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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2019 year, number 12

1.
Long-term trends in mass concentration of near-surface aerosol at Zvenigorod Research Station of A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences

A.N. Gruzdev, A.A. Isakov, P.P. Anikin
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: аэрозоль, массовая концентрация, линейный тренд, множественная линейная регрессия, автокорреляция данных, aerosol, mass concentration, linear trend, multiple linear regression, autocorrelation of data

Abstract >>
Estimates of seasonally dependent long-term trends in the mass concentration of near-surface aerosol based on the measurements at Zvenigorod Research Station of A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 1991-2018 are presented. The analysis was performed by the method of multiple linear regression taking into account data autocorrelation on long time scales. Statistically significant negative spring and summer trends were derived for 1991-2002 and 2013-2018, respectively; possible causes of the trends are discussed.
																								



2.
The relationship of climatic characteristics with anticyclonic activity in the winter period over Siberia in 1976-2011

N.V. Podnebesnykh, I.I. Ippolitov
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: приземная температура воздуха, приземное давление, облачность, антициклоническая активность, территория Сибири, surface temperature, surface pressure, cloudiness, anticyclonic activity, the territory of Siberia

Abstract >>
According to data from 163 meteorological stations over the territory of Siberia (50º-70º N; 60º-110º E) the air temperature, surface pressure, and cloud cover during the winter period (December-February) were calculated over 1976-2011. Using surface synoptic charts, time series of winter anticyclone characteristics, such as total number and pressure centers, were derived. Two time intervals: 1976-1990 and 1991-2011 were found in variations in climate and anticyclone activity characteristics. Over the first period, temperature and cloud amount increase, and surface pressure falls, the number of anticyclones decreases, and their intensification occurs, i.e., the pressure increases in their centers. Over the second period, the tendencies are opposite. The correlation analysis between the climate variables and anticyclonic activity characteristics allowed us to consistently describe the impact of anticyclones on the surface pressure and cloudiness.
																								



3.
Air pollution from fires of drained peatlands in Tomsk region

M.N. Alekseeva1, E.A. Golovatskaya2, I.G. Yashchenko1
1Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk, Russia
2Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: пожары, гари, космические снимки, геоданные, леса, болота, атмосфера, загрязняющее вещество, fires, burnt areas, satellite imagery, geodata, forests, swamps, atmosphere, pollutant

Abstract >>
In the created geoinformation system, the analysis of air pollution from fires of drained peatlands in the territories of Bakcharsky and Shegarsky forest districts of the Tomsk region has been performed. Parameters of horizontal and vertical perturbations in the air layer due to a fire in the area of Iksa were calculated, which including a maximum vertical dimension of the convective column (mixture of air with products of complete and incomplete combustion rising above the fire), heat emission, and the propagation velocity of the aerosol cloud of combustion products. The volumes of pollutant emissions from the fire have been calculated on the basis of geodata and those on the biomass of vegetation cover of the Iksa site. It is shown that significant amounts of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane were emitted into the atmosphere due to the fire. The data on emissions of nitrogen oxide, soot, and ozone are also reported. At the present time, this site is characterized by the restoration of vegetation cover; the positive dynamics of the NDVI vegetation index has been calculated. The accumulation of biomass in the Iksa site and the presence of dead wood, as well as a road network indicate a high risk of vegetation and peat ignition and pollutant emissions to the atmosphere.
																								



4.
The distribution functions of chlorophyll and suspended matter concentrations in the waters of the Gulf of Ob and the central part of the Kara Sea

V.E. Pavlov1, I.V. Khvostov1, N.Y. Kurepina1, N.M. Kovalevskaya1, L.A. Khvorova2
1Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Barnaul, Russia
2Altai State University, Barnaul, Russia
Keywords: хлорофилл, взвешенное вещество, Обская губа, Карское море, спектрофотометр MERIS, нормальные логарифмические распределения, chlorophyll, suspended matter, the Gulf of Ob, the Kara Sea, MERIS spectrophotometer, lognormal distributions

Abstract >>
On the basis of long-term data obtained from the European ENVISAT satellite, the statistical analysis of chlorophyll and suspended matter concentrations in the Gulf of Ob and its extension to the Kara Sea from Bely Island to Novaya Zemlya was performed. It was found that empirical functions of chlorophyll and suspended matter concentration distribution in both water areas, including the coastal zone of the Gulf of Ob, tend to the lognormal law. Statistical parameters of distributions and characteristics of the latitudinal trends of logarithms of concentrations in the Kara Sea are determined. The obtained results are presented in graphical and tabular forms and can be used in modelling the distribution of dispersed components in the waters of the Arctic Ocean under study.
																								



5.
Instrument for measuring the water extinction coefficient under laboratory and field conditions

V.V. Belov, V.N. Abramochkin, A.N. Kudryavtsev, M.V. Tarasenkov, A.V. Fedosov, E.S. Poznakharev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: измерение, коэффициент ослабления оптического излучения, водная среда, полевые и лабораторные эксперименты, measurement, optical radiation extinction coefficient, water medium, field and laboratory experiments

Abstract >>
The composition and operation principle of an instrument for measuring the water extinction coefficient in real time are described, including measurements in water under the ice surface. Examples of instrument testing under field and laboratory conditions are given. The measuring instrument is recommended for estimation of maximal receiver-source distances when line-of-sight optoelectronic communication or communication on scattered laser radiation is possible.
																								



6.
Design of a frequency filter on the basis of the total internal reflection phenomenon

A.S. Syrneva, V.S. Ayrapetyan
Siberian State University of Geosystems and Technologies, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: частотный фильтр, явление полного внутреннего отражения, ширина полосы пропускания, интерференционная картина, спектр излучения, frequency filter, total internal reflection phenomenon, bandwidth, interference pattern, radiation spectrum

Abstract >>
The results of experimental study of characteristics of a frequency filter designed on the basis of total internal reflection phenomenon are presented. The spectral width of semiconductor laser radiation in the visible region measured with this frequency filter two-fold narrows (from 18 to 10 cm-1 after passing through the frequency filter).
																								



7.
Temporal changes in the IR spectra of distilled and heavy water after irradiation by a nanosecond electron flux

V.M. Orlovskii, V.A. Panarin, V.S. Ripenko
High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: наносекундный поток электронов, спектр поглощения воды в ИК-диапазоне, проводимость воды, nanosecond electron flux, water absorption spectrum in infrared region, water conductivity

Abstract >>
The absorption spectra of distilled and heavy water after treatment by a nanosecond electron flux are examined. A change in the absorption spectrum of the substance was recorded after multiple treatment of water. The analysis of the IR absorption spectra of water showed the difference between the absorption spectra of non-irradiated and irradiated water and а change in the latter over time.
																								



8.
The method for determining the altitudes of atmospheric layers with strong turbulence

A.Yu. Shikhovtsev1, A.V. Kiselev1, P.G. Kovadlo1, D.Yu. Kolobov1, V.P. Lukin2, V.E. Tomin1
1Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Irkutsk, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: атмосферная турбулентность, волновой фронт, телескоп, солнечные изображения, вертикальные профили турбулентности, atmospheric turbulence, wavefront, telescope, solar images, profiles of the turbulence

Abstract >>
The modern tasks concerning the methods for recovering the altitude profiles of the atmospheric turbulence are discussed. An alternative method to the Slodar-technique is suggested for determining the altitudes of atmospheric layers characterized by strong turbulence. The method is based on estimation of the space-time crosscovariances between local wavefront slopes on subapertures spaced in the telescope field of view with a known angular displacement of an object observed due to the Sun motion. The turbulence characteristics are estimated for the Large Solar Vacuum Telescope site.
																								



9.
Approximate technique for solution of the problem on second harmonic generation in nonlinear crystals. Part 1

V.V. Kolosov, V.O. Troitskii
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: генерация второй гармоники, система нелинейных уравнений, численные схемы, second harmonic generation, system of nonlinear equations, numerical scheme

Abstract >>
A technique is proposed for approximate solution of the system of equations responsible for second harmonic generation in nonlinear uniaxial crystals. The algorithm of this techniqueis is reduced to numerical calculation of a threefold integrated integral. The study consists of two parts. In the first part, two approximations are considered. These approximations allow the time for computation of twofold integrated integrals with respect to transverse coordinates to be shortened nearly two times in the situations most complicated for computations. The second part discusses an approximate technique for estimation of the power of interacting waves, which also allows the computation time to be decreased by an order of magnitude by means of a decrease in the minimal needed number of steps of the recurrent process. The results of the tests demonstrate that although the use of the approximations proposed decreases the accuracy of solution of the nonlinear problem, but nevertheless keeps the errors at an acceptably low level.
																								



10.
Approximate technique for solution of the problem on second harmonic generation in nonlinear crystals. Part 2

V.V. Kolosov, V.O. Troitskii
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: генерация второй гармоники, система нелинейных уравнений, численные схемы, second harmonic generation, system of nonlinear equations, numerical scheme

Abstract >>
This paper is the second and the last part of the study. It presents the results of tests of the numerical scheme proposed in the first part. The approximate procedure for estimation of the power of interacting waves at the exit from the crystal is discussed. This procedure allows the computation time to be shortened by more than an order of magnitude by means of a decrease in the minimal needed number of steps of the recurrent process.
																								



11.
Subject Index


																								



12.
Author Index