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Geography and Natural Resources

2019 year, number 4


1Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, 672014, Chita, ul. Nedorezova, 16a, Russia
2Transbaikal State University, 672039, Chita, ul. Aleksandro-Zavodskaya, 30, Russia
Keywords: туристический поток, туристская инфраструктура, динамика налоговых поступлений, доходы кол лективных средств размещения, трансграничная асимметрия, tourist flow, tourism infrastructure, dynamics of tax revenues, income of collective means of accommodation, cross-border asymmetry

Abstract >>
We compared the dynamics of development of tourism in the European and the Asian parts of Russia on the example of Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, the Kaliningrad region, the Krasnodar and Stavropol territories, the southern regions of Eastern Siberia and the Far East of Russia for the period from 2009 to 2017. It has been found that a combination of factors in the attractiveness of tourist services during that period increased in all regions of the western group and in almost all groups of the eastern group (with the exception of Zabaikalskii krai), in spite of the sensitive economic shocks. Analysis of the dynamics of tax revenues to the budget system of the Russian Federation and income of collective means of accommodation revealed contradictory trends. Tourism development in the East and West of Russia is characterized by an increase in tourist flow, but the economic consequences of this trend are different, and this shows differences in historical, geographical and socio-economic conditions. This requires different managerial decisions, because the rules of regulation of tourist activities, which are effective in the west where the infrastructure conditions complying with demand exist already, may not “work” in the East where there remain numerous problems associated with the state of roads, environmental protection facilities, housing and communal services, etc.


Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Staromonetnyi per., 29, Russia
Keywords: Китай, Россия, российско-китайские отношения, дискурс, приграничные регионы, общественное мнение, China, Russia, Russian-Chinese relations, discourse, border regions, public opinion

Abstract >>
This article examines the attitude of the Russian society toward the Russian-Chinese relations in general and toward the One Belt - One Road (OBOR) megaproject in particular. An analysis is made of the Russian scientific, official and expert discourse, based on methods of critical geopolitics, as well as investigating the grass-roots ideas concerning China and the OBOR Initiative. It is found that expert discourse is dominated by negative and neutral analytical publications, whereas official discourse and grass-rout ideas have a clearly positive connotation, although occasionally with some wariness. The critical nature of expert discourse in respect of China reflects distrust Chinese politics from Russian specialists, associated with the lack of comparability of the demographic and economic potentials of the two countries and the ambitions of the Chinese leadership. It is established that in foreign scientific circles, the Russian strategy of the “turn to the East” is perceived skeptically. The authors do not believe in a real possibility that Chinese and Russian projects can be reconciled in the implementation of the strategic interests of the Russian Federation, referring to the different interests of the two countries. It is noted that the fears of unequal competition are encouraged by the Chinese side approach to joint projects focused primarily on the needs of China, as well as by the obvious difference in the interests of the two States. The main obstacle to a further development of bilateral cooperation is a credibility gap on either side of the Russian-Chinese border. Field studies in the Russian-Chinese borderland in Zabaikalskii krai confirmed this conclusion, showing that at the regional and local level the Russian-Chinese relations are sharply asymmetric.


V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
Keywords: территориальная охрана природы, заповедники, национальные парки, заказники, межгосударст венные соглашения, сохранение природного разнообразия, territorial nature conservation, nature reserves (zapovedniks), national parks, nature refuges (zakazniks), in terstate agreements, preservation of natural diversity

Abstract >>
A specific feature of the term “transboundary” is defined, which is usually perceived as an opportunity to overcome the borders separating the territory, and is used as opposed to the “frontier” objects adjacent to the border but not crossing it. Trans-boundary interstate territories are discussed, where only regulated activities may be carried out, such as nature conservation in solving the problem of preserving biotic and landscape diversity where a poor involvement of border areas in economic activity ensures an adequate degree of ecosystem preservation. A possibility of establishing transboundary specially protected natural areas arises in the most significant (in terms of natural diversity conservation) areas adjacent to the borders of neighboring States. The main condition for the effective functioning of transboundary specially protected natural areas implies signing bilateral agree ments or agreements between more countries with the aim of developing joint scientific and tourist programs as well as weaken ing of border control. Issues related to the theoretical and practical substantiation of the establishment of transboundary spe cially protected natural areas are considered. As of the beginning of 2019, there are five such areas established in accordance with interstate agreements: “Altai”, “Dauria”, “Sources of the Amur”, “Lake Khanka” and “Ubsunur Depression”. The most important planned transboundary specially protected natural areas of the Asian part of Russia are also highlighted. The rela tively investigated areas “Amur Tiger and Leopard”, “Delger-Muren”, “From Khubsugul to Baikal”, “Khentei-Chikoi Highland”, “Sailyugem”, “Sayan Junction”, “Selenga”, “Tumangan”, “Southern Kuriles”, and “Beringia”.


1Pacific Geographical Institute, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 690041, Vladivostok, ul. Radio, 7, Russia
2Pacific Geographical Institute, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 692245, Spassk-Dal’nii, ul. Ershova, 10, Russia
3Khankaiskii Biosphere Reserve
4Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 680000, Khabarovsk, ul. Dikopol’tseva, 56, Russia
Keywords: трансграничный бассейн, Приханкайская низменность, уровень воды, трансгрессия, геоэколо гические проблемы, природопользование, загрязнение, transboundary drainage basin, Prikhankaiskaya lowland, water level, transgression, geo-ecological problems, nature management, pollution, transboundary drainage basin, Prikhankaiskaya lowland, water level, transgression, geo-ecological problems, nature management, pollution

Abstract >>
A brief geographical description is provided for Lake Khanka and its drainage basin where the Russian part accounts for more than 90 % of the area. Sixteen rivers on the Russian territory and 8 rivers on the Chinese territory flow into the lake. Only one river, Sungacha, flows out of the lake; it is a border river and connects Lake Khanka with the Ussuri river. A historical analysis of the water level dynamics in Lake Khanka for the last 10 thousand years showed that rises of the lake water level, shore erosion, an increase in flood frequency and duration, and an increase of the degree of waterlogging of the valleys corre sponded to warm climatic phases. The cold phases showed a decrease in hydraulicity of the rivers and in the lake level, and an enhancement in aeolian processes in the coastal zone of the lake and its river valleys. Seismic processes and changes in ground water flow can also be responsible for changes in the lake water level. Morphostructural analysis indicates a potentially high seismic activity of this territory and risks of magnitude 8 earthquakes. In the 20 th century, the natural processes of water level fluctuations in the lake began to be influenced by anthropogenic factors, such as the water withdrawal for irrigation of paddy fields and streamflow control. The territory of China within the Lake Malaya Khanka drainage basin is the home for extensive paddy systems which are supplied with water from the Muling river basin. The water is then directed to Lake Malaya Khanka, and through the drain facilities it enters Lake Khanka. In fact, an inter-basin transboundary water transfer is carried out, which can affect significantly the water level in the lake. Characteristics of the existing nature management practices in the Russian portion of the lake drainage basin, and also lake pollution assessments are given. The main geo-ecological problems in the Lake Khanka transboundary drainage basin associated with water level fluctuations, geodynamic processes and environmental pollu tion are identified. Geo-ecological problems are considered to mean changes in natural processes accompanied by the transforma tion of separate natural components and landscapes in general, and causing, as a rule, negative consequences for humans and for various forms of nature management. The primary and related components of the geo-ecological problems are highlighted. The main directions of comprehensive research within the framework of cooperation between the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation in order to work out the plan for governance of sustainable nature management in the transboundary drainage basin of Lake Khanka are suggested.


Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50, str. 28, Russia
Keywords: высотные пояса, местности, метеоситуации, пирологические режимы, прогнозирование, обез лесение, altitudinal vegetation zone, localities, weather conditions, fire regime, forecasting, deforestation

Abstract >>
This paper presents results of wildfire studies conducted Transbaikalia over the last five decades. Station-based experimen tal investigations into fire hazards of vegetation accomplished at the regional forest fire stations during those years covered all altitudinal vegetation zones, representative landscape localities and forest types. Route investigations were made in different natural areas. Arial monitoring of landscape fires was used during two fire seasons. Long-term effects of fires in the Baikal Natural Area and in Central Transbaikalia were investigated. Fire regimes in vegetation complexes were analyzed and for each of them the duration of the fire hazard was determined both as the total duration for the entire season and as a continuous duration for the period of the fire maximum. Characteristics of the regimes for the altitudinal belts are provided in three versions according to precipitation amounts for a season (normal, dry and wet). It is found that forest fires occur in intensive and extreme fire regimes when most of the vegetation complexes of the region become exceptionally hazardous as compared to adjacent areas. In such a situation, there are almost no barriers to fire, except for broad rivers, lakes and mountain crests. The forest fire fre quency index is high due to a predominance of light coniferous stands. A rapid spread of fires is also promoted by dry grass stands and fire-hazardous shrubs where the fire is spreading nearly as fast as the speed of wind. It was established that unmown mead ows, and abandoned pastures and croplands in the outskirts of villages present the threat of devastating fires not only in forests but also in settlements. In a situation, such as the one that arose in 2015, landscape fires turn to a natural disaster with severe forest-ecological consequences. Surviving forest stands decrease in productivity and increase in self-thinning, followed by an increasing degradation caused by subsequently recurring fires. Burns undergo local deforestation or a long-lasting replacement of coniferous stands by deciduous forests. The future runoff from the burned-over areas is able to enhance pollution of Lake Baikal. It is concluded that the EMERCOM resources used to fight the latest fires in Transbaikalia showed very little promise because of being delayed. A reasonable alternative to EMERCOM would involve advanced forecasting of high risks of fire oc currence in order to rapidly fight fires with moderate expenses without letting them turning to a natural disaster.


1Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontova, 132/2, Russia
2V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
3Pedagogical Institute of Irkutsk State University, 664011, Irkutsk, 6, ul. Nizhniaya Naberezhnaya, Russia
4Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50, str. 28, Russia
5Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50, Russia
Keywords: бактериальная водянка, кедр сибирский, геосистемы Прибайкалья, дендрохронология, bacterial dropsy, Pinus sibirica, Cisbaikalian geosystems, dendrochronology

Abstract >>
Presented are the data from a comprehensive investigation into the causes and extent of dark coniferous forest dieback in geosystems of the northern macroslope of Khamar-Daban Range for the time interval 2006-2009. Forest dieback was caused by bacteria Erwinia nimipressuralis Carter. The disease outbreak was triggered by water scarcity in the region at that period. Land scape approach was used in assessing the magnitude of damage to dark-coniferous forests. The medium-scale map of geosystems was created for the northern macroslope of Khamar-Daban Range, showing the region’s geosystem diversity at the level of classes of facies. The ranking of forests was done according to three degrees of damage to tree stands (from strong to weak), and an assessment was made of the territory covered by them. The main areas of affected forests are concentrated in the eastern and western regions of Khamar-Daban where they occupy the middle and upper parts of the mountain-taiga belt. The Siberian stone pine stands suffered the most from the disease. Fir trees were less affected; in some areas, however, the damage to Siberian stone pine and fir stands is comparable. A dramatic decrease of the rate of radial increment in Siberian stone pine stands corresponds to the time interval 2006-2009. Furthermore, there occurred a decrease in nutrient content in pollen grains of Siberian stone pine and a decrease in of the rate of their germination as well as a negative transformation of Siberian stone pine cones in the form of their excessive resinosis and immaturity, which is one of the diagnostic features of bacterial dropsy. A disturbance to the development of pollen and pine cones negatively affects the ripening of Siberian stone pine seeds thus impeding forest regenera tion. However, a study of the state of the young growth in forest stands affected by bacterial dropsy bears witness to the gener ally satisfactory processes of dark-coniferous forest rehabilitation.


1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 64033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
2V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 671220, pos. Tankhoi, ul. Krasnogvardeiskaya, 34, Russia
3Baikal State Natural Biosphere Reserve
Keywords: животный мир, рекреационное значение, ландшафты, картографирование, научный и позна вательный туризм, fauna, recreational value, landscapes, mapping, scientific and educational tourism

Abstract >>
A study and mapping of habitats of wild and synanthropic animal species were carried out on the model research site of the Baikal Nature Reserve in order to develop methods and conduct zoological tourism on their basis. This type of tourism pro motes the preservation of the maximum possible diversity of animal species composition and habitat. The focus of the investiga tions is on recreational development of the territory while preserving optimal diversity of species composition of the animal popu lation and the ecologically substantiated number of animals. The research site is located on the southeastern coast of Lake Baikal within the northern macroslope of Khamar-Daban Range and the Tankhoi piedmont plain. According to the specific features in the natural and economic conditions and the animal population, we identified the goletz alpinotype, mountain-taiga, piedmont-taiga, coastal and synanthropic landscape-faunistic complexes with characteristic terrestrial vertebrate species. Criteria were defined to be used to identify, among the total list of animals, recreationally significant species. Their study and mapping were carried out on the basis of a landscape map which was used in compiling maps for habitats and the number of species in them. It was found that the number and abundance of species increase along the direction from the goletz-taiga complex in the middle part of the mountain range to the piedmont-plain taiga-bog complex on the shores of Baikal. In economically developed areas as well as in settlements, there is an increase of the total number of species due to an increase in the proportion of synan thropic animals. Considerable attention is paid to synanthropic bird species because of their abundance, availability for observa tion and high ecological and recreational significance. Some features in zoological tourism development in the conservation and protection areas of the Baikal Nature Reserve differing in the level of environmental protection and in the mode of management are outlined. The areas occupied by recreationally significant species will be evaluated in the future. The findings can be used in the Baikal Nature Reserve as well as in neighboring territories and in other regions.


1Melentiev Energy Systems Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontovа, 130, Russia
2Irkutsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontova, 134, Russia
3Matrosov Institute for System Dynamics and Control Theory, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontova, 134, Russia
4Irkutsk State University, 664003, Irkutsk, ul. Karla Marksa, 1, Russia, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontovа, 130, Russia
Keywords: уровень оз. Байкал, диапазон регулирования, маловодные и многоводные годы, риски, противо речия законодательства, экологические требования, Lake Baikal level, range of regulation, low-water and high-water years, risks, contradictions of legislation, en vi ronmental requirements

Abstract >>
We examine the current problems of Lake Baikal level regulation. A comparative analysis is made of the changes in the lake level, the range of its fluctuations and in the intra-annual amplitude for the 120-year-long period of observations in natu ral and regulated conditions. The period 2014-2017 with an extremely low water level is analyzed. It is pointed out that the inconsistency between existing legislation and the water resource management system within the Baikal and Angara drainage basins has also contributed to the decline in sustainability of the water economy, along with the climatic factors. It was found that while generally quite well complying with the requirements of water users and water consumers in conditions of normal and almost normal water availability, it cannot meet the regulatory needs and restrictions in periods of extreme water availability. The risks and contradictions in the regulation of the Lake Baikal water level in low- and high-water years are considered. Quantitative assessments are made of the possible maximum levels in Lake Baikal during floods for different restrictions of water flow in the downstream water. The estimates of expected areas of flooding are given. It is pointed out that along with water management and socio-economic risks, climatic and environmental factors should also be taken into account in the lake level regulation. An analysis is made of the environmental requirements which were taken into account when setting the limited meter range of Lake Baikal level regulation (Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 3.26.2001 No. 234). There is an inconsistency in these requirements and, in some cases, the impossibility of meeting them. Quantitative assessments are made of the implications of the re-enforcement of Decree No. 234 on January 1, 2021. It is shown that the enforcement of this decree in full necessarily involves violating the requirements of water users. The years of elevated water levels are necessarily accompanied by flooding of the city of Irkutsk. It is suggested that the “social” option of regulating the level of Lake Baikal water level regulation be used in order to avoid infringement of existing legislation and flooding by the downstream water. Special research work should be done to determine a reasonable range of Lake Baikal water level regulation having regard to the current environmental and socio-economic factors.


Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 3, Russia
Keywords: прибрежная зона, фекальные индикаторные бактерии, энтерококки, термотолерантные ко лиформные бактерии, coastal zone, fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, thermotolerant coliform bacteria

Abstract >>
A sanitary-microbiological assessment of the water quality in the small tributaries and the littoral zone of Lake Baikal within the area of the settlement of Listvyanka was made over the period from April 2015 to October 2016. The investigations were made in the upstream (of the boundaries of the settlement) and estuarine sections of the Bol’shaya Cheremshanka, Malaya Che remshanka, Kamenushka and Krestovka rivers. It was found that the water quality in the upstream sections of the rivers complied with the standard rates of water requirements imposed by the Russian Federation for the waters used for recreational purposes. The estuarine sections of the Bol’shaya Cheremshanka, Malaya Cheremshanka and Kamenushka showed significant concentra tions of fecal indicator bacteria. The waters of the Krestovka, the largest among the four rivers used in the study, generally complied with water quality standards. These data indicate that the rivers in this study are experiencing considerable fecal pollution. In the coastal waters from the estuarine areas of the lake itself, the concentrations of thermotolerant coliform bacteria and enterococci varied considerably and often exceeded the standard rates established in the Russian Federation, indicating input of fecal indica tor bacteria with the waters of the rivers flowing into Baikal. It was found that the water from the small rivers and from the estua rine areas of Baikal at the sampling locations is polluted by fecal indicator bacteria. Use of such a water without treatment poses an immediate threat to public health. It is concluded that in the settlement of Listvyanka there is a clear need for the construction of efficient treatment facilities for household waste water, because the flow of tourists to this area is growing rapidly and the buffer capacity of soils for adsorption of microorganisms is decreasing over time with an increase in anthropogenic load on the ecosystem.


1Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 3, Russia
2V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
3Irkutsk State University, 664003, Irkutsk, ul. Karla Marksa, 1, Russia
4V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125315, Moscow, ul. Baltiiskaya, 14, Russia
5Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Keywords: металлы, макроэлементы, микроэлементы, миграция, водообмен, metals, macroelements, trace elements, migration, water exchange

Abstract >>
We examine the composition of metals in the waters of the southern tributaries of Lake Baikal as well as comparing it with the composition of metals in bottom sediments and calculating the water migration coefficients of metals. The territory of the southern part of the lake drainage basin was regionalized according to the ability to ensure a particular water composition. The contribution from the southern tributaries to the chemical composition of Lake Baikal water was evaluated. It was found that the composition of macroelements and trace elements in the waters varies over a broad range. There occur waters with salt contents far exceeding those in Baikal water and its main tributaries as well as with considerably lower salt contents. Macroelements in the waters of all the streams studied are absolutely dominated by calcium, whereas the waters differ greatly in magnesium and sodium contents. Trace elements in the waters of the rivers on the southwestern coast are dominated by strontium, vanadium and molybdenum, which significantly differs them from the waters of the rivers of the southeastern coast, Lake Baikal and its main tributaries The values of the water migration coefficients as calculated for the macroelements in the waters of the southern and main tributaries of Baikal are similar. The water migration coefficient of trace elements for the river waters in the study area differ greatly from the coefficients for the waters of the main tributaries of Baikal. The reason behind this is the existence of sources of dissolved matter, such as rocks and deep underground water, with their composition not characteristic for correspond ing landscapes. The contribution from the southern tributaries to the macroelement composition of Lake Baikal waters can be estimated at the range of 5 to 30 % depending on the selected tracer metals. The contribution from the southern tributaries to the trace element composition of the Baikal waters defies estimation because of their much higher concentrations in the rivers when compared with Baikal water. The differences in the trace element concentrations in the water of Baikal water and of its tributaries are caused by their migration in the composition of organic matter. In consequence of a long period of water exchange in Baikal, this matter is deposited or decays thus promoting the removal of trace elements from solution.


V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, pl. Akademika Zueva, 1, Russia
Keywords: аномалии, летний восточноазиатский муссон, GPCC, атмосферное блокирование, струйные течения, anomalies, East Asian summer monsoon, GPCC, atmospheric blocking, jet stream

Abstract >>
Data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) were used in investigating long-term variability of anoma lies of the total amount of atmospheric precipitation within the Selenga river basin in July. We identified several long periods (four years and longer) with negative precipitation anomalies: 1935-1939, 1955-1958, 1977-1981, 2007-2011, and 2013-2017. The last period is characterized by the smallest precipitation amount. Day-to-day variations in total precipitation were also analyzed for each July from 1982 to 2016. The analysis revealed a tendency to a decrease of the number of days with a large precipitation amount and to an increase of dry periods. Based on ECMWF Era Interim data, we examined the features in the atmospheric blocking Europe, Siberia and the Far East for periods with large and small precipitation amounts within the Selenga river basin. To identify the blocking in the atmosphere used the southern gradient of the geopotential. It was shown that in periods with large precipitation amounts blockings occurred most frequently over Eastern Siberia and more rarely over Europe and the Far East (especially if they were accompanied by blocking over Western Siberia). Atmospheric precipitation within the Selenga basin is associated not only with blocking but also with the position of the jet stream and with dynamic blocking formation schemes. The significance of these factors has been demonstrated in a number of specific situations of the atmospheric circulation in years with large and small precipitation amounts within the Selenga basin. Long-term transformations of these characteristics caused by climate change and the general atmospheric circulation can lead to a disturbance of the correlations between blocking and pre cipitation amounts within the river basin. In all likelihood, the correlation of blocking with precipitation regimes, rather than with precipitation in the region, will be more rigid. A functional dependence of the Selenga flow on climate change appears to be de termined by the position of the monsoon front and by the wave properties of atmospheric flows in midlatitudes.


Institute of the North Industrial Ecology Problems, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, 184209, Apatity, Akademgorodok, 14a, Russia
Keywords: ихтиоценоз, популяция, лососевые, сиговые, рыбный промысел, Субарктика, ichthyocenosis, population, salmons, whitefishes, fishing industry, Subarctic

Abstract >>
Results of long-term observations of the state of the fish community in the subarctic Lake Imandra are presented. The his tory of relevant ichthyological research is briefly outlined. An analysis is made of the changes in the composition of the ichthyo cenosis and biological characteristics of valuable fish species. It is shown that a total of 17 fish species inhabited the lake, and two of them were invaders. It was found that the construction of Niva HPP-2 involved disturbances to the migration route of Atlantic salmon to the lake for spawning, which led to its exclusion from the ichthyofauna. In aquaculture, rainbow trout (mikizha), Siberian sturgeon and sterlet are reproduced. Mikizha and previously reproduced carp has become naturalized in the lake. The dominant role in the ichthyocenosis and resource importance is played by representatives of the arctic freshwater faunistic com plex: whitefishes and European smelt. The retrospective dynamics of organized (industrial) catch of commercial species indicates its decrease by more than a factor of 20. At the present stage the structure of commercial capture fisheries production is domi nated by European smelt. In conditions of anthropogenic eutrophication, the number and the size characteristics of low-value eurybiont species increase. An increase in longevity and maximum (limiting) size-weight characteristics of vendace, ruff and smelt was recorded. There is a decrease in the proportion of whitefish and salmon species valuable to humans, and arctic char has almost disappeared. All this indicates a decrease in the resource potential of the surface waters of the region.


1Department of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Karelian Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 185910, Petrozavodsk, ul. Pushkinskaya, 11, Russia
2Institute of Biology, Karelian Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 185910, Petrozavodsk, ul. Pushkinskaya, 11, Russia
Keywords: геофизическая проницаемость, торф, сапропель, радарограмма, картирование, диэлектрическая проницаемость, Заонежский полуостров, geophysical penetrability, peat, sapropel, GPR profile, mapping, dielectric permittivity, Zaonezhskii Peninsula

Abstract >>
The capabilities of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in the study of bog massifs are discussed. The foundations of this method, a historical summary of its use, and a brief overview of problems dealt with in peatland study are provided. A detailed analysis is made of the influence of main peat parameters, such as density, moisture content, ash content, and the degree of decomposition, on the electromagnetic wave transmission rate, and on the formation of reflection boundaries. Literature sources were used to generalize electrophysical properties for peat deposits of different types. Data obtained show a presence of substan tial differences. The performance of GPR is demonstrated by results of our experimental studies on bog systems of the Zaonezhs kii Peninsula (Central Karelia). Using the Tolvuiskoe bog as an example, experience in studying the structure of the deposit and determining its boundaries is outlined. Radargrams were used to determine the three-layer structure, including peat, sapropel and varve clays, which is characteristic for the bogs in the study area. Each of the layers identified is characterized by a spe cific GPR complex, providing a means of uniquely identifying it on the radiogram. In addition, intermediate differences were determined, which are due to changes in moisture content and in the degree of decomposition. Data obtained for the depth of the layers were compared with biostratigraphic sections. The accuracy of determining the boundaries was of the order of ±0.2 m, which is comparable with the resolution of the 150 MHz GPR antenna used. Radargrams for the Tolvuiskoe bog were compared with GPR profiles for the Karasozerskoe, Gan’kovskoe and Padmozerskoe bogs to reveal a similarity in their structure. This confirmed the theory of their identical origin caused by the transgression of Lake Onega. Furthermore, some differences were noted, indicating local changes in the growth conditions of the bog massifs.


V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
Keywords: загрязнение, поллютанты, фтор, миграция, геохимические барьеры, степные ландшафты, почва, pollution, pollutants, fluorine, migration, geochemical barriers, steppe landscapes, soil

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We examine the fundamental tenets of the theory of geochemical barriers and their role in landscapes associated with an intensification of migration processes caused by an enhancement in anthropogenic activity, including in the sphere of industrial production. Observational evidence indicates that the flow of multiple elements in the form of substances, which is produced by the aluminum smelters of Khakassia and enters the landscapes through the atmosphere, contains the associations of hydrous migrating pollutants. According to their accumulation weight, they can be subdivided into the following groups: main pollutants - F, Al, Na and Ni whose content in the melt water exceeds the background level by factors of 10 to100, associated pollutants - Mn, Sr, Ca and Mg (exceeding the background levels by a factor of 10), and secondary pollutants - Si, Zn, Ba, K, Fe, V and Pb (exceeding the background level by factors of 1.8 to 7.0). For all the indicators analyzed, including toxicity, fluorine has been identified as the priority pollutant, and special emphasis was placed on it in the analysis of the migration mechanisms. The fol lowing geochemical barriers play an important role in the accumulation and migration processes of pollutants: biogeochemical (organogenic and humus-organogenic, and sorption), and physicochemical (sedimentation, evaporation, and multifunctional: solonetz). It has been found that in conditions of technogenesis, soil-geochemical barriers do not conform fully to a classical understanding of the function of the barrier, i. e. the transition of elements to an inactive or slightly active form, as they can accumulate not only in a slightly active, but also in an active form. It allowed us to expand the concept of geochemical barriers and define them as active barriers or starter barriers.


Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 680000, Khabarovsk, ul. Dikopol’tseva, 56, Russia
Keywords: экологические критерии устойчивого развития, физико-географические округа, анализ ланд шафтного разнообразия, пространственная структура ненарушенных ландшафтов, environmental criteria for sustainable development, physiographic districts, analysis of landscape diversity, spatial structure of undisturbed landscapes

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An analysis is made of the use of indicators of the spatial distribution dynamics for of natural geosystems in the system of modern regional environmental criteria for sustainable development. The analysis revealed the absence of indicators character izing the actual distribution and dynamics of changes in the area of disturbed lands. It is suggested that methods of landscape and geoinformation analysis should be used for a qualitative and quantitative assessment of conditionally unchanged and weakly modified geosystems. Their use is illustrated by the example of a large natural feature, the mountain system of Northern Sikhote-Alin (Khabarovsk krai). Material obtained is based on long-term field investigations and on the analysis of satellite images from different years. The scheme of physiographic zoning was developed, on which 13 physiographic districts were identified. For a complex of landscape stows of each district, quantitative characteristics of landscape diversity were calculated (relative wealth index, landscape complexity, fragmentation and uniqueness). A spatial analysis of the geosystem structure of the central, western and eastern parts of Northern Sikhote-Alin has been carried out. It was found that fires and logging have the greatest impact on the dynamics of undisturbed geosystems, especially in the northern and eastern parts of the mountain system. Analysis of satellite images from 1990-2011 revealed a change in the structure of physiographic districts, which is manifested in the fragmentation and simplification of geosystems (the Yaiskii, Tumninskii and Eastern Tumninskii districts). An irregularity of representation of specially protected areas was revealed: from 52.7 % in the Koppi-Nelminskii district to their complete absence in the Yaiskii and Tumninskii districts, and a high proportion of secondary plant communities. The suggested landscape analysis is considered as a database and a necessary element in assessing the dynamics of undisturbed land for the purposes and objectives of spatial planning.


1Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 693022, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, ul. Nauki, 1b, Russia
2Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Staromonetnyi per., 29, Russia
Keywords: volcano, caldera, lake, morphology, coastal processes, gas-hydrotherms

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New evidence for an active geological and geomorphological object, the Ksudach caldera complex, has been obtained: geomorphological and repeated bathymetric and thermal imaging surveys were conducted with a break of 25 years. For the first time, a geomorphological map of the coasts of the lakes was compiled, and detailed bathymetric schematics of their basins were drawn. Four morphogenetic types of coasts are identified, with a general predominance of abrasion processes (accumulation is dominant only in the mouths of the rivers). In Lake Stubel, an underwater extrusive dome was recorded instrumentally, about 40 m high and about 300 m in diameter of its base, with extensive underwater gas-hydrothermal vents. Most likely the morpho logical configuration of the extrusion in the relief of the bottom of the lake occurred after the surveys of 1991, and the analysis of modern gas-hydrothermal activity in the Ksudach caldera shows a relative stability of the post-volcanic processes that mani fest themselves as gas-hydrothermal vents both within the lake basins and on their shores. The depth of Lake Klyuchevoe and Lake Stubel decreased by 3 m over the last 25 years, while their linear and areal characteristics have remained almost unchanged. A gradual decrease in maximum depths can be caused by permanent input of detrital material to the deep-water part of the lakes, transported by rivers and as well as abrasion, and by planation of their bottoms. The depth of the crater part of Lake Stubel could also decrease due to the rise of the bottom areas during the formation of the extrusive domes.


V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
Keywords: федеральная целевая программа, инвестиции в основной капитал, подушевые инвестиции, кон центрация населения, агломерационный фактор, сырьевые отрасли, federal target program, fixed capital investments, per capita investments, population concentration, agglomera tion effect, resource-based industries

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An analysis is made of the investments in fixed capital at the regional and municipal level in Irkutsk oblast, the Republic of Buryatia and Zabaikalskii krai. On the basis of the average indicators considered, the conclusion is drawn about the general lag of the Baikal region from Siberia and Russia over the course of the last several decades. Population changes in municipal districts and urban okrugs have been analyzed to show a general decrease of the indicator in most of the study areas. The indi cators of average annual investments in fixed capital and average annual per capita investments are calculated. It is suggested that the municipalities of the Baikal region should be ranked according to the indicators of population change and per capita investments in fixed capital in order to estimate the relationship of these characteristics. The group has been identified, which had the highest indicators for the period under consideration with a consistently high loss of the permanent population. It is determined that the municipalities with the highest population growth did not have a high level of per capita investment. It is shown that most of them refer to the largest group in which the territories had low levels of per capita investment and did not show any stable population growth. The study revealed no correlation between the implementation of major investment projects of resource development and changes in the population dynamics of the remote territories, which is confirmed by cartographic material presented. It is concluded that there is no influence of the main investments on the structure of the economy of the Baikal region and the consolidation of the existing raw material specialization. An assessment is made of the existing federal target programs focused mainly on stimulating territorial development through the provision of comprehensive support of imple mentation of the major investment projects.


1Irkutsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontova, 134, Russia
2V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
Keywords: производственный потенциал, научно-техническое развитие, новая индустриализация, инве стиции, экспортные рынки, production potential, scientific and technological development, new industrialization, investment, export markets

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An assessment is made of the reindustrialization potential of the regions of Eastern Siberia (Krasnoyarsk krai, Zabaikalskii krai, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of Tyva, Irkutsk oblast, and Republic of Buryatia) for the time interval 2010-2014. The algorithm for calculating the index of the reindustrialization potential is suggested on the basis of consideration of its components (industrial, scientific and technological, personnel and investment). Krasnoyarsk krai holds the lead in all the aspects under consideration; it is followed by Irkutsk oblast. Of key importance is the analysis of the scientific and technological potential of the region, which implies investments in the research infrastructure that promises further technological changes, which has a significant influence on the human and investment potentials. Among the aforementioned federal subjects of Russia, Krasnoyarsk krai has the greatest opportunities for scientific and technological development. The Republic of Buryatia, due to the prevalence of mechanical engineering in the processing industry, has the highest share in the high-tech manufacturing sector. Over the years under review, the investment policy in the region has remained unchanged. The investment potential of the republics and Zabai kalskii krai is characterized by volatility because of the influence of individual investment projects against the backdrop of low investment attractiveness. Emphasis is placed on the influence of export markets, of China in particular, on the development of industrial production of the regions. The influence of the environmental factor restricting industrial development is pointed out. A decrease in the reindustrialization potential from west to east and from north to south is observed. The new industrialization projects largely involve the process of developing new sources of natural resources, rather than creating high-tech industries.


Arctic Research Center, 629007, Salekhard, ul. Respubliki, 73, Russia
Keywords: туризм и рекреация, регионы Арктики, территориальная специализация, региональное развитие, северный (арктический) туризм, дестинация, tourism and recreation, Arctic regions, territorial specialization, regional development, northern (Arctic) tour ism, destination

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We examine the current state of the tourism industry in one of the Arctic regions of Russia, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. The necessity and possibility of diversifying the economy of the resource-producing regions of the North through the promotion and development of tourism is substantiated. The main problems hindering the development of Arctic (northern) tour ism are identified. It is found that tourism, as a full-fledged sector yielding significant budget revenues of different levels, has not yet been firmly established in the Arctic zone of Russia. There are a significant disparity of tourism development, a lack of uni fied tourist space and of the integration interaction between Arctic regions as well as within separate regions. Analysis of the economic and geographical location of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug showed that there are competitive advantages of the region in the form of an advantageous transport-geographical and tourist-geographical locations. An assessment is made of the prospects for tourism development in comparison with the development of the other sectors. It is established that the infrastructure projects being implemented contribute to the development of tourism; however, the existing economic structure, oriented only toward the development of raw-material extracting industries, is a barrier to the development of tourism as one of the leading sectors of territorial specialization. As part of this research, it was possible to develop and suggest proposals for remedying the existing situation. Economic, administrative and information mechanisms are suggested, which are aimed at the formation of the tourism industry permitting a restructuring of the economy of the regions in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. It is de termined that the formation of the tourism industry has a favorable influence on employment and income of the indigenous population, primarily leading a traditional way of life. Data on the main tourist-recreational resources and their distribution in the municipalities of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug have been obtained and systematized.


1Irkutsk National Research Technical University, 664074, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontova, 83, Russia
2Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 656038, Barnaul, ul. Molodezhnaya, 1, Russia
Keywords: речной бассейн, городская территория, источники воздействий, качество речной воды, геохи мия почв, river basin, urban area, sources of impact, river water quality, soil geochemistry

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The paper gives characteristics of natural and anthropogenic factors responsible for the geoecological situation inside the boundaries of the floodplain-terrace complex of the Tuul river within Ulaanbaatar. Among them, the geological structure and orography (occurrence in the intermontane depression), the specific character of climate-forming (frequent temperature inversions) and hydrological (mainly summer feed by rain water) characteristics, the degree of economic development (high pressure on the central city zone) and population density in administrative districts, etc. have been distinguished. Results obtained from hydro- and geochemical analyses of the territory and published previously (during 2009-2013) were used in the typification of the areas of the floodplain-terrace complex of the Tuul river according to the intensity of anthropogenic impact. An analysis was made of the sources of pollution, primarily of large industrial enterprises and facilities of housing and communal services: combined heat and power plants, industrial, meat-packing and biological plants, the poultry farm, sewage treatment plants, etc. Based on a comparative analysis of average concentrations of the component composition of the river waters and floodplain soils, maximum exceedances of maximum and approximate permissible concentrations of pollutants were determined. Categories of the intensity of anthropogenic impact were identified to vary from decreased to very high. It is shown that, in spite of a high degree of geo chemical understanding of the urban territory of Ulaanbaatar, no detailed investigations have been made within the floodplain-terrace complex of the Tuul river. The first-time assessment of the geoecological status of the sites across the study territory de termined the migration routes of chemical substances and correlated their occurrence in natural environment with the sources of pollution. According to the intensity of anthropogenic impact, for each site of the floodplain-terrace complex we have suggested environmental and water protection measures. Results of the assessment are presented in the form of cartographic material.