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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2018 year, number 2

1.
Cosmopolitan Distribution of the Spitting Spider Scytodes thoracica Latreille, 1802 (Aranei, Scytodidae) and its New Findings of this Species in the Northern Parts of the Range

E. A. BELOSLUDTSEV1, V. V. GASILIN2
1Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education, 443090, Samara, Antonov-Ovsеenko str., 24
2Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch of RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: Aranei, Scytodidae, Scytodes thoracica, паук-плевака, ареал, синантроп, космополит, расселение, антропохория, инвазия, изотерма июля, Средиземноморье, Европа, Среднее Поволжье, Самарская обл, spitting spider, range, synanthrope, cosmopolitan, dispersal, anthropochory, colonization, July isotherm, Mediterranean, Europe, Middle Volga Region, Samara oblast

Abstract >>
We have compiled data on the distribution of spitting spider Scytodes thoracica Latreille, 1802 throughout the world and discussed our original findings of the spider in the northern part of its Eurasian range. This cosmopolitan species has a Mediterranean origin; the only place where it has not been found is Antarctica. The wide distribution of this species is due to the anthropogenic factor. However, S. thoracica demonstrates synanthropic behavior outside its natural range. Based on the published data of studies in the Mediterranean region, we describe the range of this species as a synanthrope; there lies the northern border of its range. We also determine the northern border of the range in natural areas (including agricultural landscapes). The southern region of the Middle Volga is the northernmost location of S. thoracica in the natural ecosystems of Eastern Europe and the easternmost location in the natural ecosystems of northern Eurasia.
																								



2.
Analysis of the Geomorphic Features and Spatial Location of Landscapes with the Use of Geoinformatics and Statistic Approaches

N. V. POMAZKOVA, V. Y. ABAKUMOVA
Institute of nаtural resources, ecology and cryology, SB RAS, 672014, Chita, Nedorezova str., 16a
Keywords: ландшафты, цифровая модель рельефа, дискриминантный анализ, landscapes, geomorphic features, digital elevation model, discriminant anаlysis

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to study of geomorphic features impact on landscapes. The object of study was a small river basin in Zabaikalsky Krai (Russia) where 33 landscape units were contoured. Six terrain attributes (elevation, directional slope, wetness index, plan curvature, profile curvature, standard deviation of slope) were calculated from digital elevation model and were used as variables for discriminant analysis. Root 1 was responsible for 81 % of variance and had the biggest correlation with elevation. Root 2 (9 % of variance) correlated with directional slope, root 3 (6 % of variance) - with standard deviation of slope and profile curvature, root 4 (3 % of variance) - with wetness index and profile curvature. Also, some characteristics of summer air temperature (day mean and extremes) were used as variables for discriminant analysis. Valley landscapes were coldest at the average; the burnt wood area had the biggest extremes.
																								



3.
Patterns of Sandy Steppe Vegetation in the Valleys of the Samara and Ural Rivers and Their Inflows (Orenburg Region)

A. Yu. KOROLYUK1, N. A. DULEPOVA1, S. M. YAMALOV2, M. V. LEBEDEVA2, Ya. M. GOLOVANOV2, A. A. ZVEREV3
1Central Siberian Botanical Garden, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
2Botanical Garden-Institute, USC RAS, 450080, Ufa, Mendeleev str., 195/3
3Тomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin ave., 36
Keywords: растительность, псаммофиты, Оренбургская обл, кластерный анализ, ординация, vegetation, psammophytes, Orenburg Region, cluster analysis, ordination

Abstract >>
The organization of psammophytic vegetation of Orenburg Region was studied. A cluster analysis with 6 similarity indices of the data set of 122 relevés comprising the sandy steppe vegetation was performed. The usage of Sokal - Sneath coefficient gave better differentiation of clusters. As a result 5 plant communities were distinguished and characterized. To analyze the data structure, a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used. It allowed to evaluate the role of anthropogenic transformation and geographical differences in the organization of psammophytic vegetation.
																								



4.
Morphological Plasticity of Hedysarum austrosibiricum B. Fedtsch (Fabaceae) Shoots in Different Ecological and Geographic Conditions

E. V. ZHMUD1, O. V. DOROGINA1, A. A. ACHIMOVA2
1Central Siberian Botanical Garden, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
2Gorno-Altaisky Botanical Garden, Branch of Central Siberian Botanical Garden, SB RAS, 649218, the Altai Republic, Shebalino Region, Kamlack village, Chisty lug
Keywords: эндемичный вид Hedysarum austrosibiricum, изменчивость, морфологические признаки, высокогорные условия, бобовые растения, endemic species Hedysarum austrosibiricum, variability, morphological features, high-mountain conditions, leguminous plants

Abstract >>
Morphostructural features of the aerial part of the shoots of the endemic to Siberia species Hedysarum austrosibiricum B. Fedtsch in the mountain conditions of the Altai and Khakasiya Republics at the altitude range of 1200-2350 m above sea level were studied. A complex of adaptive morphological characters to high-mountain conditions in representatives of the species was revealed. A significant tendency to reduce the size of leaflets of compound leaves and reduce the number of inflorescences on the shoot was noted. A tendency to a significant increase in productivity which showed itself in increase of diameter of the caudex and the number of shoots in individuals was revealed. The low degree of correlation between the values of most of studied morphological features reflecting the growth and development of individuals may be assigned to the adaptive features of the species.
																								



5.
Phytoplankton as the Indicator of the Ecological State of the Saltaim - Tenis Lake System (Omsk Oblast)

O. P. BAZHENOVA, O. O. KRENTZ
P. A. Stolypin Omsk State Agrarian University, 644008, Omsk, Institute Sq., 1
Keywords: фитопланктон, озерная система Салтаим - Тенис, экологическое состояние, трофический статус, индекс сапробности, Омское Прииртышье, phytoplankton, Saltaim-Tenis Lake system, ecological state, trophic status, saprobity index, Omsk Priirtyshiye

Abstract >>
Based on the data of a multi-year study of phytoplankton, the current ecological state and the direction of changes in the Saltaim-Tenis Lake system (Omsk Oblast) were assessed. Species composition, structure, abundance and dominant complexes of phytoplankton were described. The predominance of cyanobacteria in the formation of the population and the dominant phytoplankton complex was established. The trophic level of the lakes corresponded to the eutrophic and polytrophic water categories. The saprobity index of water varied from б-oligosaprobic to в-mesosaprobic zone. The ecological state of the lake system is stable compared to that in the mid-20th century.
																								



6.
Interannual Variability of the Composition of Low-Molecular Metabolites of Ceratophyllum demersum (Ceratophyllaceae) in the Floodplain Lake with Changing Trophic Status

E. A. KURASHOV1,2, G. G. MITRUKOVA3, J. V. KRYLOVA4,2
1Institute of Limnology, RAS, 196105, St. Petersburg, Sevastianova str., 9
2ITMO University, 197101, St. Petersburg, Kronverkskiy ave., 49
3St. Petersburg State Chemical-Pharmaceutical Academy, 196105, St. Petersburg, Sevastianova str., 9
4Berg State Researh Institute on Lake and River Fisheries, 199053, St. Petersburg, emb. Makarova, 26
Keywords: Ceratophyllum demersum, цианобактерии, макрофиты, низкомолекулярные органические соединения, газовая хромато-масс-спектрометрия, аллелопатия, низкомолекулярный метаболом, cyanobacteria, macrophytes, low molecular weight organic compounds, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, allelopathy, low molecular weight metabolome

Abstract >>
Regularities of formation of composition of low molecular weight organic compounds (LMWOC) of aquatic macrophytes in relation to changes in the water environment remain still poorly understood. The aim of this work was to conduct a comparative interannual study of the component composition of LMWOC of Ceratophyllum demersum L. (hornwort, rigid hornwort) growing in the floodplain lake with changing trophic state (Volga-Akhtuba floodplain). A high variability of the structure and content of individual compounds in hornwort in different trophic states of the lake was revealed. Active allelochemicals, of which free fatty acids seemed to be the most important, prevailed in the LMWOC in the “macrophytic” mesotrophic state of the lake. In the “cyanobacterial” eutrophic type of development of the lake, the composition of LMWOC of hornwort was characterized by the prevalence of compounds providing an enhanced protective reaction of the plant (of which the more important was manool) under conditions of the negative impacts of cyanobacteria, which also resulted in a decrease in the overall level of synthesis of compounds (almost 2-fold).
																								



7.
Meromixis and Seasonal Dynamics of Vertical Structure of Lake Uchum (South Siberia)

D. Y. ROGOZIN1,2, V. V. ZYKOV1, E. A. IVANOVA2, T. N. ANUFRIEVA2, Y. V. BARKHATOV1, E. B. KHROMECHEK1, I. Y. BOTVICH1
1Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Division, RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/50
2Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny ave., 79
Keywords: меромиксия, сероводород, стратификация, соленое озеро, фототрофные серные бактерии, фитопланктон, зоопланктон, донные отложения, meromixis, hydrogen sulphide, stratification, salt lake, phototrophic sulfur bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, bottom sediments

Abstract >>
For the first time the seasonal dynamics of the vertical structure of small salt Lake Uchum, located in the steppe arid zone of the South of Siberia (the Krasnoyarsk Krai), has been studied in detail. It is shown that this lake is a meromictic water body. A heterogeneous vertical distribution of plankton organisms and a dense population of purple sulfuric bacteria in the redox zone were revealed. The taxonomic composition and seasonal dynamics of phyto- and zooplankton were described. Presumably, the meromixis of Lake Uchum is due to the inflow of fresh water to the surface of the saline water body during the rise of its level in the early 20th century, similar to Shira and Shunet lakes located nearby. The processes of salt displacement into the solution during the formation of ice, as well as the precipitation of salts in the winter, also contribute to the maintenance of permanent stratification. Obtained information on the current state of the lake can be useful for reconstructing the climate by bottom sediments, as well as for creating models of water quality and studying the therapeutic properties of lake mud.
																								



8.
Fatty Acid Composition of Total Lipids in Needles of Picea obovata in the Spring Vegetation Period

M. V. IVANOVA, S. P. MAKARENKO, G. G. SUVOROVA
Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Lermontov str., 132
Keywords: Picea obovata, жирные кислоты, десатуразы, хлорофилл, fatty acids, desaturase, chlorophyll

Abstract >>
The dynamics of the fatty acid composition of total lipids in needles of Picea obovata L. during the first half of the vegetation period in 2010 (March-July) was studied. In the composition of unsaturated FA of total lipids of Picea obovata needles in the post-winter (10.03-6.04), spring (20.04-18.05), and summer (1.06-20.07) periods, three FA content peaks characterized by the increase in the content of б-linolenic acid were revealed. For the post-winter and spring vegetation periods, the UFA increase was accompanied by the increase in the desaturase ratio (ODR and LDR). The spring peak of the 18:3w3 content coincided with the spring peak of the content of chlorophylls in LHC PSU and the beginning of the net CO2 assimilation while the summer one coincided with the highest content of chlorophylls in the studied period. Possible variants of the participation of FA in the transformation mechanisms of the structural and functional organization of the photosynthetic apparatus of a coniferous plant are discussed.
																								



9.
Sexual Dimorphism of the Protein Level in Urine of Muridae Rodents: Relation to Population Numbers

G. G. NAZAROVA, L. P. PROSKURNYAK, O. F. POTAPOVA
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Siberian Branch of RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
Keywords: грызуны, численность популяций, хемокоммуникация, белок мочи, половой диморфизм, rodents, population numbers, chemocommunication, urine protein, sexual dimorphism

Abstract >>
The results of the comparative study conducted on water voles, steppe lemming, and Campbell hamster supplemented with published data on seven other Muridae rodent species revealed positive relation between the extent of sexual dimorphism estimated by protein level in urine and typical of each species population abundance and amplitude of its variation. In species with usually low population numbers the ratio of protein in urine of males to that of females comprised 0.9, in species with relative stable population numbers - 3.4, and in species with periodical high amplitude fluctuation of population numbers - 8.3.
																								



10.
Biogeochemical Features of Accumulation of Platinum in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Lamiaceae)

Yu. A. PSHENICHKINA1, A. Ya. PSHENICHKIN2
1Central Siberian Botanical Garden, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
2Nationаl Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Tomsk, Leninа ave., 10
Keywords: Scutellaria baicalensis, Lamiaceae, платина, биогеохимические особенности, накопление, platinum, biogeochemical features, accumulation

Abstract >>
For the first time accumulation level and distribution character of platinum in soil and in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Lamiaceae collected in natural habitats (south-western Primorye, Amur and Chita Oblasts) and introduced in Central Siberian Botanical Garden of SB RAS (Novosibirsk) have been studied using stripping voltammetry. In the habitats of S. baicalensis , the content of platinum in soil varied from 0.001 to 0.426 g/t. The content of platinum in different parts of the plants varied from 0.001 to 0.43 g/t. The bioaccumulation factor of platinum in S. baicalensis from different habitats varied from 0,01 to 6.1 g/t.