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Geography and Natural Resources

2021 year, number 1

1.
GEOSYSTEMS AND THE GEOGRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENT

A.K. Cherkashin
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
Keywords: representation of geographical knowledge, vector model, environmental approach, Gausss principle of least constraint, geosystem field equations, statistical analysis of stationary data

Abstract >>
A vector model of the relationship between geosystems and the geographical environment is proposed. Based on Gausss principle of least constraint (deviation), a representation of a geosystem is formed as a set (layer) of changed states that differ minimally from the invariant characteristics of the state of the corresponding environment. The geographical environment as a variety of terrestrial environments has a relief expression in the form of an integrating and evaluation function of many variables. Geographical characteristics of geosystems consist of a constant environment-dependent vector component and a free vector of azonal factor variability, which expresses the measure of constraint (nondeterminism). Minimization of this vector relative to the elements of the environments diversity leads to differential equations of the vector geosystem field - a representation of geographical data and knowledge in the space of characteristics that locally has a universal symmetry, which allows us to compare geographical processes and phenomena on a single basis. The resulting relations are explained by the properties of the known geographical models and concepts that are in a dual relationship: objects and subjects of research, factors and conditions of influence, laws and regularities of interaction, and so on. External (exo-) and internal (endo-) environments are selected and taken into account when calculating the equations. The results are illustrated by the example of pre-formation of spatial information obtained by the method of complex ordination, with verification of the hypothesis of environmental homogeneity and territorial integrity of dark coniferous taiga sites at different stages of endogenous dynamics of facies of a subhydromorphic factor series. It is concluded that the relationships of geosystems and their endo- and exo-environments should be taken into account when processing landscape research data, mathematical modeling, and synthetic mapping of territories.
																								



2.
THE FEATURES OF FORMATION AND FUNCTIONING PRINCIPLES OF OIL AND GAS FIELD TEHNOGEOSYSTEMS

K.V. Myachina1, V.P. Petrishchev1, A.A. Chibilev1, E.V. Krasnov2
1Institute of Steppe, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 460000, Orenburg, ul. Pionerskaya, 11, Russia
2Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236016, Kaliningrad, ul. A. Nevskogo, 14, Russia
Keywords: oil and gas production, steppe landscapes, technogeosystems of oil and gas field, principle of stadiality, change of invariant

Abstract >>
We authors characterize the stadial structure of the formation of technogeosystems of oil and gas fields (TGSOGF) based on field and laboratory studies using remote sensing data from 12 key study plots within of oil and gas fields in the Volga-Ural steppe region. It is suggested that TGSOGF should be considered to mean a complete set of modified natural components and technological facilities that function as a single whole in the process of development of an oil and gas field. Two main principles of formation and functioning of TGSOGF were highlighted. One principle implies temporal stadiality of development determined by the period of development of the field and by the level (variety) of technogenic load on the landscape. The other principle is the reversible and irreversible transformation of landscape components, leading to a change in mutual physical-energy connections of its vertical and horizontal structures. The diffuse-linear distribution of structural links of oil and gas fields forms a specific space of technogenic influence, characterized by the overlap, intersection, and combination of the influence zones of oil and gas production facilities. There are five stages of the initial landscape transformation with varying degrees of involvement of components in the transformation process. The initial landscape structure includes a technogenic block, including with the irreversible introduction of structures of liquidated and/or temporarily closed wells at the final stage of field development. Thus the equifinality is manifested, which means the completion of the oil and gas production process, which is equivalent for landscapes, and the natural invariant is replaced by a natural-technogenic one. Analysis of the characteristics and identification of regularities of functioning of oil and gas fields gave rise to the proposed concept of the formation of TGSOGF, the rationale for optimization of oil and gas fields nature management with respect to the system development principles and stages of TGSOGF.
																								



3.
SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE POPULATION AGE STRUCTURE OF ASIAN RUSSIA AND NEIGHBORING TERRITORIES

V.G. Ayusheeva1, V.S. Batomunkuev1, N.R. Zangeeva1, N.V. Emelianova2
1Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 670047, Ulan-Ude, ul. Sakhyanovoi, 6, Russia
2V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
Keywords: age structure of the population, spatial analysis, classification, demographic development, transboundary region

Abstract >>
We examine the age structure of the population as one of the main indicators that characterize the dynamics of demographic potential development. On the basis of a statistical analysis (2010-2019), an assessment is made of the age structure of the population of Asian Russia and neighboring territories of Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China. Cartographic representation of the spatial and demographic dynamics used the triple coding method. This method is based on a triangular Pere diagram where demographic parameters are synthesized and have their own colour code. The color scale of age structures of the population is represented as follows: yellow - population older than the employable age; blue - employable; and purple - younger than the employable age. On the basis of the results obtained, we suggest a classification of the regional age structure of the population in the Asian part of Russia and border regions of Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China and generated schematic maps to visualize spatio-temporal changes in the demographic structure of the population in the regions considered. The research indicates that the triple coding method is complete and informative and has an applications significance for practical purposes.
																								



4.
RURAL TOURISM: FROM GEOGRAPHICAL CONSTRUCTS TO MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT

A.I. Zyrianov1, V.A. Semiglazova2
1Perm State University, 614990, Perm, ul. Bukireva, 15, Russia
2Don State Technical University, 344003, Rostov-on-Don, pl. Gagarina, 1, Russia
Keywords: territorial socio-economic system, territorial design, countryside, geo-situation, models of rural tourism, Rostov oblast

Abstract >>
Theoretical constructs of economic and recreational geography are identified, which could reflect the specifics of regional rural tourism. In this regard, the usefulness of using classical economic and geographical constructs is emphasized: territorial socio-economic system, countryside and geosystem. It is suggested that rural tourism in the Russian regions may develop according to certain models. Which are directly dependent on the natural resource, production and spiritual and other subsystems of the territorial socio-economic system. Attention is paid to the development of a methodological approach to assessing resource potential, because it has not received proper development. It has been shown that increased research in this area has contributed to the recourse to economic categories. To assess the resource potential of rural tourism, it is proposed to use the index of concentration of resource potential. The proposed theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of resource potential for the organization of rural tourism are tested by the example of municipal districts of Rostov oblast. The selection of this southern territory is due to the socio-economic efficiency of the development of rural tourism in typical agricultural regions and the suitable potential of rural areas without a clearly pronounced coastal-beach and medical-mineral specialization. Based on this approach, a typology of municipal districts of Rostov oblast was carried out and conclusions were drawn about the resource component of the rural area of Rostov oblast for organizing rural tourism. It was found that Rostov oblast is a multi-resource territory for the organization of rural tourism and diverse models of the development of rural tourism based on both the production and spiritual spheres apply to rural areas.
																								



5.
ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION AS ONE OF THE FACTORS OF THE NON-CARCINOGENIC RISK TO HUMAN HEALTH IN ROSTOV-ON-DON

E.S. Andreeva, P.V. Klimov, K.S. Shtenske
Don State Technical University, 344000, Rostov-on-Don, pl. Gagarina, 1, Russia
Keywords: sources of atmospheric pollution, pollutants, chronic intoxication, suspended substances, stationary monitoring posts for the state of atmospheric air, zoning of the city line according to the specifics of the populations activities and the impact on its health

Abstract >>
An assessment is made of the non-carcinogenic risk to human health in Rostov-on-Don from observations at fixed stations of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring of the Russian Federation, in particular, data of the Rostov Center for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring for the period 2015-2017. Analysis of information available showed that the largest contribution to the risk of health disorders of the population of the city is made by suspended matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde. Motor transport is the main source of air pollution in the city. To assess the non-carcinogenic risk within the city limits, three separate district-specific activities of the population and, as a consequence, the emerging impact on human health were identified: one is located in the central part of the city; the other is industrial, and the third is in the residential zone. Based on the results of the risk assessment of chronic intoxication, it was found that in the first and second districts, suspended substances are the most dangerous. In the third, the most dangerous substance is formaldehyde. The total risk of immediate action in the first and second areas is defined as the maximum risk associated with exposure of the population to suspended substances, and in the third area - with exposure to carbon monoxide. Summarizing the results of the non-carcinogenic risk assessment, we can conclude that in the central part of Rostov-on-Don, the level of air pollution in 2015-2017 reached dangerous values for human health.
																								



6.
STATUS OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT COMPONENTS IN THE ZONE OF INFLUENCE OF THE MINING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES IN THE ALTAI REPUBLIC

I.A. Arkhipov1, R.V. Lyubimov2, I.A. Troshkova1
1Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 656038, Barnaul, ul. Molodezhnaya, 1, Russia
2Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 649105, Altai Republic, Maiminskii district, Kyzyl-Ozek, per. Mirnyi, 8, Russia
Keywords: deposit, environmental monitoring, natural environments, heavy metals, environmental assessment

Abstract >>
An assessment is made of the impact on the environment from several mining and mining and processing enterprises of the Altai Republic, including the Veselyi and Kalgutinskii mines, and the abandoned Aktash mining and metallurgical enterprise. The industrial zone is located 2150-2200 m above the sea level in the upper reaches of the Yarlyamry river (the Chuya river basin, Southeastern Altai). The territory of the Karakul deposit of polymetallic ores belongs to Southeastern Altai. A comparative analysis is made of the content of toxicant elements in environmental components in the zone of influence of the mining enterprises. A study is made of the content of trace elements in industrial mining landscapes of Altai. It is found that the waste ores are the main contributors of pollutants; therefore, environmental measures should be focused on decreasing their emissions to the environment. The pollutants in wastewaters from the mining enterprises of the Altai Republic are represented by three main groups, with heavy metals posing the greatest ecological hazard to the environment components; chemical reagents, petroleum products, phenols, etc. are dangerous to a lesser degree. Pollution of wastewaters with trace elements of a general composition is, in general, insignificant.
																								



7.
REGULARITIES AND MODELS OF VARIABILITY IN USEFUL INFLOW INTO LAKE BAIKAL

A.V. Ignatov1, N.N. Zavalishin2
1V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
2Siberian Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, 630009, Novosibirsk, ul. Sovetskaya, 30
Keywords: useful inflow, regularities of inflow variability, stochastic modeling, solution stability, forecast

Abstract >>
An attempt has been made to construct models that approximate the time-series statistical properties of the useful inflow into Lake Baikal and its relationships with potential predictors permitting predictive assessments to be obtained. The solution of the problem consists of two parts. In the first part, physical and statistical models are constructed, which reflect the known regularities of the formation of runoff from the catchment. These patterns are manifested in the presence of significant regression relationships between the predicted value of the monthly inflow and its hydrometeorological predictors. The models thus constructed can be used to forecast the average useful inflow for the next month. The predictive correction for interannual variability to the seasonal wave of the inflow in these models is formed by taking into account such a variability in the values of the predictors known at the time of forecasting. The second part of the research is devoted to the study of the presence of possible trends and cycles in the interannual variability in useful inflow in the most water-abundant third quarter of the year in order to try to predict it with a lead time of a year or more. It is shown that various models of cycles with parameters estimated by using of the training sample do not provide the stability of the solution on the control sample. The best result was shown by a cyclical model with fixed periods, reflecting the possible impact on the inflow variability provided by gravitational influence of the Moon and major planets on the Earth and the Sun. Nevertheless, this model cannot also be considered statistically significant due to the small share of the explainable variance and the data deficit on useful inflow into Baikal.
																								



8.
POST-FIRE TRANSFORMATIONS IN PINE FORESTS OF THE SELENGA MIDDLE MOUNTAINS (WESTERN TRANSBAIKALIA)

E.Yu. Shakhmatova, L.L. Ubugunov, D.P. Sympilova
Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 670047, Ulan-Ude, ul. Sakhyanovoi, 6, Russia
Keywords: dry pine forests, ground fires, soils, vegetation, post-pyrogenic changes, reforestation

Abstract >>
This article presents an analysis of data on the transformation of the main components of ecosystems of steppizated pine forests in the Selenga Middle Mountains (Western Transbaikalia) under the influence of fires. It was established that ground fires of medium intensity prevailing in the region transform living ground cover, change the composition and properties of forest litter and morphological, physicochemical and hydrothermal properties of soils. The post-fire dynamics revealed a slight transformation of species diversity, projective cover and phytomass of herbaceous vegetation, and a more noticeable change in the parameters of moss-lichen cover, litter and soils. A fresh burn showed total death of mosses and lichens, and a small thickness and low reserves of litter consisting largely of fractions of fresh litter of the needles and branches. In the upper pyrogenic soil horizons, moisture decreased and temperature increased immediately after the fire. Very dark coloring from the products of organic matter combustion, alkalization, increasing content of calcium cations and carbon in humus-incorporated horizons and oxalate-soluble iron content in illuvial soil profile horizons were revealed. Five or more years after the passage of the ground fire there occurred positive changes associated with an increase in the thickness of litter and the formation of lichen cover as well as a gradual change in the chemical properties, a decrease in temperature indicators and some stabilization of field moisture parameters in the upper part of the soil profile. It is concluded that these transformations of the properties of litter, moss-lichen cover and soils have a negative influence on post-fire restoration of forest vegetation and pine regeneration in burnt areas formed by ground fires of medium intensity.
																								



9.
GEOSYSTEMS OF THE MALYI KHAMAR-DABAN RANGE (WESTERN TRANSBAIKALIA)

A.A. Frolov, A.V. Silaev, A.P. Sofronov
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
Keywords: landscape structure, facies, geom, landscape-typological map, Lake Taglei, biogeocenosis

Abstract >>
We considered the main natural features of the geosystem components and conducted a cartographic analysis of the landscape structure of a section of the Malyi Khamar-Daban Range located within the basins of the Temnik river on the northern macro slope (Lake Tagleis area) and the Torei river (tributary of the Dzhida river) on the southern macro slope of the range. We carried out the landscape analysis and mapping on the basis of the principles of the structural-dynamic geomeric approach developed in the geosystem theory by the Siberian School of Landscape Science. The analysis of the landscape structure was carried out by using manual and automatic processing of spatial information using GIS methods based on Earth remote sensing data, route landscape studies, topographic and thematic maps as well as published evidence. We constructed a physical-geographical profile for a part of the field research route, showing the characteristics of some geosystem components (vegetation, topographic features, soil, Quaternary deposits and pre-Quaternary geological formations). A large-scale landscape-typological map has been compiled, consisting of two parts, which displayed geomers of different scale levels: regional (geoms) and topological (facies). The map legend represents different aspects of structural-dynamic heterogeneity: taxonomic affiliation of geosystems, factor-dynamic properties, seriality and the nature of anthropogenic disturbances in geosystems. The map shows 2413 sections contoured by four geoms, six classes and three groups of facies and 24 facies and their anthropogenic varieties. Four degrees of anthropogenic disturbance of derived geosystems are represented. We identified on the ridge, within the boundaries of the study territory three altitudinal landscape belts that reflect the landscape organization of the geosystems of the study area: mountain taiga (subbelt of watershed-slope larch-Siberian stone pine taiga and subbelt of slope larch taiga), mountain-forest-steppe and foothill-valley steppe areas.
																								



10.
NATURAL CONDITIONS OF FORMATION OF THE LANDSCAPE-MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ANAPA BAY-BAR (BLACK SEA COAST, KRASNODAR KRAI)

V.I. Kravtsova1, V.V. Krylenko2
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1, Russia
2Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997, Moscow, Nakhimovskii pr., 36, Russia
Keywords: Black Sea, Anapa bay-bar, geosystems, sea coast, relief, satellite images

Abstract >>
Detailed mapping of the landscape and morphological structure of the Anapa bay-bar based on interpretation of aerial and satellite images and field research was performed during 2012-2019. At the new level we analyzed the formation history of the Anapa bay-bar geosystem and its constituent elements, including the Vityazevskaya bay-bar. It was found that the landscape-morphological structure of the Anapa bay-bar was formed under the influence of multiple fluctuations of the Black Sea level and the volume of solid runoff of the Kuban river. Variability in external conditions predetermined a significant difference in the structure of individual sections of the Anapa bay-bar. A characteristic feature of the Vityazevskaya bay-bar, in contrast to the other areas, is the presence of relict dune ridges. Analysis of the landscape-morphological structure, supplemented by hydro-lithodynamic regime data, showed that the Vityazevskaya bay-bar is distinguished by the greatest width and development of all longitudinal zones, which are characteristic for the Anapa bay-bar: the beach, the dune belt, hilly sands and the lowland around the lagoon. The structure and location of landforms reflects the stages of formation of the accumulative body under study during the change in the configuration of the adjacent shores under the influence of abrasion and other processes. The Vityazevskaya bay-bar, located in the most hydro-dynamically active zone, is subject to periodic effects of extreme waves. During this period, a hydrogenous reformation of the beach relief occurs, and the dune zone undergoes a significant transformation. Later, the eolian transformation of the coastal relief is observed again, and vegetation develops. A high variability in the relief and periodic flooding and drainage of the territory contributes to the formation of a significant variety of dune and aquatic landscapes, which determine the high environment-oriented value of the Vityazevskaya bay-bar.
																								



11.
ASSESSING THE ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF FOREST SWAMP PEATS IN THE NORTHERN PART OF THE SYM-DUBCHES INTERFLUVE (WEST SIBERIAN PLAIN)

L.V. Karpenko1, V.N. Udachin2
1V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50, str. 28, Russia
2Institute of Mineralogy, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 456317, Miass, Ilmenskii zapovednik, Russia
Keywords: forest bog, Holocene, peat deposit, type and species of peat, concentration of macro- and microelements

Abstract >>
Results from studying the gross content of macro- and microelements in the peat deposits of a forest swamp in the northern Sym-Dubches interfluve (Krasnoyarsk krai) are presented for the first time. The swamp was formed 11 800 years ago. The mixed deposit is formed by fen, transitional and raised bog peats of forest-boggy and swampy subtypes. It is found that the average content of elements in the raised bog and transitional types of peat is below the Clarke lithosphere. In the fen peat 12 elements significantly exceed the lithosphere Clarke. Average concentrations of elements in peats of the transitional and raised bog peat types differ slightly from each other. In the peat of the fen peat type, the concentration of a part of the elements exceeds their content in the raised bog and transitional peats by a factor of 4 to 20. A comparative analysis of the average elemental content in various species of the raised bog and transitional types showed that their values change slightly when one type changes for another. In the fen species of peat, the woody Hypnum, woody and Hypnum types that compose the bottom part of the deposit are distinguished by the highest concentration of elements. The high content of most chemical elements in the fen peat species is explained by the bog genesis, rich in water and mineral nutrition for seven thousand years, the chemical composition of peat-forming plants as well as by a combination of two processes: biogenesis and hydromorphogenesis, which contribute to the accumulation of Fe, S, P, Si, Al, Ca, Cu, Mn, Ni, Ba, V and Co. The high concentration of macro- and micronutrients, such as K, Cr, Ti, Ge, Se and Zr, was also influenced by forest fires, which occurred 5030, 5745, 7412 and 7790 years ago, as evidenced by fire layers.
																								



12.
SOILS OF SOUTHERN CISBAIKALIA:DIVERSITY AND REGULARITIES OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

A.A. Kozlova1, I.A. Belozertseva1,2, D.N. Lopatina2
1Irkutsk State University, 664003, Irkutsk, ul. Karla Marksa, 1, Russia
2V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
Keywords: macro-, meso- and micro-levels of soil cover, paleocryogenic Late Pleistocene microrelief, cryogenic wedge-shaped structures, post-lithogenic and synlithogenic type of soil formation, denudation and sedimentation model of pedogenesis

Abstract >>
Soil studies on the territory of the Southern Cisbaikalia have shown that climate and topography have a noticeable effect on the diversity and spatial distribution of soil cover at the macro- and meso-level. A complex geological structure, the uneven age and variety of bedrocks, and the composition and degree of weathering of the parent rocks determined the uniqueness of the soils of the study area. For example, the development of residual-carbonate burozems is confined to the places of outcrops of Cambrian high-carbonate rocks. The organization of the soil cover at the micro-level is due to the paleocryogenic Late Pleistocene microrelief. Its hilly-depressive forms contributed to the differentiation of soil formation processes, which led to the complication of soil cover. Contrasting soil microcombinations are represented by complexes of automorphic, autonomous soils on polygons-hillocks and semi-hydromorphic, heteronomous in cryogenic wedge-shaped structures (depressions). On the hillock polygons, the soil profile is formed in the undisturbed soil mass, which corresponds to the post-lithogenic type of soil formation, and the periodic removal of soil material indicates a denudation model of pedogenesis. In depressions, soil formation occurs in redeposited soil material; the presence of one or several buried humus horizons corresponds to the synlithogenic type of soil formation and the accumulative-sedimentary (sedimentation) model of pedogenesis. The result of this research was the compilation of a landscape and soil map of Southern Cisbaikalia using the Quantum-GIS program by interpolating the points of soil sampling using landscape indication methods.
																								



13.
THE ROLE OF THERMAL RESOURCES IN THE EMERGENCE OF SPRING-EARLY SUMMER FLOODS ON THE LEFT TRIBUTARIES OF THE ANGARA RIVER

A.S. Balybina, I.E. Trofimova
V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya, 1, Russia
Keywords: flood, soil temperature, air temperature, seasonal permafrost, "zero curtain", Tulun

Abstract >>
Temperature characteristics of the atmospheric air and soil are among the main indicators that determine the meteorological conditions of the selected period. However, they include not only the actual temperature of the air and soil, but also meteorological parameters, such as the beginning of seasonal freezing and thawing of the soil and the depth of soil freezing, which, in turn, depends considerably on the period of snowmelt. Several issues have been dealt with to assess the thermal conditions for the occurrence of spring and early-summer floods on the Iya and Uda rivers in 2019. We examined the long-term thermal regime of the atmosphere and soil by using data from weather stations Tulun, Nizhneudinsk and Alygdzher. The long-term dynamics of thermal indicates is shown, trends in their changes are calculated, as well as analyzing the characteristics of the thermal regimes in May-June of 2019 prior to the flood. It was found that in the valleys of the Iya and Uda rivers there is a high consistency of thermal regimes of the air and soil. Over the last 30-year period, the recorded positive (especially negative) air temperature anomalies in May and July were not extremely high, capable of influencing physical and geographical processes, including the water regime of rivers. The air and soil temperatures in May-July 2019 were close to the average long-term values and did not have a significant impact on the strength and duration of the abnormal flood. An indirect effect could have been caused by soil overexposure due to the past heavy rainfall of the second decade of June, because the presence of a zero curtain in the soil column prevents the passage of moisture deeper than 80 cm.
																								



14.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN THE VALLEY OF THE KNEVICHANKA RIVER IN THE MIDDLE AND LATE HOLOCENE (SOUTHERN SIKHOTE-ALIN)

P.S. Belyanin, N.I. Belyanina, T.A. Grebennikova
Pacific Geographical Institute, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 690041, Vladivostok, ul. Radio, 7, Russia
Keywords: Holocene, biostratigraphic analysis, vegetation, climatic changes, fluctuations of the sea level

Abstract >>
Based on the biostratigraphic analysis of the sediments of the first terrace above the floodplain, the history of development of the ecosystems of the lower reaches of the Knevichanka River over the past 5350 cal BP was reconstructed. Differences were identified and characteristics were determined in the structure of vegetation cover during the final phase of the Holocene optimum and during multidirectional climatic fluctuations in the Late Holocene. It is found that broad-leaved plants in the final phase of the Holocene were more widespread on the mountain slopes than at present. The accumulative plains were dominated by grassy meadows with small-leaved plant communities. Vegetation on the slopes of the valley of the Knevichanka river was dominated by mixed forests, with a predominance of Korean pine, Japanese red pine, oak, elm, Amur cork tree, lime, lilac, Manchurian walnut and other species. In the lower reaches of the Knevichanka river, in the place of the marshy plains and water areas of Lake Krolevetskii and Lake Orlovskii there existed a extensive shallow sea bay that was connected in a narrow strait with Ussuri Bay. A cooling period that began at the end of Middle Holocene and continuing at the beginning of Late Holocene led to a reduction of broad-leaved plants in vegetation and to a more widespread occurrence of small-leaved plants. At that time the formation of the soil layer of the first terrace above floodplain began in the lower reaches of the river. In the course of the marine regression, the coastal lowlands became free from sea water, and the upper part of the shallow bay was detached from the sea. A lagoon was formed on the place of the marine gulf. The lagoon became gradually desalinated, shallowed and began to connect with the sea by the Knevichanka and Artemovka channels. However, during the syzygial tides and wind-induced surges, seawater was still penetrating it at regular intervals. At the end of the Late Holocene, the valley of the Knevichanka river developed natural conditions giving rise to the modern structure of vegetation. Desalination of Lake Krolevetskii and Lake Orlovskii occurred, the outlines of which acquired the modern position.
																								



15.
RESIDUAL RELICT PERMAFROST ON THE COAST OF THE STRAIT OF TARTARY

A.N. Bragin
JSC Far Eastern Design and Exploration Institute of Transport Construction, 680000, Khabarovsk, ul. Sheronova, 56a, Russia
Keywords: cryochrone, permafrost zone, complex of frost mounds, cryogenic landforms, streaky ice accumulation, migration frost mounds

Abstract >>
This article describes for the first time the fragments of relict permafrost discovered by the author on the coast of the Strait of Tartary in the valley of the Medvezhya river, represented by a complex of frost mounds located in the intermontane area of the Kupol and Malaya Medvezhka mountains. The form, main features and the area of occurrence were studied as well as identifying the landscape-indication and identification features of the complex of frost mounds on the territory of the Strait of Tartary were revealed. On one of the clearly pronounced frost mounds, a well was drilled to the full depth of permafrost occurrence, with the description of the core (rock composition, presence of signs of permafrost, depth and thickness of permafrost), and its ground-geological conditions: rock thickness and composition were determined. The main soil-geological and climatic factors of the preservation of the complex of frost mounds in the Medvezhya river valley, including a thick peat horizon, geomorphological conditions and microclimatic features, are characterized. A probable estimate is made of the time of formation of relict cryogenic forms. The issues related to the origin of hummocky peatlands with respect to the identified relict permafrost forms are discussed. In addition, the role of paleogeographical conditions on the territory of the Lower Amur region is pointed out and interpolated using, as an example, the nearest research object: the Tyapka peat bog in the Bolshaya Mar urochishche. A similarity with migration frost mounds associated with migration of moisture to the freezing front at the time of freezing of heavily waterlogged bogs with pools was determined. It is found, however, that the dominant role is played by erosion and thermokarst processes in the formation of relictt permafrost forms in the Medvezhya river valley.
																								



16.
ANALYSIS OF THE ZONE AFFECTED BY QUARRYING COMPANIES BY USING GEOINFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

N.V. Krutskikh
Institute of Geology, Karelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, 185910, Petrozavodsk, ul. Pushkinskaya, 11, Russia
Keywords: quarrying territories, crushed stone production, geoinformation analysis, spatial analysis, Earth remote sensing, monitoring

Abstract >>
A qualitative assessment is made of dust pollution in zones affected by crushed stone quarries as well as was carrying out a spatial analysis of the dust distribution geoinformation technologies. Primary data were provided by the results of geochemical field sampling of soils and snow cover and Earth remote sensing. The factor analysis based on geochemical data has revealed a trace element (V, Co, Ni, Cu and Sc) association characteristic of both the soil and snow. These elements display elevated concentration coefficients in the rocks quarried, namely Late Vepsian gabbro-dolerites. Models of the spatial distribution of the identified trace element association, based on the results of the study, were constructed using QuantumGIS programme. It has been noted that high factor values were obtained near the quarries. Analysis of the spectral characteristics of snow cover, based on Landsat satellite images, has revealed quarry dust migration routes. Assessment criteria were provided by the normalized snow index and the snow pollution index. They were calculated for open monitoring sites with abundant snow where the snow retains its natural condition over the entire winter season. Interpolation models, showing the distribution of these indices, were constructed. The results of the distribution are clearly correlated with the wind regime. The limiting role of the relief in the movement and accumulation of dust pollution is shown. Comparison of the spectral indices obtained for images from different years has shown that the results obtained at a snow melting stage are most contrasting, although the spatial distribution pattern of pollution generally varies slightly.
																								



17.
GEOECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE STATUS OF GROUNDWATER USING THE BASIN APPROACH (A CASE STUDY OF THE AREA OF THE KHOVU-AKSYNSKII DEPOSIT, TYVA REPUBLIC)

S.G. Platonova1, O.I. Kal'naya2, V.V. Skripko1,3, Yu.G. Kopylova4, A.A. Hvashchevskaya4
1Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 656038, Barnaul, ul. Molodezhnaya, 1, Russia
2Tuvinian Institute for Exploration of Natural Resources, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 667007, Kyzyl, ul. Internatsionalnaya, 117a, Russia
3Altai State University, 656038, Barnaul, pr. Lenina, 61, Russia
4National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Tomsk, pr. Lenina, 30, Russia
Keywords: basin analysis, structural indices, geomorphological work, tailing dump, aquifer, hydrogeochemical composition

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The basin analysis for assessing the status of groundwater on the Khovu-Aksynskii arsenide-cobalt-sulfide deposit (Tyva Republic) located on the left bank of the Elegest river was carried out together with field morphometric studies and hydrogeochemical sampling. It was determined that the chemical composition of groundwater is largely dependent on the basin organization of the territory. The structural indices of areas, lengths, slopes and bifurcation calculated for the Khovu-Aksynskii gully basin, and also the geomorphological work indicate that within its limits the functional type of the 3rd order basin components on removal and accumulation of water and lithodynamic flows changes from the denudation (in the upper component) to the accumulation (in the middle) and transition - in the integral lower component. In accordance with the type of basins, it has been established that the groundwater chemistry is formed mainly in the middle and lower components of the basin under natural and anthropogenic impact. With distance from the pollution sources, the halos are formed in the groundwater of deluvial-proluvial horizon, reflecting a decrease in the total mineralization (from 0.68 to 0.3 g/L), hardness (from 7.1 to 3.2 mg-eqv/L) and arsenic (from 0.013 to less than 0.005 mg/L). The absence of water pollution by ore-forming heavy metals (nickel, cobalt and copper) typical for the deposit and tailing dumps is also explained by the transitional type of integral component of the catchment basin. The results obtained show the possibility of using it in modeling the conditions for denudation and accumulation of natural and anthropogenic pollutants in the underground aquifers.
																								



18.
GIS ANALYSIS OF THE ACCESSIBILITY OF HEALTHCARE FACILITIES FOR THE POPULATION OF ZABAIKALSKII KRAI

K.V. Parfenova, L.M. Faleychik
Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 672014, Chita, ul. Nedorezova, 16a, Russia
Keywords: healthcare, geographical accessibility, GIS technology, spatial and temporal inequality in obtaining healthcare

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This article presents the results of the GIS analysis of the transport accessibility of regional centers for residents of Zabaikalskii krai with the central regional hospitals located in them. The analysis was performed in the ArcGIS environment using the authors approach and the custom tools created, such as models of geoprocessing processes. For analysis, we used official statistical information from the databases of Rosstat and Zabaikalkraistat, and data from the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Construction, Transport and Road Facilities of Zabaikalskii krai. Based on the existing settlement systems and the road network, service areas consisting of temporary access zones determined by the time of travel by car were built for each central district hospital. The results of the analysis indicate the existence of spatial and temporal inequality for regions residents in the possibility of obtaining medical services. It was found that more than half of the regions settlements, that is, 82 % of the krais inhabitants, are located in the hourly accessibility zone by car. Twelve percent of the regions population lives in settlements that are one to two hours away by car from the district centers. The acute problem is the availability of medical care for residents of the northern districts of the region. It has been established that residents of 69,3 % of settlements in the region are located remotely from official inter-municipal bus routes, their population can mainly rely on private and fixed-route taxi or their own transport. Therefore, even for those living in the hourly accessibility zone, the ability to reach the district center can be a significant problem.
																								



19.
EVALUATION OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICE VALUE OF LAND USE/LAND COVER CHARACTERISTICS IN BARASAT SADAR SUB-DIVISION (WEST BENGAL, INDIA)

D.K. Ghosh, G.S. Bhunia
Seacom Skills University, 700084, Kendua Main Road, 21, Birbhum, West Bengal, India
Keywords: ecological parameters, maximum likelihood, multispectral satellite data, land management, urbanization, urban expansion

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This paper presents an analysis of response of the ecosystem service value to land use/land cover (LULC) changes as well as of the spatial contribution from individual ecosystem service function changes of Barasat Sadar sub-division (West Bengal, India) during the period between 1977 and 2016 based on the modified coefficient. Landsat series satellite images were downloaded at about ten years intervals to envision occurrences in spatio-temporal LULC patterns. A supervised classification was performed based on maximum likelihood (MXL) classifier to identify the LULC characteristics. Ecosystem serviced value were calculated per hectares of the terrestrial ecosystem based on the coefficient of each land cover characteristics used in earlier research. The highest value of ecosystem service value was recorded for a surface waterbody in 2016 (477.06 million dollars) and the lowest value was estimated at 0.98 million dollars for fallow land. Our results suggest that deterioration in agricultural fallow, dense vegetation, scrub land and rapid expansion of crop land, and surface waterbody artificial infrastructure for the period of 1977-2016 led to an incessant loss of the total ecosystem service value to the tune of $238.92 million using the coefficient adopted in calculations. The outcome of the investigation can serve as a reference and basis for enlightening decision building concerning the management of land resources and subsidize to a trade-off between urban growth and the lessening in ecosystem services.