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ECO journal (ECOnomics and industrial Engineering)

2019 year, number 6

Medical Investment, Life Expectancy and Economic Growth

A. D. Erakhtina1,2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
2Novosibirsk State University
Keywords: экономика здравоохранения, инновации, экономическийрост, продолжительность жизни, medical innovation, life expectancy, economic growth, Health Economics

Abstract >>
Life expectancy at birth almost doubled during the last three centuries, in all geographical and demographical parts of the world. Such indicators as life expectancy and death rates, reviewed and examined in the article, are considered to be the most important components in overall human economic development. The article is devoted to long-term analysis of longevity significance, along with the role of investment in healthcare and close-related medical innovation in declining mortality, and, finally, to the overall economic growth, conditional on these factors. Firstly, the article provides analysis of factors, forming current patterns of life expectancy trends all over the world for several centuries. Next, there is a discussion concerning features of investment activity and innovation implementation in healthcare, with the latter being the main factors increasing the share of healthcare industry in GDP. Finally, the article includes analysis of impact of all the aforementioned relations on economic growth.

Physical Conditions of Working Population in the Siberian Federal District

M.I. Voevoda1, V.M. Chernyshev2,3, O.V. Strelchenko4, I.F. Mingazov5
1Research Institute of Therapy and Preventive Medicine SB RAS
2Novosibirsk State Medical University
3Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics
4Siberian District Medical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency
5Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Novosibirsk Region
Keywords: работоспособное население, смертность, заболеваемость с временной утратой трудоспособности, профессиональная заболеваемость, Сибирский федеральный округ, working population, mortality, morbidity with temporary disability, occupational morbidity, Federal district

Abstract >>
The share of working-age population in Russia is gradually decreasing. According to forecasts, in 2026 the total population will decrease by 4.3%, while the able-bodied - by 16.4%, which will lead to a drop of this group’s share in the overall age structure to 55.1% (in 2008 it was 63.2%). For this reason, the health status of this category of citizens, cause of death analysis and measures of reducing it are of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to examine the status, dynamics and characteristics of morbidity, including occupational, and causes of death of the able-bodied population of the Siberian Federal district (SFO). Based on analysis of literature on morbidity and mortality of persons of working age in the SFD and Russia, as well as statistical data of regional health authorities of the SFD, the authors concluded that the health of working-age population in Siberia is significantly worse than the average in Russia. At the same time, the sickness rate both with a first-time diagnosis and the overall morbidity continues rising. Although mortality decreases over time, this process is slower than in the whole country, so over 7 years the gap from the all-Russian indicators increased from 14.8 to 17.25%. External causes of death, such as murder, suicide, poisoning with alcohol substitutes and other are rising in the structure of mortality rate (relative to Russia as a whole). Despite a significant reduction in the number of fatal accidents at work (per 1,000 people), the Siberian Federal district still ranks ahead of the Far East and the Volga Federal districts.

Private Healthcare Market in Russia: a Marketologist View

E. A. Tarasenko, M. M. Dvoryashina
National Research University Higher School of Economics
Keywords: маркетинг медицинских услуг, рынок частной медицины, ценностно-ориентированное здравоохранение, сервисная составляющая, уберизация и макдональдизация, маркетинг взаимодействия, healthcare marketing, private healthcare market, value-based healthcare, servitization of healthcare, uberization and McDonaldization of healthcare, marketing interaction

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the marketing innovations of private medical clinics as a significant internal driver of transformation and development of the private healthcare market in Russia. The transformation of private healthcare market, with high rate of dissemination of professional practices and new formats of activity, business models and value propositions, directly affects the structure and volume of the market potential of private medical clinics. Product innovations, which are the basis for the value proposition and positioning of medical clinics, are forming new segments of Russian private healthcare market. The authors identified main directions of the formation of innovative product categories in the market of private healthcare in Russia such as multi-products, highly specialized medical services, highly specialized medical care, “accessible clinic” format, anti-age medicine, pain-free dentistry with gamification elements.

Foreign Economic Relations of Mongolia: Current Situation and Development Problems

A.V. Makarov1, E.V. Makarova2, A.S. Mikheeva1
1Baikal Institute of Nature Using Management SB RAS
2East Siberia State University of Technology and Management
Keywords: Монголия, внешнеэкономические связи, российско-монгольское торгово-экономическое сотрудничество, Mongolia, international economic cooperation, Russian-Mongolian trade-economic cooperation

Abstract >>
The paper considers the status quo of Mongolian international economic cooperation. The authors provide a brief description of Mongolian economic development and review its foreign trade over the past fifteen years, considering the structure of foreign direct investment in the Mongolian economy. The authors characterize main trends and development prospects of Mongolian international economic relations.

Rehabilitation Potential of a Business Bankruptcy: to Determine, to Measure, to Increase

O. A. Lvova
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Keywords: несостоятельность (банкротство), реабилитационный потенциал банкротства, квазиреабилитация, мировое соглашение, предупреждение банкротства, статистика банкротств в США, Англии и России, insolvency (bankruptcy), rehabilitation potential of bankruptcy, quasi-rehabilitation bankruptcy procedures, settlement agreement, insolvency prevention, comparative insolvency statistics in the United States, England and Russia

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the development of conceptual approaches to understanding the rehabilitation potential of the bankruptcy institution and methods for assessing the implementation of bankruptcy mechanism. The author proposes to consider the rehabilitation potential of bankruptcy at the micro level (from the point of view of the owner, who has saved the restored business), and at the macro level, when a positive effect for the economy arises from the sale of the existing business and the inefficient owner dismissal. The paper presents the results of a statistical analysis of the bankruptcy implementation in Russian and international practice, substantiates the expediency of statistical accounting for quasi-rehabilitation procedures, the main one being the settlement agreement. Special attention is paid to the study of foreign experience of preventing business insolvencies and identifying possibilities for its application in Russia.

Factors of the Becoming of Engineers as Subjects of Labor (Sociological Portrait)

V. Yu. Kombarov1,2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
2Novosibirsk State University
Keywords: инженерно-технические работники, субъект, становление, глубинное интервью, преодоление, промышленные предприятия, Engineers, subject, becoming, focus interview, transgression, industrial enterprises

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of an ongoing theoretical, methodological and empirical study of engineers employed in Siberian industrial enterprises. The project is carried out in line with qualitative studies in sociology and involves the focused interview method. The interviews revealed a variety of attitudes towards different aspects of labor and industrial relations in enterprises, as well as their influence on subjectivity acquired by engineers in the course of their work. The discourse of engineers consists of their personal statements about the technical bases of enterprises, levels of their equipment. It includes assessment of the adequacy of monetary reward for industrial work that is relevant for the socio-economic domestic realities, as it highlights the problem and the request for public recognition. The author considers the process of labor subject formation as polyphonic (dialogical) - at the intersection of two types of attitudes to the profession of engineer: representatives of the reference group (engineer, his colleagues, family, friends) and the “outside” view (managers, the state, etc.), contributing to the value-normative regulation of the personality of engineers. It is shown that the key to the process of labor subject formation is the paradoxical experience that is realized in practices of conscious, intentional overcoming of structural limitations in the system of labor relations - the principle of “contrary to”.

What is the Relationship between the Demographic Potential and the Economic Development in the Republic of Buryatia?

Yu.G. Byuraeva
Buryat Science Center SB RAS
Keywords: демографический потенциал, Республика Бурятия, трудовые ресурсы, рабочая сила, кризис, миграция, демографическая политика, demography potential, Republic of Buryatia, human resources, labour, crisis, migration, demography politics

Abstract >>
The possibility of economic modernization and socio-economic development of the Russian Federation and its regions including the Republic of Buryatia greatly depends on shaping its demographic potential, which is going through some negative changes. The article analyzes quantitative, structural and qualitative factors of the demographic development in the republic in the period from 1990 to 2018. The main predictive characteristics of the population - birth-rate, mortality rate, natural and migratory increase (decrease) are considered. The declining natural increase against the background of the migration exodus, ageing processes, dispersed nature and insufficient turnover of the population point to persistent problems in the demography. The author concludes that socio-economic development is impossible without immediately resolving the demographic problem. However, it is absolutely necessary to apply an integrated approach in managing demographic and migration processes.

Preschool Education System in Siberia: Performance Indicators and Living Standards of Educators

A. L. Sinitsa
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Keywords: дошкольные организации, педагогический работник, заработная плата, Сибирский федеральный округ, экономика образования, уровень жизни, preschool institutions, pedagogical employees, salary, Siberian Federal District, economy of education, standard of living

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the development of the preschool education system and to the standard of living of pedagogical employees (as measured by the purchasing power of their salary). The problem is quite relevant for Russia, since being short of labor resources, the system needs additional female labor force. It is also true that the standard of living of pedagogical employees affects the quality of education. The Siberian Federal District was chosen because it plays an important role in the country’s economy, and the time period under research allows studying the latest trends in the development of the education system. The number of preschool institutions has been decreasing and depends mostly on the political will, while coverage of children by preschool education has been growing and depends on the birth rate and labor demand. This leads to on increased group size in kindergartens, which is negatively perceived by parents. The living standard of teachers is low and continues to decline, although in the Siberian Federal District it is higher than the national average.

Improvement of Territorial Electric Power Policy in Monotowns of Russia

A.A. Gibadullin1,2,3, V.N. Pulyaeva4, E.N. Kharitonova4, N. A. Kharitonova4
1State University of Management
2National Research University “Moscow Energy Institute”
3Moscow Institute of Technology
4Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation
Keywords: моногород, электроэнергетика, градообразующая организация, государственная поддержка, тариф, monotown, electric power industry, city-forming organization, state support, tariff

Abstract >>
One of the peculiarities of Russia is a significant number of single-industry towns, many of which turned out to be extremely vulnerable in the situation of continuous economic reforms and crises. Deteriorating socio-economic situation and the popular living standards in single-industry settlements has always attracted the attention of the public, the scientific community, and the country’s leadership. There are federal and regional programs adopted and implemented to support such municipalities. Our analysis of the existing regulatory framework governing the status and additional funding of monotowns in the Russian Federation, as well as scientific publications on their problems, showed that development of electric power industry in these localities remains beyond the attention of both legislators and scientists. This fully applies even to energy single-industry towns, where generating stations are city-forming organizations. Assessment of the profile of energy companies in such cities showed that, in comparison with the industry average indicators, they are distinguished by a higher degree of depreciation of fixed assets and low financial results. It is not possible to overcome this lag without attracting additional investment. The authors propose a possible solution to this problem in redistribution of electricity tariffs in single-industry towns, increasing the share of funds attributable to generation. It is assumed that this mechanism should be implemented openly and publicly under state and municipal control. This will produce an additional stream of targeted funds, making it possible for power plants to upgrade equipment.

Power and Single-Industry Towns - are we Serious?!

S.V. Bukharov
Association "NPPA"
Keywords: энергоснабжение, моногорода, тарифное регулирование, котловой тариф, электроэнергетика, single-industry towns, electric power station, city-forming organization, tariff, wholesale electric energy market

Abstract >>
According to a long-standing tradition of our journal, we try to complement opinions of scientists on various problems of economy with a point of view of experts. In this issue, we asked S. V. Bukharov, a representative of energy business, to take part in our discussion. He has over 15 years of experience in financial and economic management of power engineering (Novosibirskenergo Group, TGK-13, Association NP Market Council and others). As a consultant, he participated in preparation of materials for the Government of the Russian Federation concerning a decision to include the workers’ village of Linevo of the Iskitimsky District of the Novosibirsk Region into a heat supply price zone. He tried to evaluate the measures proposed by the authors of the article «Improvement of territorial power electricity policy in monotowns of Russia» in terms of consequences for the energy complex of respective regions and concluded that they are absolutely inapplicable under the current operating conditions of local power systems.