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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2017 year, number 4

The broadening of CO spectral lines confined in aerogel nanopores

V.I. Starikov1,2, A.A. Solodov3
1Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050, 40 Lenina Prospect, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: окись углерода, уширение и сдвиг спектральных линий, аэрогель, нанопоры, CO, half-width and shift of spectral lines, aerogel, nanopores

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of calculations of the broadening and shifts of absorption lines of CO confined in nanoporous media. The collisions with walls and absorbed rotational and non-rotataional CO molecules are taken into account. The comparison with the existing experimental data is discussed.

Retrieval of crosswind velocity based on the analysis of remote object images. Part 1. Drift of a thin layer of turbulent inhomogeneities

V.V. Dudorov, A.S. Eremina
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: скорость ветра, турбулентная атмосфера, некогерентное изображение, wind, turbulent atmosphere, incoherent image

Abstract >>
Numerical simulation is carried out in order to evaluate possibilities of crosswind velocity determination along an observation path between distant object and observer. The proposed simulation method is based on the analysis of atmospheric distortions in the object images. The influence of limited atmospheric areas on the object image distortion and possibilities of the drift velocity retrieval in these areas are investigated. A new method for filtration of turbulent distortions by their characteristic sizes is suggested with the aim to determine the wind velocity at different segments of the observation path. It is demonstrated that the evaluation method allows one to determine crosswind velocity with high accuracy when it is applied to a thin layer of atmospheric inhomogeneities.

Simulation of water vapor condensation. Charged clusters

G.F. Krymsky, G.S. Pavlov, S.I. Petukhov
Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 677980, Yakutsk, 31, Lenina ave.
Keywords: водяной пар, капли, конденсация, энергия связи, пересыщение, water rapor, drops, condensation, coupling energy, supersaturation

Abstract >>
On the basis of simulation of water molecule interaction in small clusters in the presence of ions the binding energy of molecules and supersaturation of vapor being in balance with small droplets is calculated. Supersaturation thresholds are found. It is shown that negatively charged droplets have a lower threshold than positively charged ones. In the calculations, the four-point potential for water molecules is used.

Experimental study of the influence of optical characteristics of a medium on the imaging quality of vision OES with selection of backscattered noise signal

V.V. Belov, V.N. Abramochkin, Yu.V. Gridnev, A.N. Kudryavtsev, V.S. Kozlov, R.F. Rakhimov, V.P. Shmargunov, M.V. Tarasenkov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: активно-импульсные ОЭС с управляемым приемником, частотно-контрастные характеристики, мира, дым, туман, лабораторные эксперименты, active pulsed OES with controllable receiver, frequency-contrast characteristics, mires, smoke, fog, laboratory experiments

Abstract >>
In the present work, results of experimental investigations into the influence of turbid media (fog, smoke) on the quality of image of objects observed through them using active pulsed OES operating in the modes with constantly open receiver and controllable receiver (in the mode of selection of backscattered noise signal) are considered. It is experimentally confirmed that in the active pulsed OES with selection of backscattered noise signal, the quality of images of objects screened by turbid media can be almost 10 times higher than in the case of their operation with constantly open receiver. The image quality of objects in systems of vision with controllable reception is influenced not only by the optical length of the observation path but also by such characteristics as the average sizes of particles and their scattering and absorbing properties.

Post-filamentation light channels in air

D.V. Apeksimov1, A.A. Zemlyanov1, A.M. Kabanov1, A.N. Stepanov2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ul'yanov Street, 603950, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Keywords: лазерное излучение, фемтосекундный импульс, филаментация, постфиламентационный световой канал, фокусировка, воздух, laser radiation, femtosecond pulse, filamentation, post-filamentation light channel, focusing, air

Abstract >>
The results are presented of experimental studies of spatial characteristics of postfilamentation light channels in air formed by femtosecond pulses of Ti:Sapphire laser with different energy for focused and collimated beams. It was found that for a focused beam in the far zone from the filamentation region, the angular divergence of channels is dozens of times lower than the angular divergence of the beam as a whole. The angular divergence of the channels is first significantly reduced with an increase of the pulse energy, then goes into a saturation mode. For collimated beams, at a fixed distance from the source, an increase in the pulse energy also leads to stabilization of the transverse dimension of the channel

Features of seasonal [OI] 557.7 nm emission variations

A.V. Mikhalev
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, 126a, Lermontova str.
Keywords: свечение атмосферы, эмиссия 557,7 нм, сезонный ход, солнечная активность, airglow, 557.7 nm emission, seasonal variations, solar activity

Abstract >>
From long-term observations of the upper atmosphere emission in Eastern Siberia, we studied features of seasonal [OI] 557.7 nm emission variations. We found qualitative similarity with seasonal 557.7 nm emission variations obtained from other mid-latitude stations in the Northern hemisphere in previous decades. Among differences are less pronounced annual summer maximum and significantly lower values of 557.7 nm emission intensity in April and the next three months. We found significant correlation coefficients between the monthly averages of 557.7 nm emission intensity and F10.7 solar radio flux index only for autumn and winter months. We discussed possible reasons and mechanisms of the observed 557.7 nm emission variations. We used observations from the Geophysical Observatory of Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS (52° N, 103° E) for 1997-2016.

Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in the waterlogged forests of Western Siberian southern and middle taiga subzones

M.V. Glagolev1,2,3,4, D.V. Ilyasov1, I.E. Terentyeva2, A.F. Sabrekov1,2, O.A. Krasnov5, S.S. Maksutov2,6
1Institute of Forest Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Sovetskaya 21, Uspenskoe, Moscow region, 143030, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
3Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1/12, Moscow, 119992, Russia
4Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, 16, Chehova, Hanty-Mansijsk, 628012, Russia
5V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
6National Institute for Environmental Studies, 305-8506 Japan, Ibaraki, Tsukuba-City, Onogawa 16-2
Keywords: заболоченные леса, потоки метана и диоксида углерода, парниковые газы, waterlogged forest, methane and carbon dioxide fluxes, greenhouse gases

Abstract >>
Field measurements methane and carbon dioxide fluxes have been conducted on two sites of Western Siberia in south and middle taiga on August 16-24, 2015. Static chamber method had been used. Two measurement sites were chose in Bakchar bog, Tomsk Region, for typical local ecosystems (from oligotrophic bog to enclosed forest and periodically flooded forest) and in waterlogged forest near Shapsha settlement, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region. Maximum methane fluxes have been measured from the overmoistening territory of burnt birch forest (median is 6.96; lower and upper quartiles are -3.12 and 9.95 mgС × m-2 × h-1, respectively). Minimum of these parameters (among the above objects) was measured in the periodic seasonal waterlogged forest (median, lower and upper quartiles are -0.08, -0.14 and -0.03 mgС × m-2 × h-1, respectively). These data may be used for estimation of regional methane fluxes from waterlogged and periodically flooded forests and for forecast of their influence on the total balance of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Features of the stratospheric circulation dynamics due to the January 2009 sudden stratospheric warming

V.V. Zuev, N.E. Zueva, V.Y. Ageyeva, E.S. Savelieva
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
Keywords: внезапное стратосферное потепление, весенняя перестройка циркуляции стратосферы, северный циркумполярный вихрь, эволюция тропопаузы, общее содержание озона, радиационный нагрев, sudden stratospheric warming, spring alteration of the stratospheric circulation, Arctic circumpolar vortex, tropopause evolution, total ozone content, radiation heating

Abstract >>
Effects of the major sudden stratospheric warming event in January 2009 on the stratospheric circulation dynamics are analyzed. Irreversible splitting and successive destruction of the arctic circumpolar vortex on January 24, 2009, are shown to cause anomalously early alteration of the stratospheric circulation. The dynamics of vertical temperature profiles over the Ny-Ålesund and Alert stations reflecting distribution of warming from the middle stratosphere to the upper troposphere and the tropopause evolution has been analyzed. Here we consider the uncharacteristic trend in the total ozone content within the Arctic region preventing the restoration of the winter circulation pattern during the winter and spring time in 2009 after the sudden stratospheric warming.

Remote sensing and mesoscale models in the study of the urban boundary layer

V.P. Yushkov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 1/2, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование, мезомасштабная модель, пограничный слой, мегаполис, городская аномалия, обратный статистический анализ, remote sensing, mesoscale models, boundary layer, megalopolis, urban anomaly, hindcasting

Abstract >>
It is shown how ground-based remote sensing can help us to improve the knowledge of atmospheric boundary layer and how mesoscale synoptic models can be used as a hindcasting tool. A technique is suggested for evaluation of the quality of boundary layer representation in the models using remote sensing data.

Systematization of data sources with spectral line parameters for the carbon dioxide molecule and its isotopologues in the W@DIS information system

A.V. Kozodoev1, A.I. Privezentsev1, A.Z. Fazliev1, N.N. Filippov2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Saint Petersburg State University, 3, Ulyanovskaya str., Petrodvorets, St. Petersburg, 198504, Russia
Keywords: классификация контуров спектральных линий, профили спектральных линий диоксида углерода, информационная система W@DIS, line shapes classification, carbon dioxide line profiles, W@DIS information system

Abstract >>
Spectral line shapes are used to process experimental spectra when solving the inverse task of computing the collisional parameters of the line profiles. The difference in the shapes is due to different physical conditions (strong/weak collisions, large/small pressures, etc.). Numerous different line shapes are used in the study of the spectral line parameters of carbon dioxide, methane, methyl halides, and other molecules. The diversity of the line shapes used in the systematization of spectral line parameters adds complexity to the structures of data available in information systems and to the structures of individuals involved in ontological descriptions of the spectral line properties characterizing the line profiles. A brief classification of spectral line shapes and parameters is given, and the results of the systematization of spectral data relating to different line shapes used in processing of carbon dioxide spectra are presented. The line shapes available in the library are described, and an import system for spectral line parameters obtained from the solution of the direct and inverse tasks is built. Computer software for an automatic description of the properties of imported solutions was developed. The basic properties of the spectral data compiled in the W@DIS information system provide a description of the outcome of the imported data quality assessment analysis.

Lidar measurements of wind turbulence parameters in the atmospheric boundary layer

I.N. Smalikho, V.A. Banakh, A.V. Falits
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: когерентный доплеровский лидар, коническое сканирование, ветровая турбулентность, coherent Doppler lidar, conical scanning, wind turbulence

Abstract >>
Possibility of determining wind turbulence parameters, i.e., turbulence kinetic energy, energy dissipation rate, and outer turbulence scale, from data measured by a Stream Line coherent Doppler lidar during conical scanning under different atmospheric conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer is studied experimentally. It is found that the turbulence structure is described well by the von Karman model in the layer of intensive mixing, and the turbulence parameters can be estimated from the lidar data with sufficiently high accuracy. The estimation of the outer turbulence scale from the nighttime lidar measurements, under stable temperature stratification, with the use of the von Karman model is impossible.

Choice of spectral bands for laser fluorescence method for detection of plant stress

Yu.V. Fedotov, O.A. Bullo, M.L. Belov, V.A. Gorodnichev
Scientific-Research Institute of Radioelectronics and Laser Technology at the N.E. Bauman, Russia, 107005, Moscow, 2-ya Baumanskaya st., 5/1
Keywords: лазерный флуоресцентный метод, обнаружение стрессовых состояний растений, спектральные диапазоны, laser fluorescence method, detection of plant stress, spectral bands

Abstract >>
Laser fluorescence method for detection of plant stress is considered. Processing results of experimental fluorescence spectra of plants in normal and different stress situations are given for a fluorescence excitation wavelength of 532 nm. Сomparative analysis of different variants of spectral bands of plants fluorescence radiation recording is carried out. It is shown that for vegetation monitoring problem spectral bands with central wavelengths 685 и 740 nm are most efficient bands in the context of stress situations detection reliability.

Method for constructing optimal network monitoring stations of gases and aerosols emissions

B.M. Desyatkov, N.A. Lapteva
State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Novosibirsk region, Koltsovo, 630559, Russia
Keywords: пограничный слой атмосферы, оптимальная сеть станций мониторинга выбросов, источники газов и аэрозолей, boundary layer of the atmosphere, optimal emission monitoring network, sources of gases and aerosols

Abstract >>
A method is developed for organization of optimal network of monitoring stations of hazardous emissions of gases and aerosols from known sources during technogenic accidents and terrorist acts. A network built allows one to fix emissions in any real meteorological conditions. The basic features of test networks are analyzed depending on the instrumentation sensitivity threshold and source altitude.

Samples for preparation of the present lists of literature