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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2020 year, number 9

1.
Absorption coefficient in the wing of 1-0 CO band broadened by He

O.B. Rodimova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: крыло фундаментальной полосы СО, уширение гелием, крылья спектральных линий, второй вириальный коэффициент, the fundamental CO band wing, the He broadening, spectral line wings, second virial coefficient

Abstract >>
Absorption in the 1-0 CO band wing broadened by He at different temperatures is regarded within the asymptotic line wing theory. It presents absorption as a sum of the absorption coefficients of individual line with a special shape at far distances from the line center. The line shape parameters pertaining to quantum and classical interaction potentials are found as a result of fitting to the experimental absorption data in the 1-0 CO band wing and the temperature dependence of the second virial coefficient.
																								



2.
Low-temperature absorption spectrum of the (0120)-(0000) 13CH4 band. Line assignment

L.N. Sinitsa, V.I. Serdyukov, A.A. Lugovskoi
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: CH, спектр поглощения, низкотемпературная кювета, идентификация, absorption spectrum, low-temperature cell, line assignment

Abstract >>
The 13CH4 absorption spectra in the range between 7400 and 7600 cm-1 have been recorded at for temperatures from 296 to 200 K by the Fourier spectrometer IFS-125M at a spectral resolution of 0.03 cm-1. A 220 cm cell was used, which provided a threshold sensitivity to absorption on the order of 10-6 cm-1. Line assignment of the n2 + 2n3 band of the 13CH4 molecule was performed. Rotational constants of the (0120) state and the integral intensity of the n2 + 2n313CH4 band were determined for the first time.
																								



3.
Cooled stacked-actuator deformable mirror for compensation of phase fluctuations in a turbulent atmosphere

V.V. Toporovsky1,2, A.V. Kudryashov1,2, V.V. Samarkin1, A.L. Rukosuev1, A.N. Nikitin1, Yu.V. Sheldakova1, O.V. Otrubyannikova1
1Institute of Dynamics of Geospheres, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Moscow, Russia
2Moscow Polytechnic University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: адаптивная оптика, корректор волнового фронта, деформируемое зеркало, мощное лазерное излучение, adaptive optics, wavefront corrector, deformable mirror, high-power laser radiation

Abstract >>
To compensate for aberration of laser radiation passed through a turbulent atmosphere, a wavefront corrector was designed in the form of a cooled stacked-actuator deformable mirror. In this work, theoretical estimations which allow one to determine main characteristics of this mirror are represented. The method suggested for cooling the reflecting surface of the wavefront corrector developed through piezoactuators body is experimentally studied. The results of measurements of main characteristics of the deformable mirror are shown, including the initial mirror surface shape, response functions of actuators, stroke of the mirror, and first resonance response of the mirror surface.
																								



4.
Study of the spatial structure of a femtosecond laser beam in the filamentation domain under aberrational focusing in air

V.E. Prokopev, D.M. Lubenko, V.F. Losev
High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: ультракороткие лазерные импульсы, филаментация, лазерная плазма, ultrashort laser pulses, filamentation, laser plasma

Abstract >>
The conditions for the occurrence of two pump beams propagating at an angle to each other, in which highly directed white SC beams are formed, are investigated and analyzed. The beams are formed due to aberration focusing of a femtosecond radiation pulse with a wavelength of 940 nm. It is shown that the mechanism of their formation is related to the diffraction of the pump beam on the filament plasma in the meridional focus region and Kerr self-focusing of radiation. The dynamics of development of these beams is demonstrated.
																								



5.
Urban emissions of black carbon in the Arctic region by observations near Salekhard city

O.B. Popovicheva1, V.O. Kobelev2, A.I. Sinitsky2, N.M. Sitnikov3, M.A. Chichaeva4, A. Hansen5
1Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow, Russia
2Arctic Research Center of the Yamal-Nenets autonomous district, Salekhard, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia
3Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow Region, Dolgoprudnyiy, Russia
4Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
5Magee Scientific, 1916A M.L. King Jr. Way, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
Keywords: городские эмиссии, черный углерод, Арктический регион, пожары, urban emissions, black carbon, Arctic region, wildfires

Abstract >>
Urban emissions of black carbon (BC) were studied, since BC is the most significant component of the polluted atmosphere of the Arctic region. Three-months continuous measurements of BC mass concentrations were carried out in April-August 2019 at the aerosol station near the Salekhard city with an AE33 seven-wavelength aethalometer. Using a concentration probability function for BC concentrations measured under different wind speed and direction, potential sources of emissions have been identified. In the north-west direction from the station, the sector of urban emissions was detected, where the range of BC concentrations was from 73 to 135 ng/m3. According to official data, transport and thermal power plants, which use diesel fuel, gasoline, and natural gas, are the major Salekhard urban emission sources. In April-May and June 2019, the average BC concentrations in urban emissions were 133 ± 80 and 105 ± 80 ng/m3. In July, during a period of intense forest fires on the Polar Circle, they attained 350 ± 120 ng/m3 and identified the contribution of smoke plumes to the aerosol loading and deterioration of the urban air.
																								



6.
Study of the emission glow of solids and anthropogenic aerosols in a field of high-power femtosecond laser radiation during self-focusing in air for remote sensing of the atmosphere

D.V. Apeksimov1, P.A. Babushkin1, Yu.E. Geinz1, A.A. Zemlyanov1, A.M. Kabanov1, G.G. Matvienko1, V.K. Oshlakov1, A.V. Petrov1, V.M. Ryabtsev1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: твердые мишени, аэрозоль, атмосфера, фемтосекундное лазерное излучение, самофокусировка, спектроскопия, дистанционное зондирование, solid targets, aerosol, atmosphere, femtosecond laser radiation, self-focusing, spectroscopy, remote sensing

Abstract >>
Results of the complex experimental study of the spectral and temporal characteristics of the emission glow of control samples of several substances in the solid state (imitation of topographic targets in the atmosphere) and in the form of solid aerosols (imitation of air pollutants) under the action of femtosecond pulses of a Ti:Sa laser (at a carrier wavelength of 800 nm) and nonlinear optical effects are presented.
																								



7.
Thunderstorm with waterspout structure and lightning frequency dependence from its characteristics

A.A. Sin’kevich1, Yu.P. Mikhailovskiy1, M.L. Toropova1, V.B. Popov1, D.S. Starykh2, Yu.A. Dovgalyuk1, N.E. Veremei1
1The Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, St Petersburg, Russia
2Limited Liability Company "Institut Radarnoy Meteorologii", Leningrad Oblast, Russia
Keywords: гроза, облако, электрическое поле, водяной смерч, радиолокация, Метеосат, микрофизика, thunder, cloud, electric field, waterspout, radar, Meteosat, microphysics

Abstract >>
The aim of this work is to summarize the results of the study of the development of a high-depth thunderstorm over water area of the Gulf of Finland. A waterspout was observed under the base of the cloud. Remote sensing methods were used in the study. The general conditions of atmospheric instability, microphysical and electrical characteristics of the cloud are considered. Cloud microphysics and its relation with lightning frequency are discussed. High correlation was discovered between the frequency of lightning discharges and supercooled volume of the cloud, as well as precipitation flux.
																								



8.
Surface ozone concentration over the Russian territory in the first half of 2020

V.V. Andreev1, M.Yu. Arshinov2, B.D. Belan2, D.K. Davydov2, N.F. Elansky3, G.S. Zhamsueva4, A.S. Zayakhanov4, G.A. Ivlev2, A.V. Kozlov2, S.N. Kotel’nikov5, I.N. Kuznetsova6, V.A. Lapchenko7, E.A. Lezina8, O.V. Postylyakov3, D.E. Savkin2, I.A. Senik3, E.V. Stepanov5, G.N. Tolmachev2, A.V. Fofonov2, I.V. Chelibanov9, V.P. Chelibanov9, V.V. Shirotov10
1Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
3A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
4Institute of Physical Material Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Ulan-Ude, Russia
5Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
6Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, Moscow, Russia
7T.I. Vyazemsky Karadag scientific station, Feodosiya, Russia
8Mosjekomonitoring, Moscow, Russia
9Instrument-making enterprise "OPTEK", St. Petersburg, Russia
10Russian Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Research and Production Association "Typhoon", Obninsk, Kaluga Region, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, вертикальный профиль, воздух, концентрация, озон, предельно допустимая концентрация, приземный слой, пограничный слой, atmosphere, vertical profile, air, concentration, ozone, maximum permissible concentration, surface layer, boundary layer

Abstract >>
The review provides information on the ozone concentration in the surface air and troposphere in the first half of 2020. The data were acquired at 13 stations in different Russian regions; vertical distributions were obtained with the use of the aircraft laboratory. The excess over the Russian Federation hygienic standards was assessed; the daily average maximum permissible ozone concentration is found to be regularly higher at most stations. At some stations, there are features which differ the seasonal variations in the ozone concentration in the period under study from previous years.
																								



9.
Simulation of the dynamics of a NO2 plume from a power source

N.A. Tikhonov, S.A. Zakharova, M.A. Davydova
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: математическое моделирование, атмосферная диффузия примесей, перенос и химическая трансформация активных антропогенных примесей, шлейф загрязнения, точечный источник, оценка мощности выброса, mathematical simulation, atmospheric diffusion of impurities, transport and chemical transformation of active anthropogenic impurities, pollutant plume, point source, emission power estimation

Abstract >>
The process of the formation of a plume of NO2 emitted into the atmosphere by a point source is considered with the use of a new method for reconstructing NO2 distribution fields in the troposphere from GSA Resource-P satellite data and mathematical simulation. The functional form of the model is ascertained, which agrees in complexity with the amount of available experimental information. The values of the model parameters are found. The emission power is calculated. The reliability of the simulation results is estimated from the comparison of the calculations with the experimental data on the distribution of the altitude-integral amount of NO2 in air depending on the horizontal coordinates.
																								



10.
The first comprehensive experiment for determining parameters of the vertical distribution of methane in the troposphere over Western Siberia from solar spectra recorded with an IFS-125M FTIR spectrometer and in situ aircraft measurements

M.V. Makarova1, V.I. Serdyukov2, M.Yu. Arshinov2, B.D. Belan2, B.A. Voronin2, A.V. Nikitin2, A.P. Shcherbakov2, Yu.V. Gridnev2
1Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: CH, измерения метана, самолет лаборатория, methane measurements, aircraft laboratory

Abstract >>
The results of a comprehensive experiment carried out to derive the vertical distribution of methane in the troposphere over Western Siberia from solar spectra recorded with a IFS-125M Fourier transform spectrometer, in situ aircraft measurements, and satellite observations are describean, analyzed, and compared.
																								



11.
Numerical experiments on the forecast of ice phenomena

R.Yu. Ignatov1, K.G. Rubinstein1,2, Yu.I. Yusupov3
1Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, Moscow, Russia
3Limited Liability Company Scientific Production Association В«Map Maiker», Moscow, Russia
Keywords: прогноз гололеда, Центральный регион России, WRF-ARW, forecast of ice, central region of Russia

Abstract >>
Methods and results of numerical forecast of ice phenomena over the territory of the central Russia for winters 2003-2018 are presented. The forecast success is compared using the analysis of precipitation types and the heat balance model, where the predictions of the WRF-ARW model are used as input. Some advantages of forecasts using a heat-balanced model are shown. It is suggested to develop an integral method in the future.
																								



12.
Calculation of aerosol emissions from fires of the Tomsk Region based on remote data

M.N. Alekseeva1, K.N. Pustovalov2, E.A. Golovatskaya2, I.G. Yashchenko1
1Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk, Russia
2Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: пожары, гари, потеря лесов, загрязняющие вещества, аэрозоли, данные лидара CALIOP, fires, burning, forest loss, pollutants, aerosols, CALIOP lidar data

Abstract >>
The dynamics of forest loss from fires in the Verkhneketsky district of the Tomsk region is considered. The volumes of pollutant emissions resulting from fires are calculated. It was established that in the Verkhneketsky region smoke aerosols from the fires of 2012 and 2016 in terms of mass significantly exceed technogenic emissions from stationary sources. It is shown that smoke from fires spreads over a distance of more than 30 km. According to CALIOP lidar data, smoke elevations were estimated to be from 1.3 to 4.3 km, which does not contradict the calculations based on model formulas.