Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia



Advanced Search

Geography and Natural Resources

2019 year, number 1

1.
SPATIAL STRUCTURES OF NATURE MANAGEMENT IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

P.Ya. BAKLANOV
Pacific Geographical Institute, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 690041, Vladivostok, ul. Radio, 7, Russia
pbaklanov@tigdvo.ru
Keywords: природные ресурсы, звенья основного природопользования, звенья сопутствующего природополь зования, "обратное" природопользование, региональное развитие, территориальная социально-экономическая система, natural resources, components of basic nature management, components of accompanying nature management, "reverse" nature management, regional development, territorial socioeconomic system

Abstract >>
Spatial structures of nature management are identified in the form of territorial combinations of extracting enterprises (installations and facilities) and resource-containing components of the geosystems connected by the process of extraction of natural resources and its withdrawal from a natural geosystem. The components of basic management (connected with extraction of the basic natural resource), accompanying (connected with extraction and removal of other resources during the extraction the basic resource) and “reverse” (in the form of change in natural-resource potential due to technogenic impacts) nature management which within a particular territory may overlap with one another. It is emphasized that nature management considered at the territorial, spatially least generalized level is always based on using a combination of natural resources, including the territory, water, air, and the like. It is suggested that regional development be also considered at the regional level in the form of the establishment and development of territorial socioeconomic systems. The main components of them are separate settlements directly connected by transport routes as well as the related spatial (territorial) structures of nature management. The scheme of a matrix model of regional development is suggested, which encompasses and reflects the settlements of territorial socioeconomic systems, the natural resources used and the components of the environment. The model provides the means of assessing structural transformations in systems, including when implementing new investment projects. The scheme of regional nature management monitoring is suggested.
																								



2.
PROBLEMS OF RATIONAL USE OF ASSOCIATED PETROLEUM GAS IN RUSSIA

L.V. EDER1,2, I.V. PROVORNAYA1,2, I.V. FILIMONOVA1,2
1Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090, Novosibirsk, pr. Akademika Koptyuga, 3, Russia
EderLV@yandex.ru
2Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk, ul. Pirogova, 1, Russia
ProvornayaIV@gmail.com
Keywords: комплексное освоение углеводородных ресурсов, нефтедобыча, направления утилизации, регио нальная структура, экологический аспект, развитие нефтегазового комплекса России, integrated development of hydrocarbon resources, oil production, directions of utilization, regional structure, ecological aspect, development of the oil and gas complex of Russia

Abstract >>
The geographical structure of associated gas production in Russian regions is considered. It is shown that the main volume of its production in Russia corresponds to Western Siberia, and the largest federal subject of Russia while the largest subject of the Russian Federation for the production of associated petroleum gas is Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra is heads the list among the federal subjects of Russia in the output of associated petroleum gas. It is found that the main increase in as sociated gas production in Russia is due to the implementation of large mining projects in the east of the country and in the north of Western Siberia. We examine the major directions of rational use of associated petroleum gas: processing at the gas process ing plant; сycling process, and energy (gas combustion in power plants for the production of electricity and heat). It is shown that the level of rational use over the past five years has increased by 10.4 %, which is due to the introduction of a system of penal ties for excess gas combustion (more than 5 %). The aspects related to the need for integrated development of hydrocarbons produced and for rational use of associated petroleum gas in particular are analyzed. Some promising directions and conditions for improving the level of effective utilization of associated petroleum gas for the regions of Russia with due regard for are inves tigated. It is shown that in the absence of economic incentives for business, the State should play a significant role in improving the efficiency of natural resources and, more specifically, the promotion of the use of new advanced technologies and instruments of state regulation, including public-private partnership.
																								



3.
POWER FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT AS THE OBJECT OF ECOLOGICAL-GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH

V.I. STURMAN
Bonch-Bruevich St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications, 193232, St. Petersburg, pr. Bol’shevikov, 22, korp. 1, Russia
st@izh.com
Keywords: электрические поля, напряженность, магнитные поля, магнитная индукция, высоковольтные линии, мониторинг, картографирование, electric fields, strength, magnetic fields, magnetic induction, high-voltage lines, monitoring, mapping

Abstract >>
The spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of power frequency electric and magnetic fields in Saint-Petersburg, Kazan, Belgorod and Petrozavodsk has been studied. It is established that electric fields of significant strengths occur near high-voltage transmission lines (HVTL) only. It is found that sanitary-protection and exclusion zones of the standard size do not always ensure a decrease in electric field strength to maximum allowable levels on their boundaries. Thus, the electric field intensity of four 4 HVTL in St. Petersburg increases due to the mass construction of multi-storey housing leading to an increase in power consumption. A dependence of the electric field strength on meteorological factors was also determined, primarily on air humidity (direct dependence), and on atmospheric pressure (indirect inverse relationship). The power frequency magnetic field produces a variable city-wide background caused by a set of sources. The more intense is the technogenic load, the higher is magnetic induction, which renders it a convenient geoindicator for mapping. Also, the indicators of magnetic induction reflect the characteristics of power networks. Abnormally high values of magnetic induction were recorded in all cities, which are explained by the influence of electric cables. No exceedances of allowable levels of magnetic induction in residential areas were observed.
																								



4.
ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS ON THE WATER RESOURCES OF THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC BASIN RIVERS

N.I. KORONKEVICH, E.A. BARABANOVA, A.G. GEORGIADI, I.S. ZAITSEVA, S.I. SHAPORENKO
Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Staromonetnyi per., 29, Russia
hydro-igras@yandex.ru
Keywords: водохранилища, водопотребление, реки и водоемы, изменение, загрязнение, качество воды, reservoirs, water consumption, rivers and water bodies, change, pollution, water quality

Abstract >>
The main anthropogenic impacts on the water resources of the rivers in the Arctic basin of Russia are considered. Five main stages of dams’ construction are outlined. The total morphometric parameters of reservoirs, the total loss of water for dead stor age filling and additional free-water-surface evaporation since the early 1940s, and the degree of regulation of the river flow are estimated. It is shown that the reservoirs had little effect on the annual river runoff of the entire Arctic basin. Much more sig nificant was the impact on its intra-annual distribution, especially in the Yenisei basin. The effect of water supply intake on the annual flow of the Arctic basin is relatively small as well. Most of the water supply intake and irrecoverable water withdrawals corresponds to Russia, but the aggregate share of Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia is also significant. Currently there occurs a significant decrease in water abstraction and irretrievable water discharge in the Arctic basin compared to the level of 1990. It is suggested that indirect anthropogenic impacts (measures of rain-fed agriculture, forestry, including forest fires of anthropo genic origin, and urbanization of the territory) influence the runoff in different directions and their impact is mutually compen sated. Water consumption and total water losses due to the combined effect of reservoirs and water consumption have also been calculated since the early 1940s till the present. As is the case with some of these impacts, their total impact on the runoff of the Arctic basin is small, but this effect can be significant in a number of areas, mainly located in its southern part. It is shown that the main negative result of anthropogenic impact is the pollution of rivers and water bodies which is especially significant in the Ob basin. The dynamics of water quality in the largest rivers over the past decades is shown, indicating that it remains unsatis factory.
																								



5.
EVALUATION OF PYROGENIC CARBON EMISSIONS ON THE TERRITORY OF SHUSHENSKII BOR NATIONAL PARK

E.A. KUKAVSKAYA1, L.V. BURYAK2, O.P. KALENSKAYA3, A.V. TOLMACHEV4, S.V. ZHILA1, A.E. BARABANCOVA4
1V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, separate subdivision of the FRC KSC SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, ul. Akademgorodok, 50, str. 28, Russia
kukavskaya@ksc.krasn.ru
2Center of Forest Pyrology, Branch of the All-Russian Research Institute of Silviculture and Mechanization of Forestry, 660062, Krasnoyarsk, ul. Krupskoi, 42, Russia
lburak@mail.ru
3M.F. Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, pr. Mira, 82, Russia
66forest@mail.ru
4Shushenskii Bor National Park, 662710, Krasnoyarsk krai, pos. Shushenskoe, ul. Lugovaya, 9, Russia
tolmachev2080@mail.ru
Keywords: запасы горючих материалов, низовые пожары, карты запасов и выхода углерода при пожарах, fuel loads, surface fires, maps of fuel loads and fire carbon emissions

Abstract >>
The map of reserves of organic matter on the soil surface was developed for the Perovskoe forestry of Shushenskii Bor National Park with a use of our ground-based data on fuel loads as well as forest inventory data on the distribution of forested lands by different categories and forest types. We compiled the maps of potential carbon emissions for different scenarios of surface fires depending on their severity. The potential carbon emissions from fires of low to moderate severity and of high severity on the territory of the entire forestry were estimated at 70.6 and 142.9 thousand tons, respectively. A significant contribution of pyrogenic emissions from peat soils was revealed. Based on official fire data from 1991 to 2016 and using the maps developed, we calculated the actual carbon emissions from fires on the study territory of National Park which amounted to 3.2 thousand tons. It was determined that the living ground cover accounted for 21 % of the total carbon emissions, with 79 % corresponding to litter and duff. The distribution of the fire carbon emissions by months of the fire season is provided. Actual annual carbon emissions due to fires averaged was 121 tons for the period studied, with 92 % emitted due to spring fires dominating the area. The results obtained could be used to forecast fire behavior and effects as well as to estimate fire impact on regional carbon budget and environmental quality.
																								



6.
ASSESSMENT OF LANDSCAPE RESILIENCE ON THE TERRITORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELGA COAL DEPOSIT

N.A. NIKOLAEVA, D.D. PINIGIN
Larionov Institute of the Physical-Technical Problems of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 677890, Yakutsk, ul. Oktyabr’skaya, 1, Russia
nna0848@mail.ru
Keywords: ландшафт, Север, многолетнемерзлые породы, оценка степени устойчивости, landscape, North, permafrost, assessment of the degree of resilience

Abstract >>
The current economic situation in Russia dictates a need for a faster implementation of large-scale energy projects in the regions of the Russian Far East. The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic occupies a special place amongst them: it is endowed with immense reserves of fuel and energy resources and is located in extreme natural and climatic conditions. We examine the environmental issue related to assessing the degree of resilience of cryogenic landscapes of Russia’s largest Elga coal deposit. Resilience of the natural complexes of the North occurring in the permafrost zone is due largely to the properties of permafrost, namely the ice content of surface deposits and permafrost temperature variability. Moreover, resilience of the permafrost landscapes undergoing mechanical disturbances is largely determined by the thermal protection function of vegetation cover. Also, their resilience is governed by variability in heat and moisture availability depending on the radiation and water balance and on biological productivity. Thus in assessing resilience of the northern landscapes undergoing mechanical disturbances, we used, analyzed and ranked a number of cryogenic and biohydroclimatic factors for their formation. Calculations revealed, in general, their relatively low resilience to technogenic pressure. It is determined that resilience will persist for upland landscapes, whereas the largest disturbances will affect the mountain-slope sparse-forest landscapes with a different degree of steepness. The mountain-slope subgoletz, piedmont-morainic and mountain-valley landscapes of the territory are categorized as relatively unresilient.
																								



7.
SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE DYNAMICS OF THE SELENGA MIDDLE MOUNTAIN (A CASE STUDY OF THE UBUR-DZOKOI HOLLOW)

E.Zh. GARMAEV, Zh.B. ALYMBAEVA, B.Z. TSYDYPOV, M.A. ZHARNIKOVA, D.O. SAYAPINA
1Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 670047, Ulan-Ude, ul. Sakhyanovoi, 8, Russia
garend1@yandex.ru
2Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, daria832@yandex.ru
Keywords: растительность, псаммофиты, Landsat, автоматизированная классификация, пространствен но-временная динамика, картографирование, vegetation, psammophytes, Landsat, automated classification, spatio-temporal dynamics, mapping

Abstract >>
We investigated the landscapes and vegetation cover of the Ubur-Dzokoi hollow of the Selenga middle mountains. It was found that according to the physical-geographical zoning, the study area is a hummocky terrain of dry steppe landscape. The geosystems of the hollow include steppe and forest-steppe communities. Barchan relief formation is due to human activities and the dynamics of the wind regime. An analysis of key morphometric parameters of hollow relief is carried out based on the SRTM digital elevation model. As a result of the automated classification of Landsat TM multispectral images with a further identification of landscape types, multitemporal (for the years 1990, 2000 and 2010) landscape maps are created. These maps are validated by field landscape and geo-botanical investigations. The algorithm of the ISODATA unsupervised classification method was used, which allows the outlines with non-contrast structure of spectral brightness to be identified. The maps show clear changes in vegetation cover, indicating a decrease in the forest area, a gradual replacement of sedge-forb steppe communities with free standing trees as well as an increase of sand deposits on unused arable and fallow lands. The spatial structure of vegetation on aeolian landforms was studied. It was concluded that their main component is psammophyte vegetation. We have made 25 geobotanical descriptions. The floristic composition of the coenocomplex includes 52 species of higher vascular plants. The ecological structure of the florocoenocomplex was identified on the basis of analyzing groups of plants in relation to the factor of soil moisture content. The method of ordination was used to determine the ecological differentiation of vegetation. To identify the spatial and structural organization of vegetation used geobotanical profiles and geobotanical descriptions of the sites, and satellite imagery. A large-scale (1:10 000) vegetation map for aeolian landforms was compiled. A correlation of the species in environmental groups showed a predominance of xerophytes (48 %).
																								



8.
CANYONS OF THE EASTERN SHORE OF SOUTHERN BAIKAL: MORPHOLOGY AND GENESIS

E.E. KONONOV1,2, O.M. KHLYSTOV1, H. MINAMI3, A.V. KAZAKOV1,2, A.G. CHENSKII4, L. NAUDTS5
1Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 3, Russia
ekon@7395.ru
2V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
kazakov.gis@gmail.com
3Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho Kitami, 090-8507 Hokkaido, Japan
minamihr@mail.kitami-it.ac.jp
4Irkutsk National Research Technical University, 664074, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontova, 83, Russia
chens-01@yandex.ru
5Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Ostende, В-8400, 3de en 23ste Linieregimentsplein, Belgium
Lieven.Naudts@naturalsciences.be
Keywords: тектоника, подводный рельеф, картирование, геоморфология, палеореконструкции, tectonics, underwater relief, mapping, geomorphology, paleoreconstructions

Abstract >>
We present new data on canyons and other morphological features of the underwater slope on the eastern coast of the southern basin of Lake Baikal obtained during high-resolution bathymetric surveys of the bottom using multibeam echosounders ELACSeaBeam 1050 and Konengsberg EM710S. Based on the array of bathymetric data generated, we have constructed a digital elevation model for which we used at once several software products responsible for individual tasks. Analysis of the digital elevation model has indicated that tectonic processes played the leading role in the creation of the main, most noticeable forms of relief on the underwater slope. These processes formed a graben-like depression to the south of the Posol’skaya Bank and tectogenic scarps at the foot of the southern slope of the depression as well as canyon-shaped valleys along the entire coast. We have determined that the unusual direction of the Posol’skii canyon across the coastal slope and the relatively small size of the fan in this canyon are due to the history of the tectonic development of this part of the shoreline: in the past, the canyon valley skirted the continental slope of the Selenga river paleodelta from the southeast, and after the formation of a younger graben-like depression it preserved the old direction of its channel. We have suggested that underwater erosion processes initiated tectonic lowering of the floor of the basin. Ultimately, this resulted in the destruction and erosion of the ancient geomorphological surfaces and formation of the ridge and hollow relief and canyon valleys that are currently at different stages of development. Landslide forms resulting from paleoseismic dislocations play a secondary, yet a significant role in the relief of the slope, which undoubtedly complicated the geomorphological surface. It is assumed that the fans created by the activities of the canyons, the ancient channels of canyons and landslide bodies may be promising for the search for hydrate-bearing structures in this part of the lake.
																								



9.
GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS FOR FORMATION OF SPRING FLOW IN THE TRANSVOLGA-URAL REGION

V.P. PETRISHCHEV1,2, Zh.T. SIVOKHIN1, A.A. CHIBILEV1
1Institute of Steppe, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 460000, Orenburg, ul. Pionerskaya, 11, Russia
orensteppe@mail.ru; wadpetr@mail.ru
2Orenburg State University, 460018, Orenburg, pr. Pobedy, 13, Russia
Keywords: модуль родникового стока, минерализация, водообильность, зональность, ярусность, кластерный анализ, modulus of spring flow, mineralization, water abundance, zonality, layering, cluster analysis

Abstract >>
We examine the conditions for formation of spring flow of the Transvolga-Ural region (within Orenburg oblast). Material in this paper summarizes data on hydrochemical parameters of more than 3000 springs in four hydrogeological provinces. To generate the database used the capabilities of the licensed version of GIS MapInfo. An analysis is made of the specific features in the manifestation of different factors for landscape differentiation in hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater outlets. This assessment involved comparing the conventional physical-geographical boundaries within Orenburg oblast with the spatial dynamics of key parameters of spring outlets: output, mineralization, elevation and the ratio of cations to anions. Among the leading factors for formation of spring flow, we identified the latitudinal zonality, the geological-geomorphological azonality and the altitudinal genetic layering. A comparison is made of the characteristics of the pings in the forest-steppe and steppe zones of Orenburg oblast as well as of the parameters of the springs for the altitudinal-genetic stages of the landscape regions of Transvolga and South Ural. An analysis is made of the factors of spring flow for hydrogeological regions and provinces of Transvolga and Southern Ural. The statements of the concept of landscape genesis for spring geosystems are outlined. For the Transvolga-Ural region the characteristic features of the distribution of hydrological and hydrochemical anomalies of the spring waters are due to the local differentiation of natural factors, such as granitoid intrusions, salt tectonics, sand massifs, red and limestone layers, hummocky terrains, and syrt and piedmont-ridge relief. Spring outlets of groundwater have an indication and reference significance for assessing the flow formation conditions, the hydromorphic features in the landscape as well as in evaluating the ecological status of surface waters in a particular region.
																								



10.
RADIOCARBON CHRONOLOGY OF HOLOCENE DEBRIS FLOWS IN THE BOGUTY RIVER VALLEY (RUSSIAN ALTAI)

R.K. NEPOP1,2, A.R. AGATOVA1,2
1Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090, Novosibirsk, pr. Akademika Koptyuga, 3, Russia
rnk@igm.nsc.ru
2Ural Federal University, 620002, Yekaterinburg, ul. Mira, 19, Russia
agatr@mail.ru
Keywords: склоновые процессы, палеоландшафты, позднечетвертичные отложения, радиоуглеродное дати рование, Юго-Восточный Алтай, голоцен, slope processes, paleolandscapes, Late Quaternary deposits, radiocarbon dating, Southeastern Altai, Holocene

Abstract >>
Comprehensive geological-geomorphological and geochronological investigations were made into the post-glacial dynamics of landscapes in the Boguty depression which is the eastern branch of Russian Altai’s largest Chuya depression. The main stages of landscape evolution and climate changes in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene are outlined. It is established that in spite of the arid climate dominating this part of Altai, debris flows occurred among the processes transforming the slopes of the deglaciated valleys, within the western macroslope of Chikhachev Range surrounding the Boguty depression. We studied seven profiles of Lower Quaternary deposits of a different genesis with chronomarkers (paleosoils, peats, gyttjas and charcoals) and obtained 18 radiocaron dates. Data obtained indicate that there was no land ice-sheet within the Boguty depression 14 ka already. It is established that the climate of the first half of the Holocene was warmer and more humid when compared with today’s climate, and forest vegetation grew in the now treeless valley for a long period of time. The latter half of the Holocene is, in general, characterized by a colder climate and by a progressive aridization. New radiocarbon dates allowed us to reconstruct the Holocene chronology of large debris flows occurring within the study area about 8000-7000, 2900-1000, 650 and 300 cal BP. The last large debris flow occurred in 2017. In addition to climatic factors, such as permafrost degradation and snowmelt, one of the triggers of debris flows in the region can be earthquakes.
																								



11.
GEOSYSTEMS OF EASTERN SAYAN (OKINSKII DISTRICT, REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA)

O.A. IMETKHENOV
East Siberian State University of Technology and Management, 670013, Ulan-Ude, ul. Klyuchevskaya, 40v, Russia
Imetchenov@rambler.ru
Keywords: Восточный Саян, округ, геом, группы фаций, ландшафтная карта, Eastern Sayan, district, geom, groups of facies, landscape map

Abstract >>
This article discusses the geosystems of Eastern Sayan within the Okinskii district of the Republic of Buryatia from the standpoint of V.B. Sochava’s theory of geosystems. The Okinskii district is the southwesternmost region of Buryatia. It extends over 190 km from north to south and over 294 km from west to east. The territory of the district is located almost in the center of the Eurasian continent and at significant distance from the oceans: nearly 2900 km from the Taimyr Peninsula of the Arctic Ocean, 3800 km from the Kuril Islands of the Pacific, and nearly 6 thou km from the Scandinavian Peninsula of the Atlantic. The air masses forming over these oceans occasionally reach the territory of the region and have their influence on climatic conditions. In the study area, the geoms level is represented by certain types of geoms and groups of facies located in them. By using these categories, it was possible to identify the unity of relationships on the same site between the lithological substrate, the structure of the relief, soil cover, climatic and hydrological indicators and vegetation. On the basis of the generally accepted graphical model of the hierarchy of geosystems of the Baikal region, using the literary-cartographic method, the technique of key areas, remote sensing as well as field research material, some features of the landscape structure are revealed and a systematic list of geosystems of Eastern Sayan is compiled at the topological level with the description of geoms. The particular groups of facies with occurrence of forest fires were determined. The landscape map of the study area at a scale of 1:1 000 000 is presented.
																								



12.
DEBRIS FLOW MORPHOLITHOGENESIS IN THE CENTRAL PART OF THE SAYAN-BAIKAL STANOVOI HIGHLANDS

S.A. MAKAROV, A.A. CHERKASHINA
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
makarov@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: водокаменный сель, паводок, взвешенные и влекомые наносы, голоцен, радиоуглеродный возраст, погребенные почвы, water-rock flow, flood, suspended and tractional load, Holocene, radiocarbon dates, buried soils

Abstract >>
Presented are the results from studying tractional and suspended load formed during the debris flows and floods within the basins of small rivers in the central part of the Sayan-Baikal Stanovoi Highlands. In studying deposits of suspended and tractional load exposed by profiles on alluvial fans, the age of the debris flow event was determined by radiocarbon dating of organic matter of buried soils. The turbidity of the flow, its speed, water discharge, pH, total mineralization of water and mudflow suspensions, and particle size distribution of suspended matter were estimated for suspended load as part of the research. With a normal and reduced runoff, the water in the rivers of the central part of the Sayan-Baikal Stanovoi Highlands is transparent and clean. Visible turbidity of water appears with the formation of a high water resulting from atmospheric precipitation and snowmelt. In the rivers under investigation, the turbidity at the peak of the flood or debris flow was about 7 thou g/m 3 , with the maximum turbidity not exceeding 25 thou g/m 3 (the Slyudyanka river, 1960). The particle size of suspended matter varied from silt sand to heavy sandy loam and light loam. The research has shown that suspended load, along with tractional load, plays a significant role in the formation of accumulative landforms. This is especially evident in the lower parts of the cones, where they are able to be deposited as layers reaching several meters.
																								



13.
CENTRAL EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES IN THE FOREST ECOSYSTEMS OF VOLCANIC ISLANDS OF THE NORTHWESTERN PACIFIC

E.G. KOLOMYTS
Institute of Ecology of Volga Basin, Russian Academy of Sciences, 445003, Tolyatti, ul. Komzina, 10, Russia
egk2000@mail.ru
Keywords: биосфера, островные лесные экосистемы, структура, продуктивность, биологический круго ворот, эмпирико-статистическое моделирование, biosphere, insular forest ecosystems, structure, productivity, biological cycle, empirical-statistical modeling

Abstract >>
Data of large-scale landscape-ecological survey performed on the test ground in the vicinity of the Mendeleev Volcano (Kunashir Island, South Kuril Ridge) were used for empirical-statistical modeling of forest ecosystems characterizing one of the initial stages of geological history of the continental biosphere formation in the Pacific Mobile Belt. The causal mechanisms for the lowering of the boundaries of altitudinal bioclimatic belts and the southward shift of natural zones on extratropical Neo-Pacific islands compared to the neighboring continent were revealed. The evolutionary significance of the insular-arc bioclimatic system is characterized. Two phenomena of structural-functional organization of the Mendeleev volcanic landscape have been revealed. First, there is an exceptionally high system-forming role of forest phytobiota in the formation and development of young volcanic landscapes. The forest communities of the insular Neo-Pacific in the south of the boreal belt are characterized by an annual turnover of plant matter falling into the category of intensive metabolism and being typical only of subtropical forests by the zonal standards. Second, the intense annual turnover of the above-ground phytobiota and the high rate of the entire biological cycle in the southern Kunashir landscapes are the main factors of their stability under the conditions of “cold” oceanicity and, together with magmatic geotherms, contribute to the formation of subboreal “climatically unjustified” forests. The energy bases of productivity of forest communities of the insular-arc Neo-Pacific have been analyzed as a focus of local and regional diversity of terrestrial ecosystems, which develops further on the continent. The mechanisms of formation (at the topological level) of new intrazonal types of ecological systems, which serve as the driving force of evolutionary processes, have been revealed. It is shown that evolutionary tendencies in plant cover emerge already at the initial, volcanogenic stage of formation of the continental biosphere.
																								



14.
SOCIO-CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS FOR TERRITORIAL VARIABILITY IN LIFE EXPECTANCY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

A.V. IGNATOV, P.L. POPOV, A.A. TCHERENEV
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, 664033, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
ignatov@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: факторы влияния, статистические связи, аномальные регионы, стохастическое моделирование, гендерные различия, influence factors, statistical relationships, anomalous regions, stochastic modeling, gender differences

Abstract >>
The relations of life expectancy of people to different socio-economic characteristics in 82 subjects of the Russian Federation are investigated. All controlled parameters of the regions are divided into eight thematic groups. Each of them describes a corresponding complex factor: “Economy”, “Offenses”, “Education and Science”, etc. The dependencies of life expectancy on various factors and parameters describing them for men and women are analyzed separately. It has been established that the territorial variability of life expectancy is statistically more strongly influenced by factors leading to death or significant health deterioration, mainly at a young age. Such factors are crimes against the person, infectious and parasitic diseases and abortions. The most significant predictor of life expectancy in both men and women is the infliction of intentional grievous bodily harm. Other parameters according to the significance of influence are ranked in men and women in different sequences. This fact suggests a possible difference in the mechanisms that form the territorial variability in life expectancy for different genders. Regions characterized by a higher level of religiosity and quality of school education (especially in mathematics) also have a statistically significant deviation of life expectancy toward its increase. It is found that the economic characteristics of the regions, the characteristics of nutrition, alcohol consumption and demography are, to a lesser degree, associated with territorial variability in life expectancy. However, some tendency of positive influence of the level of economic development on life expectancy can be noted. Regions in which the values of a number of parameters essentially drop out of the all-Russian patterns are identified.
																								



15.
METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH AT THE MUNICIPALITIES LEVEL (A CASE STUDY OF ARKHANGELSK OBLAST)

D.O. DUSHKOVA, V.S. TIKUNOV, O.Yu. CHERESHNYA
Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow, Russia
kodiana@mail.ru
Keywords: качество жизни, заболеваемость, благосостояние, здравоохранение, Россия, quality of life, morbidity, human well-being, public health services and health protection, Russia

Abstract >>
We suggest the technique for assessing public health using the authors‘ assessment algorithm of classifcation at the level of municipalities of the Russian Federation. As the model region, we used Arkhangelsk oblast as one of the most promising regions for economic development not only within the Russian Arctic but also of the entire country. Arkhangelsk oblast is the largest region of the European North of the Russian Federation in terms of the territorial population size. Moreover, a large number of sources of negative antrhopogenic impact on the environment are concentrated on its territory, and their correlations with the increased morbidity rates in the oblast’s population were revealed. We determined additional negative factors affecting public health in the last decade: migration outflow, a decline in the share of the working-age population, consequences of climate change, etc. The index takes into account experience of related assessment techniques and seeks to minimize the indicators used in order to focus on the most important of them and ease interpretation of results for decision-makers. The index was developed by using only official statistical data in order to avoid distortions caused by subjective estimations. A calculation of the index is based on the selected quantitative indicators which are simple but most fully reflect the key parameters determining public health. Arkhan gelsk oblast has been used as an example to demonstrate the way in which this technique can be used for the purpose of impro ving the quality of public health monitoring at the municipal level.
																								



16.
MAIN DIRECTIONS AND PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE MINERALS AND RAW MATERIALS SECTOR IN THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA

Z.B.-D. DONDOKOV1, L.V. POTAPOV1, E.V. KISLOV2
1Department of Regional Economic Research, Buryat Scientific Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 670047, Ulan-Ude, ul. Sakhyanovoi, 8, Russia
dzorikto@mail.ru
2Geological Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 670047, Ulan-Ude, ul. Sakhyanovoi, 6a, Russia
evg-kislov@ya.ru
Keywords: минерально-сырьевой комплекс, Бурятия, негативные явления, байкальский фактор, золото, полиметаллы, уран, minerals and raw materials complex, Buryatia, negative phenomena, Baikal factor, gold, polymetals, uranium

Abstract >>
An analysis is made of the distinctive features in the formation and development of the minerals and raw materials sector of the Republic of Buryatia which hamper its advancement. It is shown that it is a traditional branch of the region’s economy endowed with a large number of deposits of diverse raw materials, yet their industrial development is inadequate. It is determined that, along with the adverse conjuncture, the crisis phenomena, lack of funds, a severe climate, seismicity, difficult topography and a weak infrastructure have a negative influence. A critical impediment in the form of special ecological requirements in the Baikal natural territory is analyzed. A number of measures which would strengthen a further development of the minerals and raw materials complex of Buryatia are suggested. In the near future there is a need to revive the reproduction of the raw materials base in gold mining, launch the Ozernoe deposit and to start large-scale development of the Khiagda uranium ore field.
																								



17.
AGROECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND MAPPING OF LANDS IN THE UPPER ANGARA REGION

E.L. MAKARENKO
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
elmakarenko@bk.ru
Keywords: агроэкологическое картографирование, адаптивно-ландшафтное земледелие, рациональное землепользование, урожайность, бонитет почв, agroecological mapping, adaptive landscape agriculture, rational land use, crop productivity, soil quality

Abstract >>
A rationale is provided for the need for agroecological assessment of lands which serves as a framework to establish new systems of adaptive farming developed for the purpose of rationalizing land use and implemented in land management. An analysis is made of the existing structure and status of agricultural lands in the Upper Angara region (as exemplified by the Irkutskii district of Irkutsk oblast). An agroecological assessment of land has been made to identify their agroecological potential. The analysis identified agroecological groups of lands differing by a number of natural and agro-economic features. The assessment took into account indicators, such as soil fertility, soil response to agri-cultural use, characteristics of the occurrence of soils depending on topography, steepness of slopes, and agricultural crop yields (such as wheat and forage grasses). The findings of research relying mainly on various cartographic products were used in developing and compiling the assessment and recommendation map at the scale of 1:200 000. The map provides insight into the location of agroecological groups of soils with particular properties, their potential use for particular types of agricultural lands, productivity of crops and agroecological features of soils under cultivation and undergoing appropriate agromeliorative measures to prevent negative processes, and to maintain and improve soil fertility. It determined that the entire agro-potential of the territory is concentrated in its central part, an active socio-economic development of which leads to the withdrawal of valuable agricultural lands from turnover. Large areas of the eastern and southern parts of the territory are not suitable for potential farming, with the exception of relatively planate areas of lands near settlements which can be used for grazing (in the forest) and haymaking.
																								



18.
GEOECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-MINING AREAS (A CASE STUDY OF THE NOVOKUZNETSKII DISTRICT, KEMEROVO OBLAST)

S.G. PLATONOVA1, T.O. STREL’NIKOVA2, V.V. SKRIPKO1,3, A.A. ADAM1,3, Yu.M. TSIMBALEI1
1Institute for Water and Environmental problems, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 656038, Barnaul, ul. Molodezhnaya, 1, Russia
sgplatonova@mail.ru
2nstitute of Human Ecology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 650065, Kemerovo, Leningradskii prospect, 10, Russia
strelnikova21@yandex.ru
3Altai State University, 656038, Barnaul, pr. Lenina, 611, Russia
skripko@inbox.ru
Keywords: геоэкологическая стабильность, угледобывающий район, антропогенная преобразованность, ус тойчивость ландшафтов, ГИС-технологии, geoecological stability, the coal-mining district, anthropogenic transformation, landscape sustainability, GIS technologies

Abstract >>
For characterizing the environmental status of mining areas, a geoecological assessment procedure was proposed, which was tested using the case of the Novokuznetskii district of Kemerovo oblast. Twenty-two landscapes forming part of three provinces in the Salair Kuznetsk Alatau mountain region dominated by forest landscapes of low mountains were used as operational territorial units of the environment analysis. The geoecological assessment of geosystems involved using ArcGIS-based comparison (in a matrix form) of the degree of anthropogenic transformation and sustainability of landscapes. For each of the eight types and categories of lands identified from analyzing satellite images and thematic maps, with the region’s mining specialization taken into account, we determined the value of the coefficient of anthropogenic transformation. On the basis of the schematic map developed for the structure of economic use, for each landscape contour we calculated the area-weighted mean coefficient of anthropogenic transformation. For the Novokuznetskii district, landscapes of three levels of geoecological stability were identified: relatively stable, stable and very stable. On the whole, within the Novokuznetskii district the largest proportion corresponds to watershed slope landscapes of Kuznetsk Alatau with fir-aspen chern taiga and the valleys of small rivers and brooks distinguished by a very stable geoecological state (66.8 % of the area). The algorithm developed for geoecological assessment is quite versatile and can be applied to territories of other hierarchical levels.
																								



19.
MICROZONAL GEOMORPHOLOGICAL LANDSCAPE DIFFERENTIATION AND THE DEGREE OF SERIALITY OF TOPOGEOSYSTEMS

A.A. FROLOV, A.K. CHERKASHIN
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
f-v1984@mail.ru
Keywords: микрозональная структура ландшафта, серийность геосистем, ярусность рельефа, относи тельная высота, Южное Прибайкалье, microzonal landscape structure, seriality of geosystems, layering of relief, relative altitude, Southern Cisbaikalia

Abstract >>
An analysis is made of the landscape-forming role of relief, its influence on the formation of the landscape structure of the territory in its dynamic interpretation, i.e. the structure of the radical and variable states of topogeosystems. We examine and compare the concepts of the geomorphological (altitudinal levels, layered structure of relief, and slope microzonality) and factoral dynamic (factoral seriality, radical, semiradical and serial facies) approaches to investigating geosystems on the territory of a tableland. The property of geosystems seriality is considered from the factoral-dynamic perspective where the factoral seriality is determined by the nature of influence of local factors on the topogeosystem (excessive moisture, rock outcrops, etc.), while the dynamic properties are connected with the strength of factorial influence determining the degree of deviation of a particular topogeosystem from a radical geosystem. The relative altitude in this context is considered as an indicator of the degree of deviation of the characteristics of a particular topogeosystem from a radical geosystem, i.e. as the indicator of the degree and type of factoral seriality. Using the Olkha Plateau (area of Southern Cisbaikalia) as an example we carried out a comparative investigation into the microzonal geomorphological structure of landscapes and the seriality of geosystems resulting from the modifying influence of various factors. The map for the areas of groups of facies obtained by the method of geosystem mapping with the use of Earth remote sensing data was compared with data of comprehensive route investigations and with the schematic map of the microzonal structure of landscapes calculated in terms of a digital terrain model using data on the relative altitude of the location and the steepness of slopes. The linkage as identified between the microzonal landscape differentiation and the topogeosystems seriality is ambiguous. This is explained by the existence of a large number of local factors shielding a direct influence of the relief on geosystems, which leads to an increase in landscape diversity.
																								



20.
MODELING RUNOFF FORMATION PROCESSES IN THE HIGH-MOUNTAIN PERMAFROST ZONE OF EASTERN SIBERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SUNTAR-KHAYATA RANGE)

O.M. MAKARIEVA1,2, N.V. NESTEROVA3,4, L.S. LEBEDEVA5, T.A. VINOGRADOVA3,6
1Melnikov Permafrost Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9, Russia
omakarieva@gmail.com
2St. Petersburg State University
3St. Petersburg State University, 199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9, Russia
nnesterova1994@gmail.com
4State Hydrological Institute, 199004, St. Petersburg, Tretya liniya, 23, Russia
5Melnikov Permafrost Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 677010, Yakutsk, ul. Merzlotnaya, 36, Russia
lyudmilaslebedeva@gmail.com
6Gidrotehproyekt Ltd, 199178, St. Petersburg, Chetyrnadtsataya liniya Vasilievskogo ostrova, d. 97, lit. A, pom. 3-N, Russia
vinograd1950@mail.ru
Keywords: высокогорная станция Сунтар-Хаята, гидрологическая модель "Гидрограф", многолетняя мерз лота, зависимость осадков от высоты местности, водный баланс, стокоформирующий комплекс, Suntar-Khayata high-mountain station, Hydrograph hydrological model, permafrost, elevation-dependence of precipitation, water balance, runoff formation complex

Abstract >>
Methods have been developed for modeling hydrological processes for various mountain landscapes of the permafrost zone having regard to the influence of variable states and water-thermal regime of the active layer on the runoff formation processes which are applicable in conditions of an extreme insufficiency of observational data. The catchment of the Suntar river (7680 km 2 , elevation range 830-2794 m, continuous permafrost zone, upper reaches of the Indigirka river basin) was used as the object for study. For modeling purposes, the Suntar River basin was schematized into four runoff formation landscapes: the goletz complex, the belt of mountain tundra, taiga, swampy woodlands and meadow bogs. Based on observational data from the Suntar-Khayata high-mountain station within the program of the International Geophysical Year (1957-1959), we developed the parameters in terms of Hydrograph hydrological model describing the runoff formation processes in the high-mountain goletz zone (elevation >1900 m). Results from modeling the characteristics of snow cover, temperature of ground at different depths in the goletz zone and streamflow hydrograph in the outlet section of the Suntar river showed a good agreement with observational data. Model calculations made it possible to estimate the mеan long-term values of the water balance elements for different landscapes and their contribution to runoff formation as well as to suggest updates of the reference values of mеan long-term precipitation and evaporation for the study area. It is shown that the Hydrograph model is applicable for modeling the thermal state of soils and runoff formation processes on scales from a single soil column to an average-scale river basin in the mountain permafrost zone where information is insufficient.
																								



21.
INFLUENCE OF WATER VAPOR DIFFUSION ON HEAT TRANSFER IN SNOW COVER

A.V. SOSNOVSKIY, N.I. OSOKIN
Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Staromonetnyi per., 29, Russia
alexandr_sosnovskiy@mail.ru
Keywords: коэффициент теплопроводности, плотность, снежный покров, температура, математическое моделирование, thermal conductivity coefficient, density, snow cover, temperature, mathematical modeling

Abstract >>
An assessment is made of the influence of water vapor diffusion on heat transfer in snow cover in terms of the mathemati cal model of heat transfer and taking into acc ount the diffusion of water vapor and sublimation/condensation. It is established that a consideration of the water vapor diffusion increases the penetration depth of the cold front with a temperature of -1 ° С by 20-30 and 33-43 % in the snow mass with a density of 250 and 180 kg/m 3 , respectively. A characteristic of the influence of temperature and snow density on heat transfer due to the water vapor diffusion is provided. When the temperature increases from -25 to -1 ° C, the proportion of the heat transfer in snow cover due to the water vapor diffusion increases from 9 to 45 % in the snow with 150 kg/m 3 , and from 3 to 21 % in the snow with density 400 kg/m 3 . It was found that the snow density largely determines the value of the coefficient of effective thermal conductivity, whereas meanwhile the penetration depth of the temperature front into the snow weakly depends on snow density. This is due to a slight change of the thermal diffusivity coef ficient of the snow with a change in density. Generalized dependencies of the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the snow are presented, and a comparison of them with other formulas is made. The dependence obtained for the highest values of the thermal conductivity coefficient corresponds to the values of thermal conductivity at the snow temperature of -1 ° C; the snow temperature lies between -10 and -12 ° C for mean values. Calculations from the dependence for the smallest values of the thermal conduc tivity coefficient largely coincide with estimations based on M. Sturm’s formula of M. Sturm for granular snow.