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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2018 year, number 2

1.
Turbulent lidar. II. Experiment

I.A. Rasenkov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: атмосферная турбулентность, усиление обратного рассеяния, лидар, atmospheric turbulence, backscatter amplification effect, lidar

Abstract >>
Results of field experiments at horizontal paths with the use of BSA-2 and BSA-3 turbulent lidars, principles and design of which have been described in the first part, are presented. Lidar BSA-2 operated at 2 km path together with the independent image jitter sensor (IJS). Lidar BSA-3 operated at a horizontal 26 km path. Lidar BSA-2 was used in the experiments aimed at the study of the shape of the backscatter amplification peak; the sounding was done with apertures of different sizes. The experimental dependence of the q -factor of the effect of turbulence depending on the size of the receiving aperture is derived, which agrees satisfactorily with V.V. Vorob’ev’s formula. The lidar sounding data and results of the data conversion into the structure constant of the “optical” turbulence C 2n with the use of V.V. Vorob’ev approximation for homogeneous turbulence are presented. The sounding range was  10 km. The correlation between lidar and image jitter sensor data is 0.7-0.8. The sounding in urban environment showed that the horizontal path is not statistically homogeneous; therefore, more complex procedures should be used for retrieval of the structure characteristic in the future when solving the inverse problems of lidar sounding of turbulence.
																								



2.
Adaptive compensation of thermal distortions of multichannel laser radiation

F.Yu. Kanev1, N.A. Makenova1, V.P. Lukin1, O.L. Antipov2, I.D. Veretekhin3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ul'yanov Street , 603600, Nizhny Novgorod , Russia
3National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: адаптивная оптика, тепловое самовоздействие, многоканальное излучение, фазовое сопряжение, амплитудно-фазовое управление излучением, adaptive optics, thermal blooming, multichannel radiation, phase conjugation, amplitude-phase control over the beam wavefront

Abstract >>
Results of simulation of multichannel radiation propagation under conditions of thermal blooming are presented and correction of nonlinear thermal distortion on the base of the beam phase control is considered. The results show the dependence of correction effectiveness on the number of channels and on the precision of reference beam phase retrieval. An additional increase in the effectiveness is possible with adjustment of amplification in the channels of the optical system, i.e., with the use of amplitude-phase control of radiation.
																								



3.
Digital compensation of turbulent distortions of incoherent optical images using multiaperture systems

V.V. Dudorov, A.S. Eremina
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: многоапертурные системы наблюдения, турбулентная атмосфера, компьютерная обработка изображений, multiaperture systems, turbulent atmosphere, computational imaging

Abstract >>
Possibilities of enhancement of the operational efficiency of optical multiaperture systems in a turbulent atmosphere are studied in numerical simulation. Features of the synthesis of an object image as a sum (superposition) of images from every individual aperture are analyzed under the presence of turbulent distortions. The quality of images synthesized by a matrix of N ´ N subapertures ( N = 5-10) is analyzed. It is shown that turbulent distortions in an image synthesized with the use of many subapertures accounting shifts of subimages at each subaperture are isoplanar in a wide range of atmospheric conditions. This allows significant improvement of the image quality by means of computer correction. In this case, there is an optimal subaperture size mainly determined by the Fried parameter, which characterizes the degree of turbulent distortions.
																								



4.
Spectrum of absorption coefficients and intracellular concentration of cyanobacterial pigments by the example of Spirulina platensis

L.E. Paramonov
P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 1G, ul. Prostornaja, Gelendjik, Russia, 353467
Keywords: спектр показателей поглощения, Spirulina platensis, внутриклеточная концентрация пигментов, хлорофилл а, фикоцианин, фикоэритрин, spectrum of absorption coefficients, Spirulina platensis, intracellular concentration of pigments, chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin

Abstract >>
An analytical estimate of the absorption cross section for homogeneous nonspherical particles and their suspensions is suggested and justified. On the example of Spirulina platensis , a method for evaluating the spectrum of pigment absorption for photosynthetically active radiation, excluding the use of pigment extracts, is considered. The effect of the size and shape distribution of cells on the absorption spectra is studied. The intracellular concentrations of chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, and phycocyanin are estimated.
																								



5.
Electromagnetic radiation attenuation in wet aerosols at low temperatures in the microwave range

A.O. Orlov, A.A. Gurulev, S.D. Krylov, S.V. Tsyrenzhapov
Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 672014, Chita, ul. Nedorezova, 16а
Keywords: микроволновый диапазон, переохлажденная вода, аэрозоль, коэффициент затухания, microwave range, supercooled water, aerosol, attenuation coefficient

Abstract >>
Measurements of the attenuation of electromagnetic radiation in supercooled water in the wavelength range from 0.2 to 3.0 cm with its supercooling to a temperature of about -70 °C are performed. Nanoporous materials were used to achieve deep supercooling. In such materials, the properties of pore water are close to those of bulk water. The measurements made it possible to derive a formula for the attenuation coefficient of supercooled water at temperatures below -30 °C. With the use of new data, calculations of the linear attenuation of electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelength range at low temperatures for wet aerosols with small electromagnetic losses of the particle material were performed.
																								



6.
Isotope composition of atmospheric aerosol of Tajikistan

S.A. Abdullaev, V.A. Maslov, B.I. Nazarov, H.I. Kodirova, R.A. Karieva, A.M. Djuraev, T. Davlatshoev
S.U. Umarov Physical-Technical Institute of Academy of Sciences of Rebublic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Tajikistan, Tajikistan, 734063, Dushanbe, Akademgorodok, ul. Ajni, 299/1
Keywords: изотопы уранового и ториевого рядов, пылевой аэрозоль, почва, изотопный состав, isotopes of uranium and thorium series, dust aerosol, soil, isotope composition

Abstract >>
The results of the study of distribution of Tl-208, Pb-212, Ac-228, Pb-214, Bi-214, Th-234, Ra-226, Pb-210, Cs-137, Be-7, and K-40 isotopes in samples of atmospheric aerosol from the southern, central, and northern parts of Tajikistan are represented. Significant correlations are found between the concentrations of isotopes Cs-137 and Th-234 (0.95), Cs-137 and Ra-226 (0.95), Ra-226 and Bi-214 (0.84), Ac-228 and Ra-226 (0.75), Pb-210 and Pb-214 (0.69), Ac-228 and Pb-214 (0.64), K-40 and Pb-212 (0.71), Cs-137 and Bi-214 (0.78), and Th-234 and Pb-212 (0.67). Concentrations between the concentrations of other isotopes are insignificant or inverse. The statistics for dust intrusions indicates that the concentrations of isotopes K-40, Cs-137, and Bi-214 are hundreds of times higher than the background pollution level, and of the remaining isotopes, up to tens of times.
																								



7.
Estimates of direct radiation effects of background and smoke aerosol in IR spectral region for Siberian summer conditions

N.M. Nasrtdinov, T.B. Zhuravleva, T.Yu. Chesnokova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: численное моделирование, модели OPAC, прямой радиационный эффект, фоновый и дымовой аэрозоль, ИК-область спектра, numerical simulation, OPAC models, direct radiation effect, background and smoke aerosol, IR spectral region

Abstract >>
We presented estimates of direct radiation effects (DRE) of background and smoke aerosol in the IR spectral region obtained using an original algorithm of the Monte Carlo method and OPAC models for typical summer conditions and conditions of 2012 smoke haze on the territory of Siberia. It is shown that the DRE value at the atmospheric boundaries in the thermal range with respect to the daily average radiative effect in the solar spectral region is approximately 3% under the background conditions and 10-15% under the conditions of strong turbidity.
																								



8.
Orographic effects on calculation of the urban heat island intensity

V.I. Demin1, I.N. Kuznetsova2, N.E. Brusova2, M.I. Nakhaev2, I.Yu. Shalygina2, P.V. Zakharova3
1Polar Geophysical Institute, 26а, Academgorodok St., Apatity, 184209
2Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 11-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
3Mosjekomonitoring, 11/1, Novyj Arbat, 1119019, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: городской остров тепла, антропогенное тепло, микроклимат, орографический эффект, загрязнение городского воздуха, urban heat island, anthropogenic heat, microclimate, effect of topography, urban air pollution

Abstract >>
Using 20 meteorological stations in Moscow region as an example, it is show that relief-induced microclimate differences affect the calculations of the intensity of urban heat island in Moscow. Microclimate parameters were investigated on the basis of comparison between the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures and the analysis of large-scale topographic maps. In some instances, variations in the carbon monoxide concentration were used as evidences of microclimate relevant air circulations. The outcomes of the study prove that the urban heat island needs to be investigated using data from rural and urban meteorological stations located in similar microclimate.
																								



9.
Aerosols in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Sulfate particles in northern latitudes

A.E. Aloyan1,2, A.N. Ermakov3, V.O. Arutyunyan1
1The Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkin str., 8, Moscow, 119333, Russia
2Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 11-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
3Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, 119334, Moscow, Leninskii prosp., 38, korp. 2
Keywords: полярные стратосферные облака, сульфатный аэрозоль, кинетика, фотохимия, конденсация/испарение, коагуляция, нуклеация, polar stratospheric clouds, sulfate aerosol, kinetics, photochemistry, condensation/evaporation, coagulation, nucleation

Abstract >>
Numerical calculations have been performed to obtain the wintertime atmospheric concentrations of sulfate aerosols (SAs) and particles of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres using the mathematical model of transport of multicomponent gaseous admixtures and aerosols. It has been found that a key factor determining the type of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is the temperature distribution. In northern latitudes, only Junge layer particles are found, while the atmosphere above the tropics is characterized by local areas of formation of PSC particles: supercooled ternary solutions H2SO4/HNO3/H2O, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), and ice particles.
																								



10.
The parameterization of blowing snow beginning and evolution

V.I. Bychkova, K.G. Rubinstein
Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 11-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: прогноз метелей, физика приземного слоя, взаимодействие снежной поверхности и нижнего слоя атмосферы, blizzards forecast, physics of the surface air layer, interaction of the snow surface and lower layer of the atmosphere

Abstract >>
A parameterization of blowing snow beginning and evolution is suggested with accounting for all basic physical mechanisms of snow drifting, dynamics of air and snow particles, and evaporation of suspended particles.
																								



11.
Numerical method for cavity alignment by output beam image

M.V. Andreev1, S.M. Bobrovnikov2, E.V. Gorlov2, Yu.N. Panchenko1, A.V. Puchikin1, V.I. Zharkov2
1High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 2/3, Academichesky ave. HCEI SB RAS
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: эксимерный лазер, обработка изображений, методы бинаризации, лазерный пучок, резонатор, интенсивность излучения, excimer laser, image processing, binarization methods, laser beam, cavity, radiation intensity

Abstract >>
Numerical and experimental studies of the control of optical elements of the KrF-laser cavity using the image processing method are carried out. Different image binarization methods are considered as applied to determining the boundary dimensions and equalizing the intensity distribution of the laser beam. Conditions for rapid adjustment of the dispersion cavity in automatic mode of laser operation are ascertained, and the initial parameters of the output beam are retrieved within 5%.
																								



12.
Lidar and nephelometric measurements of meteorological range of visibility

A.I. Grishin1, A.V. Kruchkov1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, лидар, коэффициент аэрозольного рассеяния, нефелометр, atmosphere, lidar, aerosol scattering coefficient, nephelometer

Abstract >>
Results of comparative measurements of the meteorological range of visibility in the atmosphere with the help of a lidar and a nephelometer are described. Data of the synchronous measurements show a good coincidence between the results obtained by different instruments in certain situations. The correlation coefficient attains 0.92.
																								



13.
Some general regularities in object detection on the basis of hyperspectral data

S.M. Ogreb, M.V. Tishaninov, P.M. Iukhno
State Research Institute of Problems of the Information Technical Protection of the Federal Service for Technical and Export Control, 394020, Voronezh, ul. 9 January, 280а
Keywords: пространственный объект, синтез, обнаружитель, оптимальный алгоритм, гиперспектральный, отношение сигнал-шум, спектральная характеристика, spatial object, synthesis, detector, optimal algorithm, hyperspectral, signal-to-noise ratio, spectral characteristic

Abstract >>
Based on the results of statistical synthesis of optimal algorithm of object detection by hyperspectral instruments features of this algorithm are analyzed. The analysis allows us to reveal some general regularities in detection of spatial object from hyperspectral data, which connect amplitude and spectral differences in the radiation from object and from background.