges of the Tien Shan

Abstract >>
The use diverse, multi-temporal satellite space information has become the main approach in investigating the current status of mountain glaciers. We have accumulated large archives of satellite images of snow-glacial systems on Earth with different spatial resolutions over the past 50 years. Together with the previously created topographic maps displaying glaciers, glacier catalogs, special maps and atlases of ice and snow, they give grounds to determine changes in areas, lengths, volumes, and altitude of glaciers during the current climate warming. In 1986, the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) was founded to monitor glacier fluctuations in different regions of the Earth. However, the number of observation sites is limited. The Global Ground Glacier Observing Network mainly includes those glaciers where we previously conducted ground-based studies of glacier front fluctuations, mass balance measurements, measurements of meteorological parameters, ice flow velocities, and ablation features. To identify regional differences, different altitude and plan locations, the influence of permafrost, and the background landscape environment requires data on a larger number of glaciers being analyzed. Therefore, groups of researchers from Irkutsk and Beijing, started to study the dynamics of glaciers in the inland regions of Eurasia within the framework of international projects. Several glaciers were selected in the mountains of the south of Eastern Siberia, the Mongolian Altai and the eastern part of the Tien Shan. We recorded current glacier fronts and their elevation marks. The lengths and areas of glaciers in the early 1970s and early 2000s and their current state were determined. In recent decades, some connections between the dynamics of glaciers and changes in meteorological parameters have been revealed.
																								



3.
TRANSFORMATION OF IRRIGATED LANDS IN REGIONS OF RUSSIA IN THE POST-SOVIET PERIOD

A.P. Demin
Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: ameliorative condition of irrigated lands, constituent entities of the Russian Federation, irrigated land productivity, technical condition of irrigation systems, area of actually irrigated land, drip irrigation

Abstract >>
The transformation of irrigated lands in the regions of Russia over a long period of time has been studied. It was found that from 1990 to 2018 the area of irrigated land in the country decreased from 6.2 to 4.7 million hectares. In some constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the land area decreased by a factor of 4-14, and in two of them it increased by 35-40 %. It was found that 735 thousand hectares of irrigated land (16 %) were not used in agricultural production in 2018, largely due to soil salinization and waterlogging, with only 3.7 % corresponding to the year 1990. It is concluded that it is necessary to quickly bring into production the unused irrigated lands in order to enhance food security and increase exports of food and agricultural raw materials. The transformation of the structure of irrigated agricultural land in Russia as a whole is less perceptible, whereas in some regions it is conspicuous. There is a need to increase the share of forage crops in irrigated crop rotations to improve soil fertility, and increase the production of forage and livestock products. It is shown that in recent decades in Russia there has been a steady trend in deterioration in the reclamation state of irrigated lands. A particularly unfavorable situation has developed in the Northwestern District. The area in which capital improvements are required to increase the technical level of irrigation systems has increased dramatically. The area of actually irrigated land progressively decreased from 4.9 million hectares in 1990 to 1.4 million hectares in 2016. On the other hand, drip irrigation systems are rapidly developing, which have shown high efficiency. It has been established that it is necessary to develop more widely the production of drip irrigation systems at domestic and joint ventures in Russian regions. Data on the beginning of the revival of the production of domestic sprinkling equipment, which is not inferior to foreign counterparts and is much cheaper, are presented.
																								



4.
CARTOGRAPHIC MODELS OF REGIONAL LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING (A CASE STUDY OF THE VOLGA BASIN)

E.G. Kolomyts
Institute of Ecology of Volga Basin, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tolyatti, Russia
Keywords: natural zones, classification of landscapes, global warming, analytical forecasting modeling, forecasting mapping, forecast landscape-ecological scenarios

Abstract >>
A forecasting cartographic modeling of the direction and rate of transformation of the regions landscape-zonal structure has been carried out according to one of the scenarios of global climate change. The methodology of predictive analytical calculations as an algorithm for operations with climatic niches of geo (eco-) systems is described. Regional mapping of focal and induction phytocoenological transformation of landscapes of various natural zones was performed by using the thermo-humid variant of regional warming. It is shown that the zonal component of the climatogenic transformation of geosystems is the primary object of regional landscape-ecological forecasting. On the forecast maps of the dominant focal transformation of landscapes, two dynamic characteristics are shown: 1) the prevailing tendency for a given type of landscape to move from its own natural zone (subzone) to another zonal subdivision, and 2) the general degree of interzonal phytocoenological transformations of landscapes of a given species. The secondary induction transformation of landscapes, associated with their transboundary interaction and determining the degree of displacement of landscape boundaries, actually manifests itself only for landscape neighbors of the first order, with a corresponding shift of landscape boundaries. A quantitative assessment of the influence of generic barriers characterizing the morphogenetic contrasts of the natural-territorial mosaic pattern on the system of landscape-zonal transitions is given. Fragments of forecast maps of focal and induction transformation of landscapes in the Volga river basin are presented. The processes of phytocoenotic transformations of the landscapes for the predicted periods of 2050, 2075 and 2100 are briefly described. In the western sector of the Volga basin, mass transgression of boreal vegetation into the subzone of deciduous forests and even into the middle forest-steppe is predicted. In the eastern, pre-Ural sector, on the contrary, the introduction of broad-leaved and forest-steppe communities in the boreal zone is expected.
																								



5.
ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF SOILS OF UST-ILIMSK (IRKUTSK OBLAST)

E.V. Naprasnikova, A.A. Sorokovoi
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: pH conditions, biochemical activity, Angara region, soil, anthropogenic impact

Abstract >>
Experimental investigations were made into the basicity-acidityindices (pH) and soil biochemical activity (SBA) in the industrial city of Ust-Ilimsk in conditions of Eastern Siberia. A cartographic representation of the distribution of values of integral indicators of soils in the city is presented for the first time. The significance of the method of mapping urban soils experiencing urbanization and technogenesis is emphasized. The investigation was made by using the express method of determining the soil biochemical activity. In addition to this indicator, pH conditions of soils were identified. The study encompassed the main functional zones of two parts of Ust-Ilimsk: the Old City (Levoberezhie) and the New City (Pravoberezhie). Of widespread occurrence on the territory are the neutral and weakly alkaline soils. The pH values vary from 7.4 to 7.8; in the control soils, they vary from 6.3 to 6.9. A significant area of the city (43.9 %) is occupied by weakly alkaline soils. The level of soil biochemical activity permitted us to categorize the soils as active and very active. The proportion of very active soils makes up 32.9 % of the total territory of the city. This indicates a trend of ecological regression, namely a loss of the biogenic element, nitrogen. The study revealed trends of a weak but positive dependence of SBA on pH. The coefficients of approximation are positive and vary, according to the zones of the city, from 0.2 to 0.5. The absolute and relative distribution of the areas with pH and SBA values is shown. A comparative analysis of data revealed a difference of the Ust-Ilimsk soils from the soils in other cities of the Angara region.
																								



6.
ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF A LARGE LANDSLIDE ON THE SHORES OF THE BUREYA RESERVOIR

L.M. Kondratyeva, A.N. Makhinov, V.I. Kim
Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, Khabarovsk, Russia
Keywords: explosives, ecological risk, aufeis, methanol, benzene derivatives, rocks

Abstract >>
Ecological consequences of a large landslide on the shores of the Bureya reservoir For the first time in the winter period (December 2018), a landslide occurred on the Bureya reservoir, the largest in Russia in the last decade. This phenomenon is not typical for Khabarovsk krai. Results from investigating toxic organic matter in the water and aufeis in the zone of influence of the landslide and after the collapse of the dam composed of rocks are discussed. A comparative analysis of aromatic compounds by gas chromatography in the water around the landslide body before and after explosions in the resulting artificial canal has been carried out. Among dominant components in the water, a number of toxic substances were detected, including methanol and methylated benzene derivatives, the concentration of which increased after drainage of water through the landslide body. It was found that a large number of volatile organic substances had a natural origin and could be contained in the pore space of rocks. After explosive blasting, an increase in the content of hexane and isopropyl benzene was observed in the water of the artificial canal. It has been established that the composition of volatile organic substances has been influenced to a greater extent by rock grinding both immediately after the landslide and after the explosive blasting. Ecological risks for the reservoir ecosystem are associated with the formation of aromatic compounds as a result of various biogeochemical processes occurring in the pore space during watering of rocks, during their thawing/freezing, the transformation of vegetal debris and detonation products of explosives.
																								



7.
BOTTOM RELIEF FEATURES OF THE BASINS OF LAKE BAIKAL

E.E. Kononov
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: bottom relief, bathymetry, digital model, paleoreconstruction, correlations

Abstract >>
Based on analyzing bathymetric material obtained in different years by using high-precision geophysical equipment featuring multi-beam echo sounders, the main bottom relief features of the South, Middle and North basins of the Baikal depression are considered. It has been established that ridge-ravine forms and canyon valleys are well developed on the underwater slope of all depressions. The valleys of the canyons of the Middle and South basins reach the maximum maturity, which is associated with a longer history of the evolution of these basins. The canyon valleys are highly sinuous there, which is associated with the peculiarities of the underlying substrate and fault tectonics. The canyons of the western side of the Baikal depression are predominantly tectogenic in origin, are short in length and show a significant steepness of the longitudinal profile; their valleys are mostly rectilinear. The underwater slope along the eastern coast of the North basin and its abyssal surface are complicated by a set of glacial landforms: moraine swells and fan cones formed by turbidite flows during interglacial periods. On the coast, they are continued by very extended swells of lateral and stadial moraines. Tectogenic scarps are widespread in the lower parts of the underwater slopes and run usually parallel to the coastline. It has been established that a very characteristic form of the sloping relief of the South basin are the flat-convex surfaces of the deltas which sometimes reach the abyssal surface of the lake. Numerous outcrops of Miocene-Pliocene limnic sediments on the eastern coast of the Middle basin, and the nature of their spatial arrangement suggests that the sedimentary strata of the underwater slope of this basin may be of the same age and genetically homogeneous with terrestrial strata, which are Miocene-Pliocene in age. Similar deposits of the Tankhoi field on the southern coast of the depression also extend far into the water area of the lake, which gives grounds to confirm the existing points of view about the similar history of the development of the South and Middle basins.
																								



8.
LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RECREATIONALLY DEVELOPED COASTAL AREA THE VILLAGE OF BOLSHOE GOLOUSTNOE (SOUTH BAIKAL)

ZH.V. Atutova, D.V. Kobylkin
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: national park, landscape structure, recreational activities, environmental problems, risk, sustainable development

Abstract >>
We made a map of the contemporary landscape structure on the key site (Goloustnoe coast) to analyze the recreational development of the coast of Lake Baikal; based on this map, we identified the main factors of natural attractiveness for the development of the tourism industry. Considering the economic and geographical patterns of the region combined with its landscape and recreational potential, we determined historically formed and preferred types of recreation activities. With a view to reveal environmental problems, we identified the main directions for recreational activities that have the greatest negative impact on the functioning of landscape complexes in the area. It is pointed out that a low level of ecological culture of vacationers is often the chief cause for an intensification of adverse events. Therefore, the risk of crisis situations is borne not only by tourists, but also by the operation of recreational infrastructure facilities. Geoimages obtained by processing images taken with an unmanned aerial vehicle helped to identify the foci of greatest environmental tension, as well as present quantitative parameters characterizing the extent of the negative impact. Having considered the high degree of sensitivity of landscape complexes to anthropogenic impact, we proposed ecotourism-oriented leisure activities that can not only reduce the burden on the part of recreational activities, but also increase the level of environmental morality. Besides, we provided the examples of recreational facilities, already existing on the Goloustnoe coast of Lake Baikal and methods of their management, guaranteeing environmental stability, which is necessary in the implementation of measures aimed at sustainable development of the Baikal territory.
																								



9.
METAL MIGRATION FORMS IN THE WATERS OF THE UNZHA RIVER BASIN (UPPER VOLGA REGION)

I.N. Ovchinnikova1, A.P. Sizov2
1All-Russian Research Institute of Environmental Protection, Moscow, Russia
2Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: heavy metals, humic acids, hydrosphere, environment, landscapes, southern taiga

Abstract >>
The differentiation of the elements according to the phase composition of natural waters, which reliably characterizes the geoecological situation in the region of the Unzha river basin (the left tributary of the Volga river), the basicity of soil-geochemical processes and associated flows of matter and energy in soils and landscapes, was studied. Studies were carried out in key areas of landscapes in the middle and lower reaches of the river valley (35 soil sections were established). It is found that the natural waters of the Unzha basin constitute a complex multicomponent system where the ion composition of the waters and the reaction of the medium vary over a broad range according to their lithogenic component and water category. Migration of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in soil-ground waters of the Unzha basin proceeds mainly in suspended material, and in the dissolved phase in the waters of brooks, rivers and wells. In the waters of brooks and rivers, the total amount of suspended material is smaller than in soil-ground water; therefore, its role in the transfer of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu is reduced accordingly. Migration of these elements increases in the composition of soluble humic acids, mainly fulvic acids. The role of dissolved humic acids, largely fulvic acids, in the transfer of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu averages 28 %, 10, 41.9 and 33.7 %, respectively. Along with fulvic acids, the role of humic acids in the removal of these elements increases in bogs rich in organic matter. In the waters of the Unzha river, its tributaries and brooks, the coefficient of water migration Fe = 0.4, which is an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding value according to Perelmans classification. In the soil-ground water, Fe migration increases further: Fe = 0.5. According to the intensity of water migration in the landscapes of the Unzha river, the elements are arranged in the following decreasing sequence: Zn ≥ Cu ≥ Mn ≥ Fe. A marked increase in the mobility of elements occurs in the acidic environment of the bog waters (pH 3.7-4.1), rich in dissolved organic matter.
																								



10.
PATTERNS OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LOAD SEASONALITY ALONG THE LENA RIVER BRAIDED CHANNEL

S.R. Chalov, M.K. Tarasov, A.S. Chalova
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: suspended sediment concentration, sediment budget, remote sensing methods, braided channel, runoff distribution in branches

Abstract >>
Based on water sediment concentration modeling using the collection of Landsat images for the period 1992-2018, highly detailed (30-m resolution) features of suspended sediment load along the 200-km braided channel reach of the Lena river from Pokrovsk to the mouth of the Aldan river (upstream of the Aldan braiding) are described. It is shown that large anabranching river reaches correspond to changes of the system of sediment transport and accumulation manifesting themselves as a predominance of occurrences of positive (increase) or negative (decrease) DS0 values (where DS0 stands for suspended sediment concentration budget). The conditions of longitudinal decrease in suspended sediment concentration along the length of the braided reach of the Lena river are characterized by high water discharges (>20 000 m3/s) and are associated with sediment accumulation at riffles and floodplain areas. It is established that a significant role in the longitudinal decrease in water sediment concentration is played by lateral floodplain branches which accumulate a part of the incoming suspended sediments and have a dilution influence on the sediment flow downstream of the confluence with the main channel. Cases of a longitudinal increase in water suspended sediment concentration are typical for the lower water flow rates (<20 000 m3/s) and are connected increased bank erosion due to thermal erosion in summer as well as erosion of riffles during a low-water period. A combination of the grid of suspended sediment concentration, velocities and channel depths with a 30 30-m resolution (more than 20 000 cells) for low-water conditions revealed a dependence of local suspended sediment concentration on the transporting capacity of the flow which was determined for separate verticals. A correspondence between the regime of certain reaches in different phases of water regime is observed. Such a correspondence indicates the mutual influence of the directedness of mass exchange and channel morphology. The transformation of distribution systems of suspended sediments can be interpreted as one of the self-regulation mechanisms in the channel system. Complex systems of sediment flow distribution along the channel of a large river reflect the opposite directedness of erosion-accumulation processes caused by bends in the longitudinal profile.
																								



11.
VEGETATION OF THE SUBALPINE-TAIGA COMPLEX AND GOLD ACCUMULATION BY LARCH FORESTS OF EASTERN SAYAN

B.-TS.B. Namzalov1,2, T.T. Taisaev1, L.-Z.V. Budazhapov2, M.B.-TS. Namzalov1
1Banzarov Buryat State University, Ulan-Ude,Russia
2Buryat Research Institute of Agriculture, Ulan-Ude,Russia
Keywords: species, community, subalpine taiga larch forest, endemic, relict forest-steppe, landscape geochemistry

Abstract >>
This article summarizes material of geobotanical and biogeochemical studies into the vegetation of the Irkut river valley in the spurs of the Kitoi Goletzes of the Eastern Sayan Mountains. An analysis is made of the features in spatial structure, floristic and phytocenotic diversity of vegetation of cryo-steppe open woodland, taiga larch forests and meadow-bog complexes in the high-mountain valley of the Irkut river. It is found that the landscapes of the subalpine cold forest-steppe represented by a combination of sparse herbaceous (ptylagrostis-kobresia, fescue) larch forests, shrub groups with the involvement of Spiraea alpina, Betula rotundifolia, and Dasiphora fruticosa, and communities of cryophytic steppes typically occur at altitudes of 2000 m above the sea level. They latter constitute the original element of forest-steppe, which are often dominated by the endemic fescue Festuca komaroviis. The dominant taiga vegetation is dominated by larch forests. Larch forests are dominant in the composition of prevailing taiga vegetation. These are mainly lingonberry-rhododendron-lichen larch forests and larch forests with lingonberry moss-lichen communities. The communities of subalpine larch forests of the Ilchir urochishche showed the presence of anomalies in gold content in samples of fruticose lichens, reindeer lichen, revealed. Gold content in lichen samples varies from 0.1 to 0.8, and in some places it reaches 1-3 g/t. In general, in the Sayan alpine landscapes, gold-sulfide vein zones are known to occur in rocks of the Paleozoic volcanogenic-terrigenous formation and at its contact with the carbonate formation. Along the slope, gentle watershed ridges overgrown with taiga larch forests are interspersed with narrow hollows of cryogenic subsidence with the occurrence of boggy willow forests, sedge-cobresia, and ptyagrostis meadows with Dasiphora fruticosa. Only at the foothills, on bedrock terraces with outcrops of rocks of the Paleozoic carbonate formation, communities of cobresia-fescue alpine steppe are formed.
																								



12.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS IN THE TUMNIN RIVER (BASIN OF THE SEA OF JAPAN)

N.K. Fisher, L.A. Garetova
Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, Khabarovsk, Russia
Keywords: organic matter, hydrocarbons, genesis, phytopigments, bacteria, n-alkanes

Abstract >>
The composition, distribution, and genesis of organic components in bottom sediments of the Tumnin river were studied for a comprehensive assessment of their current environmental status. A study of particle size distribution revealed the dominance of the pelitic fraction in the sediments of most of the sites (up to 98.8 %). It was found that the spatial variability in the accumulation organic substances in bottom sediments led to a significant scatter in the minimum and maximum concentrations of organic carbon, by a factor of 65, and in the mass fraction of hydrocarbons, by a factor of 136. According to hydrocarbon content (from 9 to 680 mg/kg), the sediments are estimated in the range of slightly polluted - very dirty. According to the content of sedimentary pigments (from 16.1 to 39.8 mg/kg), most of the sediments are of the eutrophic type. Correlations between the main sources of organic matter in the sediments under investigation were revealed: hydrocarbons and organic carbon (r = 0.674), the content of pigments and hydrocarbons (r = 0.869), and the content of phytopigments and heterotrophic bacteria (r = 0.888). It is concluded that the value of overload of the self-purification capacity of the bottom sediments from hydrocarbons is closely associated with the presence of phytopigments (r = 0.873) and the number of heterotrophic bacteria (r = 0.959), which is due to their production and destruction activity in relation to hydrocarbons. High concentrations of volatile organic compounds (butanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, etc.) indicate that bottom sediments contribute to secondary pollution of the river water. The study of the molecular composition of hydrocarbons revealed the dominance of biogenic compounds of terrigenous genesis (53.2-76.7 % of the sum), which is important in differentiating anthropogenic impacts for purposes of environmental monitoring.
																								



13.
CURRENT TERRITORIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF INDUSTRY OF IRKUTSK OBLAST

N.A. Ippolitova1,2, M.A. Grigoryeva1
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Irkutsk, Russia
2Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: industrial production, employed in industry, investments, leading sectors of the economy, municipalities

Abstract >>
The article discusses recent changes in the development of industrial production in Irkutsk oblast from 2010 to 2019. Industry is the basic component in the economic complex; it provides about half of the regions gross added value and is characterized by a multi-sectoral structure formed primarily on the basis of using natural resources and cheap electricity. It is pointed out that in the last decade, a significant change in the structure of industry has led to a structural simplification of its sectoral composition with a significant shift toward the raw materials sector. Cities remain the leading centers of concentration of the manufacturing industry. The grouping of municipalities according to the level of industrial development was carried out according to the available statistical data: the calculated share of the employed in industry and the volume of shipped products of large and medium-sized organizations. On the basis of their ratio, groups of regions with intensive development of the extractive industries, primarily the oil and gas sector, as well as territories, the industrial profile of which was formed in Soviet times but underwent transformations under the influence of changes in the market, were identified. A group of regions with very low industrial development has been identified, in which economic activities are mainly related to agriculture, logging, transport, and tourism. It is shown that some of the municipalities have changed their position in the groups when compared to 2010. The rest of the composition is relatively stable. It was found that in the first and fourth groups there occurred a change in priority in the development of types of economic activity, whereas the second and third groups show a change in their proportions. Large business contributes to the extreme uneven distribution of investments across the oblast in the implementation of investment projects.
																								



14.
ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHICAL AND ECOLOGICAL-GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF IRKUTSK

A.Ya. Yakobson1, N.V. Batsyun2, M.V. Vikhoreva1
1Irkutsk State Transport University, Irkutsk, Russia
2Irkutsk National Research Technical University, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: Lake Baikal, region, recreational-geographical location, multiscaleness, ecological awareness, ecological movements

Abstract >>
An attempt is made to empirically enrich the theoretical ideas of the economic-geographical location of cities by means of an individual economic-geographic analysis. It is shown that the most important component of monitoring the economic-geographical location implies analyzing the ecological-geographical location of a city, and for the city of Irkutsk it is of special interest. This analysis was carried out in the context of the economic-geographical location and in a multi-scale manner, because both look different at different scales. The following scales were studied: the Global scale, the All-Russian scale, the scales of the Angara-Yenisei and Baikal regions as well as the south of Irkutsk oblast. The two variants of regionalization of Eastern Siberia are not opposed to each other but are considered as equal, allocated for different purposes and forming the geographical location of Irkutsk in different ways. As for the south of the Oblast, its allocation as a special geographical system and an independent object of research is justified. An integral part of the research done involves examination of the recreational-geographical location in terms of the traditions of the citizens recreation: both weekend recreation and multi-day tourism, which gives rise to considering different scales and slightly different ideas of the geographic location. The analysis includes a historical context: it shows how in the relatively recent past Irkutsk became a place of non-standard political activity, which is associated with public awareness of its ecological-geographical location, formed on the basis of the obvious recreational-geographical location. The article presents the results of a sociological survey among young people, showing that the rudiments of such awareness are still present, but it is largely weakened compared to the 1980s.
																								



15.
HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES OF SETTLEMENT AND ETHNIC COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION OF BARGUZIN CISBAIKALIA (19TH-20TH CENTURIES)

L.S. Tsydypova, Ts.B. Dashpilov
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: population, hunting, animal husbandry, agriculture, clan, collectivization, villagization

Abstract >>
The formation features in the ethnic structure and settlements of Barguzin Cisbaikalia across the territory of the modern Barguzinskii and Kurumkanskii districts of the Republic of Buryatia are considered. On the basis of archival sources and field research material, the impact of socio-administrative transformations, methods of economic activity and the specifics of the natural environment on the placement of the newcomer and old-time population are revealed. The adaptive features of local communities are shown, which led to sustainability of the traditions of nature management and everyday interethnic contacts. The nature of the settlement of the territory and the formation of a network of settlements in different historical periods had its own specifics and, at the same time, was largely determined by the degree of the preservation of the complex of nature management traditional for the ethnos: agricultural-commercial, animal husbandry-commercial, hunting-commercial and fisheries, with a number of transitional options which formed in the course of constant interaction of ethnic groups in the region. It was found that stability and continuity in the organization of human habitat are characteristic for the study area and the peoples inhabiting it. The distribution of settlements, temporary and permanent camps in different historical periods reflected the state of the ethnocultural landscape, determined the location of its functional zones and areas as well as contributing to the formation of the identity of the local population.
																								



16.
TEMPORAL VARIATION IN LAND USE AND LAND COVER IN GUJRAT (PAKISTAN) FROM 1985 TO 2015

S.Sh. Mehdi, M. Miandad, M.M. Anwar, G. Rahman, H. Ashraf
University of Gujrat, Penjab, Pakistan
Keywords: urban landscape, spatio-temporal changes, controlled classification, land use, land cover, growth

Abstract >>
The fundamental changes in the land use and condition of the land in Gujrat (Punjab province, Pakistan), which have occurred over the past several decades, have been studied. They have a long history and represent an important factor in global changes in urban landscape. An attempt is made to determine the spatio-temporal changes in land use and land areas caused by anthropogenic activities. The study was carried out on the basis of multi-time satellite images (for 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2015) of the US Geological Survey, obtained from various Landsat satellites. Satellite image processing was carried out in the ERDAS Imagine 2014 and ArcGIS 10.3.1 programs. As a result, four maps were compiled that reflect the spatial and temporal dynamics of land. They are divided into five types: vegetation cover, bare soil, sand, water bodies and built-up areas. The results of the study indicate a significant decrease in the area of vegetation cover: from 85.1 % in 1985 to 79.6 % by 2015. There was also a significant increase in the built-up area, from 0.7 to 4.0 % over a 30-year period. It is established that unplanned changes in land use have an extremely negative impact on the ecological situation as well as on the human habitat. It is concluded that it is necessary to conduct a reasonable policy aimed at correcting unplanned urbanization and the demographic situation in the province under consideration.
																								



17.
LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE OF GEDE-PANGRANGO STRATOVOLCANO (WEST JAVA, INDONESIA)

P.S. Belyanin
Pacific Geographical Institute, Vladivostok, Russia
Keywords: Java Island, equatorial landscapes, Pacific Ring of Fire, Sunda Islands, altitudinal zonation

Abstract >>
The structure of Gede-Pangrango Stratovolcano, the highest volcano in Java Island, has been analyzed. Based on landscape mapping and the field observations, geographical data reflecting the spatial structure, relationships, interaction, and distribution characteristics of different-ranked ecosystems have been obtained. The influence of equatorial climate, volcanism, altitudinal zonation and anthropogenic impact on the formation of the structure of the volcanic landscape are shown. It was established that an increase in the altitude on the slopes of Gede-Pangrango Volcano resulted in an increase in the areas of subclasses of the steep and vertical slopes as well as in an increase in the slopes of moderate steepness. At the same time, the share of subclasses of plume slopes, gentle slopes and valley bottoms decreases. They are almost absent in the summit belt of the volcano. In this case, the composition of vegetation formations becomes simpler and floristic elements of higher latitudes appear, due to a decrease in average daily temperatures. At present, the anthropogenic factor has a significant impact on the landscapes of the volcano. As a result of the plowing of land and the construction of roads and settlements, the natural complexes of gentle slopes and their aprons have been strongly transformed. The slopes of moderate steepness are less affected by the anthropogenic impact. The subclasses of the steep and sheer slopes as well as of valley bottoms have mostly preserved their natural features. The anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystems decreases with an increase in altitude, which is due to a decrease in heat supply as well as to an increase in volcanic influence and intensification of erosion processes. This makes agricultural activity, the construction of roads and location of settlements difficult, and on steep slopes, even impossible. The reserve status of the territories in the middle and upper altitudinal belts of the volcano is favorable for the preservation of natural landscapes.
																								



18.
INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM "TOPOLOGY OF GEOSYSTEMS - 71": COMMEMORATING ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY

V.A. Snytko1,2
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Irkutsk, Russia
2Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: Institute of Geography of Siberia and the Far East, V.B. Sochava, topological level, routine observations

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The Symposium Topology of Geosystems that was organized by Academician V.B. Sochava fostered international scientific activity in the field of geography and ecology; in particular, it contributed to setting up the International Association for Landscape Ecology. The symposium was instrumental in creating the doctrine of geosystems.
																								



19.
CHRONICLE AND INFORMATION