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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2018 year, number 8

1.
Continuum absorption in the IR CO2 spectrum

O.B. Rodimova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: углекислый газ, континуальное поглощение, крылья спектральных линий, carbon dioxide, continuum absorption, spectral line wings

Abstract >>
The Н2О and СО2 continuum absorption within the IR bands depends on the accepted bound of the local line contribution. Correlation between the maximum bound of the local line contribution and the line shape at large frequency detunings is observed for the 4.3, 2.7, 1.4, and 1.2 mm СО2 bands, H2O rotational band, and 1400-1900, 3500-3900, and 5200-5500 cm-1 Н2О bands. The continuum absorption can be unambiguously determined from measurement data in the band wings if it is assumed to be exhaustively continual there. Within the bands, the continuum absorption is ambiguously determined depending on the bound of the local line contribution.
																								



2.
Changes in the multilayer dielectric coating reflection coefficient change under variations in the medium humidity

L.N. Sinitsa, A.A. Lugovskoi, V.I. Serdyukov, M.Yu. Arshinov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: вода, коэффициент отражения, диэлектрическое покрытие, нанопоры, water, reflection coefficient, dielectric mirrors, nanopores

Abstract >>
It was found that the reflection coefficient of multilayer dielectric mirrors strongly depends on the medium (gas sample) humidity. This effect can lead to both an increase and a decrease in the reflection coefficient, which is determined by the change in the dielectric layer refractive indices (when filled with water vapor). The mirror reflection coefficient can increase up to 0.9% in a gas with a humidity close to the dew point. Changes in the reflection coefficient of a mirror in gas media containing different isotopes of water vapor H216O, H218O, and D2O are studied. Mirrors of the CRDS spectrometers with a reflection coefficient R = 0.9999 were studied and the upper bound of the effect was estimated.
																								



3.
Amplification of the lidar signal in a turbulent atmosphere under the conditions of strong optical scintillations

V.A. Banakh, L.O. Gerasimova, I.V. Zaloznaya, A.V. Falits
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: оптическая турбулентность, лидар, усиление обратного рассеяния, optical turbulence, lidar, backscattering amplification

Abstract >>
Experimental data on the lidar signal amplification in a turbulent atmosphere in dependence on the structural constant of the turbulent fluctuations of the air refractive index are presented. It is established that as the refractive index structural constant increases, the amplification coefficient increases first, reaching a maximum, then decreases under the conditions of strong optical scintillations at a sounding path. The maximum of the amplification coefficient that is attainable at a given distance depends on the refractive index turbulence strength at the instant of measurement. The temporal variations in the backscatter amplification coefficient are in good agreement with the temporal changes in the magnitude of the refractive index structural constant, determined from independent measurements.
																								



4.
Researches of the astroclimate in the Special Astrophysical Observatory of RAS

V.V. Nosov1, V.P. Lukin1, E.V. Nosov1, A.V. Torgaev1, V.L. Afanas’ev2, Yu.Yu. Balega2, V.V. Vlasyuk2, V.E. Panchuk2, G.V. Yakopov2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Zelenchukskiy region, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic, Russia 369167
Keywords: телескоп, астроклимат, турбулентность, когерентная структура, уравнения гидродинамики, telescope, astroclimate, turbulence, coherent structure, hydrodynamics equations

Abstract >>
The results of the astroclimate characteristics measurements in the Special Astrophysical Observatory of RAS (SAO, North Caucasus) in 2012 and 2016 are presented. The experimental results are obtained from long-term observation series of the day and night astroclimate in SAO. The presence of non-Kolmogorov coherent turbulence was detected over SAO territory, in which the quality of telescope images improves. The influence of an underlying surface type and a wind speed direction on the formation mode of coherent turbulence is explained. It was found that the causes for coherent turbulence formation are the mountainous terrain and the uneven heating of underlying surface. The airflow velocity distribution inside the dome room of the Big Telescope Alt-azimuth (BTA) had been experimentally researched. Numerical simulation of the air mass motions inside the BTA dome room had been performed to analyze the influence of a temperature regime and a form of constructions. The solutions of the boundary value problem confirm the existence of the experimentally registered vortex structure with a vertical rotation axis. The causes for its formation are the temperature gradients of the dome surfaces.
																								



5.
Study of spectral optical characteristics and microstructure of anthropogenic sols

N.I. Moskalenko, M.S. Khamidullina, Ya.S. Safiullina, I.R. Dodov
Kazan State Power Engineering University, Kazan, Krasnoselskaya str., 51
Keywords: функция спектрального пропускания, газовая фаза, дисперсная фаза, микроструктура золя, антропогенные выбросы, концентрация ингредиентов, spectral transmission function, gas phase, particulate phase, sol microstructure, anthropogenic emissions, concentration of ingredients

Abstract >>
A new complex for spectrometric measurements of atmospheric anthropogenic emissions is presented, which has been designed and is used for the study of optical characteristics of anthropogenic sols. The derived spectral dependences of effective absorption, scattering, radiation attenuation cross sections are used to retrieve the microstructure of anthropogenic sols and to detect the influence of the relative humidity of the radiation propagation medium on the optical characteristics of its dispersed phase. Atmospheric emissions of combustion products of wood, power enterprises, air carriers, and products of thermal decomposition of asbestos-cement plates during their calcination are analyzed.
																								



6.
Parameters of the light-scattering phase function in the tropical Atlantic waters

V.I. Mankovsky
Marine Hydrophysical Institute National Academy of the RAS, 2, Kapitanskaya St., Sevastopol, 299011, Russia
Keywords: индикатриса рассеяния, вытянутость индикатрисы, коэффициент асимметрии индикатрисы, средний косинус угла рассеяния, средний угол рассеяния, показатель рассеяния, показатель ослабления, scattering function, stretch of scattering function, asymmetry coefficient of scattering function, middle cosine of angle of scattering function, middle angle of scattering function, total scattering coefficient, beam attenuation coefficient

Abstract >>
The results of measurements of the light-scattering phase function in the tropical Atlantic are represented. The parameters of the scattering functions in water of the principal large-scale tropical currents are presented. The relations of the scattering function asymmetry coefficient with the total scattering coefficient and the total scattering coefficient with the beam attenuation coefficient are established.
																								



7.
Comparison of average aerosol characteristics in the neighboring Arctic regions

S.M. Sakerin1, L.P. Golobokova2, D.M. Kabanov1, V.S. Kozlov1, V.V. Pol’kin1, V.F. Radionov3, D.G. Chernov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
3Federal State Budgetary Institution "Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute", 38 Bering str., St.Petersburg, Russia, 199397
Keywords: аэрозоль, сажа, ионный состав, Шпицберген, Баренцево море, aerosol, black carbon, ionic composition, Spitsbergen, Barents Sea

Abstract >>
We discuss the results of comparison of the average physical-chemical aerosol characteristics in the neighboring regions: in the Arctic settlement Barentsburg (Spitsbergen Archipelago) and over the Barents Sea. A small (less than 0.02) excess of the atmospheric aerosol optical depth in the island area over the maritime region is noted. The aerosol microphysical characteristics differ stronger in the near-ground layer: the black carbon concentrations are (a factor of 4) larger in Barentsburg, and particle concentrations are (a factor of 2.4) larger over sea. The absolute concentrations of ions in the atmosphere of Barentsburg are several-fold smaller than over sea. However, with respect to the relative content, Na+, Cl- and NH4+, SO42- ions predominate in both regions, indicating equivalent contributions of continental and maritime sources.
																								



8.
Creation of GIS for monitoring of management of nature use in the Lake Baikal basin

Z.Z. Pakhakhinova, A.N. Beshentsev, E.Z. Garmaev
Baikal Institute of Nature Management Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, 670047, Russia, Buryatia, Ulan-Ude, Sakhyanovoy str., 6
Keywords: ГИС, динамика природопользования, ретроспективные карты, геоинформационный мониторинг, GIS, the dynamics of nature use, retrospective maps, geographic information monitoring

Abstract >>
The paper describes the creation and use of a geoinformation system (GIS) for long-term monitoring of agricultural development of a territory using the Lake Baikal basin as an example. The functional structure of GIS consists of measuring, information, technological, and analytical subsystems. The analysis results of retrospective maps as the main documents for the long-term metric assessment of the nature use dynamics are given. A technique for geometric correction of the retrospective maps on the modern topographic basis is described. A methodology for creating and using cartographic information resources for environmental monitoring is developed. A practical example of monitoring results in the form of a map of the arable land dynamics in the XX century is presented.
																								



9.
The influence of heat fluxes in the Barents Sea on the temperature regime of West Siberia in winter season

E.I. Usova, S.V. Loginov, E.V. Kharyutkina
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
Keywords: потоки тепла, температура поверхности океана, температура воздуха, адвекция, Баренцево море, Западная Сибирь, heat fluxes, sea surface temperature, air temperature, advection, the Barents Sea, West Siberia

Abstract >>
The investigation in spatiotemporal variability of ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes in the area of the Barents Sea was carried out over the period 1976-2014. Seasonal changes in the sea ice cover in the Arctic sector of Siberia was also derived. Sea ice area reduction during last decades in the Arctic basin corresponds to sea surface temperature increase, in contrast to which sensible and latent heat fluxes decrease, which was the most pronounced in January. The most intensive changes in ocean-atmosphere heat exchange in the sea under study were indicated during last several years. In the beginning of XXI century, in winter season, advection from the Barents Sea took place mainly through its east border, and advection to West Siberia, through its north border (1%). However, the contribution of advection to the air temperature and humidity in the region increased over last years. It is supposed, that, first of all, the weakening of heat and moisture advection to West Siberia from its south border played an important role in winter cooling here. The influence of the Barents Sea on heat fluxes changes was indirectly shown through large-scale circulation variability over the adjacent territories, as a consequence of intensified heat exchange due to the increase in the open sea area.
																								



10.
Study of the possible impact of the Calbuco volcano eruption on the abnormal destruction of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic in spring 2015

V.V. Zuev1,2, E.S. Savelieva1, T.V. Parezheva1
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: извержение вулкана Кальбуко, антарктическая озоновая дыра, южный полярный вихрь, Calbuco volcano eruption, Antarctic ozone hole, the southern polar vortex

Abstract >>
One of the strongest stratospheric ozone depletion events over the Antarctic was observed in October-November 2015. The increase in the ozone hole was associated with the eruption of Calbuco volcano (Chile) in April 2015 with a maximum plume altitude of  17 km. Based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis data and the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model, we estimated the possibility of penetration of volcanic aerosols inside the polar vortex. It was shown that volcanic aerosols could not contribute to the intensification of ozone depletion reactions, because it was outside the stable polar vortex.
																								



11.
Study of the relationship between snow cover and ozone concentration in the surface air layer

B.D. Belan, D.E. Savkin, G.N. Tolmachev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, весенний максимум, воздух, газы-прекурсоры, изменение концентрации, озон, снежный покров, температура, atmosphere, spring maximum, air, gases-precursors, concentration change, ozone, snow cover, temperature

Abstract >>
The relationship between snow cover and surface ozone concentration is studied on the basis of measurements near Tomsk in 1990-2017. Four types of the seasonal ozone variations are revealed: (1) concentration growth which ends with a spring maximum (53.9% of cases); (2) slow growth and a surge in the concentration after the snow cover melting (19.2%); (3) neutral behavior during the snow cover period and a sharp surge in the concentration after the snow cover melting (15.4%); and (4) neutral behavior without spring maximum (11.5%). Thus, at the end of the snow cover period, the spring maximum of ozone concentration is observed in 88.5% of cases. Differences in the seasonal variations in different years are explained by the temperature dependence of photochemical ozone generation in the atmosphere.
																								



12.
Peculiarities of the vertical distribution of carbon dioxide over Southwestern Siberia in the summer season

M.Yu. Arshinov1, B.D. Belan1, D.K. Davydov1, O.A. Krasnov1, Sh. Macsyutov2, T. Machida2, M. Sasakawa2, A.V. Fofonov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, 305-8506, Tsukuba, Japan
Keywords: атмосфера, вертикальное распределение, воздух, газ, летний период, углекислый газ, atmosphere, vertical distribution, air, gas, summer period, carbon dioxide

Abstract >>
The long-term variability of carbon dioxide concentration at different altitudes during the summer period is analyzed on the basis of data of aircraft sounding over Southwestern Siberia. The monitoring data show that summer values of carbon dioxide concentration at an altitude of 7.0 km grew with a rate of 1.90 ppm/year over the region under study. In the atmospheric boundary layer, the CO2 concentration grew insignificantly during summer periods from 1997 to 2004 (0.32 ppm/year). Form 2005 to 2017 inclusive, the growth rate sharply increased and was 2.55 ppm/year. The analysis of possible causes of such long-term behavior has shown that it is not due to reduction of the area of forests, wildfires, or diseases of trees. It is also impossible to assert that the carbon dioxide sink was caused by the impact of climatic parameters on forest vegetation. It is probable that the amount of carbon dioxide accumulated in the atmosphere by 2004 makes impossible its further absorption by Siberian forests.