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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2021 year, number 4

1.
Shift of vibrational bands upon isotope substitution in molecules

A.D. Bykov, B.A. Voronin, A.S. Dudaryonok, E.R. Polovtseva
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: isotopic shift of vibrational levels, Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory, summation of divergent series of perturbation theory

Abstract >>
High-order Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory and series summation by the Pade-Hermit approximants are used to calculate the vibrational energy levels of isotopically substituted molecules. As an example, the levels of water isotopologues are calculated. It is found that the perturbation series diverge in the cases of both hydrogen by deuterium or tritium substitution and "heavy" oxygen atom (O16->O18) substitution. However, the use of the Pade-Hermit approximants makes it possible to calculate the isotopic level shifts quite accurately for any isotope substitution, both preserving the symmetry of the molecule and reducing it.
																								



2.
Nonpolynomial representation of N2-, O2-, air-, and self-broadening coefficients of ozone lines

V.I. Starikov1, S.N. Mikhailenko2
1Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: ozone molecule, spectral line broadening, nonpolynomial representation

Abstract >>
The parameters of a nonpolynomial analytical model γ (sur) are determined from the fitting of the known experimental data on the N2-, O2-, air-, and self-broadening coefficients of the ozone absorption lines. The model gives a finite value for the coefficients γ in asymptotic. The average accuracy of experimental data description is better than 3% for several thousand lines with quantum numbers up to J = 60. The results of the calculations based on the model suggested are compared to the results obtained using polynomial representations for the broadening coefficients.
																								



3.
Atmospheric research for adaptive optics problems

L.A. Bolbasova, V.P. Lukin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: adaptive optics, atmospheric optical turbulence, site testing, measurement methods

Abstract >>
Adaptive optics (AO) systems are an essential part of large astronomical telescopes and laser complex operating through the atmosphere. Each AO system is individually designed; the requirements for the elements and the capabilities of an AO system are determined by the intensity and distribution of turbulent fluctuations of the air refractive index over the radiation propagation path. In this paper, we overview the techniques and means for measuring and forecasting atmospheric conditions for AO problems, including those developed at IAO SB RAS. The basic principles of atmospheric adaptive optics and the atmospheric parameters used are briefly described. Particular attention is paid to the parameter introduced for estimating usability of AO systems, i.e., the wind speed at a level of 200 hPa; the comparison with the data from foreign astronomical observatories is carried out. The need in atmospheric research for large Russian astronomical observatories is discussed.
																								



4.
Effect of specular high-level clouds on scattered solar radiation fluxes at the zenith

I.D. Bryukhanov1,2, S.V. Zuev3, I.V. Samokhvalov1
1National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
3Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: high-level clouds, anomalous backscattering, oriented ice crystals, polarization lidar, backscattering phase matrix, zenith pyranometer, diffuse solar radiation

Abstract >>
The technique and results of a complex experiment on studying the effect of high-level clouds (HLCs) on the scattered solar radiation flux are described. The optical characteristics (scattering ratio, optical depth, and backscattering phase matrix) and geometric characteristics (the lower and upper boundary altitudes and vertical thickness) of clouds were estimated based on the lidar data, and the scattered solar radiation flux in the zenith direction was measured with a pyranometer. It is shown that specular HLCs, i.e., consisting of preferably horizontally oriented ice crystals, significantly reduce the fluxes of scattered solar radiation incident on the Earth’s surface in comparison with HLCs with approximately the same optical depth, but with chaotically orientated particles.
																								



5.
Turbulent mixing of total ozone content and aerosol loading of the stratosphere

O.E. Bazhenov1, A.V. Nevzorov1, N.S. Salnikova1, A.V. Elnikov2, V.A. Loginov2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Surgut State University, Surgut, Russia
Keywords: time series, stratosphere, integrated aerosol backscattering coefficient, total ozone content, Fourier transform, inertial turbulence scale

Abstract >>
We present the time series of the total ozone content and integrated aerosol backscattering coefficient in the stratosphere obtained at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk. Annual harmonics are distinctly manifested in the frequency spectra of energies of these time series, as well as the semiannual component in ozone time series. Representation of the frequency spectra of both stratospheric constituents on a logarithmic scale made it possible to identify in these spectra the intervals, characteristic for turbulent motion and, hence, cascade energy transfer from larger to smaller eddies and, in particular, in the energy spectrum of the total ozone content. However, the slope of the linear interval is not -1.67, as it would in obedience to the Kolmogorov-Obukhov law, but smaller (-1.22), indicating the presence of an additional energy source which contributes to the frequency variations in the total ozone content.
																								



6.
Influence of aerosol and clouds on characteristics of the underlying surface, measured by Sentinel-2A in lower Volga region

K.M. Firsov1, T.Yu. Chesnokova2, A.A. Razmolov1
1Volgograd State University, Volgograd, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric radiative transfer, spectral brightness, aerosol, cirrus clouds, satellite radiometer

Abstract >>
A broadband model for simulation of the transfer of shortwave solar radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere for spectral channels of radiometers placed in Sentinel-2A satellites is developed. This model is based on line - by - line calculations of absorption spectra with use of modern spectroscopic information and following parameterization of the transmission functions of radiation in the form of short exponent series, which allows one to apply standard method of discrete ordinates to solution of the radiative transfer equation for each exponential component. The errors in the spectral brightness coefficients of the surface due to uncertainties of aerosol extinction in Sentinel-2A channels are estimated for typical optical-meteorological conditions of the lower Volga region.
																								



7.
Surface ozone concentration over the Russian territory in the second half of 2020

V.V. Andreev1, M.Yu. Arshinov2, B.D. Belan2, S.B. Belan2, D.K. Davydov2, V.I. Demin3, N.F. Elansky4, G.S. Zhamsueva5, A.S. Zayakhanov5, G.A. Ivlev2, A.V. Kozlov2, S.N. Kotel’nikov6, I.N. Kuznetsova7, V.A. Lapchenko8, E.A. Lezina9, O.V. Postylyakov4, D.E. Savkin2, I.A. Senik4, E.V. Stepanov6, G.N. Tolmachev2, A.V. Fofonov2, I.V. Chelibanov10, V.P. Chelibanov10, V.V. Shirotov11, K.A. Shukurov4
1Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
3Polar Geophysical Institute, Apatity, Russia
4A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
5Institute of Physical Material Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Ulan-Ude, Russia
6Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
7Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, Moscow, Russia
8T.I. Vyazemsky Karadag scientific station - nature reserve RAN, Feodosiya, Russia
9Mosjekomonitoring, Moscow, Russia
10Instrument-making enterprise "OPTEK", St. Petersburg, Russia
11Russian Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Research and Production Association "Typhoon", Obninsk, Kaluga Region, Russia
Keywords: atmosphere, air, concentration, ozone, maximum permissible concentration, surface layer

Abstract >>
The review provides information on ozone concentration in the surface air layer in the second half of 2020. Data were obtained at 13 stations located in different regions of Russia. An assessment was made of the excess of hygienic standards established in the Russian Federation, both in the second half of the year and in the whole 2020. It is shown that the daily average maximum permissible concentration of ozone is regularly exceeded at all stations. There are cases of exceeding the one-time maximal maximum permissible concentration.
																								



8.
Evaluation of the efficiency of laser excitation of phosphorus oxide molecules

S.M. Bobrovnikov, E.V. Gorlov, V.I. Zharkov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: absorption spectrum, phosphorus oxide

Abstract >>
The vibrational and rotational terms of the X2Π and A2+ electronic states of the PO molecule have been calculated, as well as the absorption spectrum corresponding to the transition A2+(ν'=0;J')-X2Π(ν"=0;J") is calculated. The efficiency of laser excitation of PO molecules is estimated as a function of the spectral parameters of the radiation.