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Region: Economics and Sociology

2017 year, number 1

A Practice of Introducing the Territorial Approach to the System of Public Administration in the Russian Federation

1Russian Presidential Academy ofNational Economy and Public Administration, Vernadsky av., 82, Moscow, 119571, Russia
2Institute for Public Finance Reform, Bolshoy Kislovskiy la., bld. 2, 1/12, Moscow, 125009, Russia
Keywords: региональная политика, система государственного управления, территориальный подход в государственном управлении, regional policy, system of public administration, territorial approach in public administration

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The article analyzes the territorial approach in public administration at the federal level. We summarize the work of federal authorities to choose an optimal system for their interaction. Following the best international and Russian practices, we construct functional flow block diagrams that demonstrate the interactions between executive bodies in different regions. The article proves that a methodological foundation for synchronizing the sectoral and territorial approaches to public administration in the Russian Federation has not been formed; among the reasons is the lack of prioritization in the use of mechanisms of sectoral and territorial development scenarios. We consider it expedient to establish specialized regulatory bodies at the federal level that would operate exclusively within the territorial approach. From this perspective, in order to achieve greater performance of federal executive authorities, there is a need to adjust their existing functionality in accordance with the proposed optimal interaction scheme.

Administrative Evaluation of Regional Authorities: Economic Theory and Russia's Experience

1Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, bldg. 46, 1, Moscow, 119991, Russia
2Financial University affiliated with the Government of the Russian Federation, Leningradsky av., GSP-3, 49, Moscow, 125993, Russia
3Institute for Regional Economic Research, Sivtsev Vrazhek la., 29/16, Moscow, 119002, Russia
Keywords: управленческая оценка, регион, экономическая теория контрактов, administrative evaluation, region, economic contract theory

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The paper analyses the existing Russian systems for the evaluation of regional governments and agencies judging from their compliance with the propositions of economic contract theory. We introduce a notion of administrative evaluation, describe possible goals and consequences of using administrative evaluations in governance processes. Based on the contract theory propositions, we characterize the requirements that, if not followed, may enable administrative evaluation to exert a negative influence on system effectiveness and efficiency. Such negative consequences did take place in other countries that initiated the administrative evaluation system in practices of public administration before Russia. The article defines a list of indicators for administrative evaluation elaborated in accordance with regulatory documents and determine ways to implement them in governance processes. We demonstrate that these indicators contradict the contract theory propositions and thus cannot give an adequate estimation of regional authorities' performance that might help to enhance it. Our findings can be used to improve methodological support for administrative evaluation carried out in Russian regions.

Megapolises and Megapolisness Phenomenon in Russia

1Institute for Systems Analysis, Federal Research Center В«Computer Science and Control», Russian Academy of Sciences, 60-let Oktyabrya av., 9, Moscow, 117312, Russia
2Institute of Economic Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovskiy av., 47, Moscow, 117418, Russia
Keywords: мегаполис, мегаполисность, города мегаполисного типа, расселение, миграция, экономическое развитие, социальная структура, социально-экономические реформы, megapolis, megapolisness, cities of megapolisness type, settlement pattern, migration, economic development, social structure, socioeconomic reforms

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The hallmark of the current stage of the world socioeconomic development involves its accelerating growth, as well as an increasing significance of the largest cities with mega-cities (megapolises) coming to the fore. The paper emphasizes the persisting trend of the megapolises' strengthening leadership measured by the concentration of people, infrastructure, transport, services, and primarily regarding the growth rate of their area, which doubles that of the population. We contemplated specific features of a Russian megapolis as a system that marries characteristics of both megalopolises (integrating a set of urban agglomerations) and large administrative centers. We substantiated the notion of «megapolisness» as an assembly of functional, city planning (architectural) and ecosystem features. In contemporary Russia, these are typical not only to million and over dwellers' cities but also to every regional administrative center or capital of the region. The article considers the impact of megapolisness phenomenon on the transformation of the existing system of settlement pattern, migration processes, and socioeconomic developments in Russia and evaluates this phenomenon including the role of megapolises as focal points for national reforms and new social structure. We discuss research trends in topical socioeconomic issues united under the title «Man in the Megapolis».

The Relationship between R&D, Knowledge Spillovers and Dynamics of Economic Growth of the Russian Regions

1Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy, Gazetny la., bldg. 1, 3-5, Moscow, 125993, Russia
2Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogova st., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: экономический рост, ВРП, НИОКР, регион, перетоки знаний, технологические инновации, динамическое моделирование, economic growth, GRP, R&D, region, knowledge spillovers, technological innovations, dynamic modeling

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The current study examines interrelations between economic growth in the Russian regions, scientific research, and innovation activities. To analyze the relationship, we used an econometric modeling technique: a fixed effects panel regression and the Arellano-Bond model based on data for the period from 2005 to 2013. In the study, we tested hypotheses about significant effects of knowledge and socioeconomic conditions on regional growth, used expenditure on R&D and expenditure on technological innovations as measures of knowledge spillovers for their analysis, and calculated socioeconomic spillovers based on a socioeconomic filter. Regression results demonstrated a possible competition for labor in the manufacturing sector when this indicator was included in the socioeconomic filter. Our findings also confirmed the significance and positive effect of expenditures on technological innovations and their spillovers on economic growth in regions. Moreover, knowledge spilled more efficiently to regions with greater absorptive capacity, as well as among regions with a similar growth rate. We concluded that knowledge spillovers can have significant influence on the GRP growth rate. The results of the study can be used by regional governments when formulating innovation policies.

Tools for Justifying the Parameters of Strategic Regional Development Based on Adaptive Simulation

1Financial University affiliated with the Government of the Russian Federation, Leningradsky av., 49, Moscow, 125993, Russia
2Institute for Socio-Economic Research, Ufa Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Oktyabrya av., 71, Ufa, 450054, Russia
Keywords: адаптивно-имитационное моделирование, регион, прогноз, экономическая политика, сценарии развития, adaptive simulation, region, forecast, economic policy, development scenarios

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The article considers an approach to creating an adaptive simulation model of the regional socio-economic system. This approach involves three fundamental levels (economic agents, management, and macro-environment) and lies upon a coherent adaptation of both agents' behavior strategies and control actions aimed at changing the economic situation. We used the following research tools: systems analysis, methods of economic and mathematical modeling, methods of statistical, structural, and dynamic analysis, methods of correlation and regression analysis, and fuzzy logic. The approach was tested on data from the Republic of Bashkortostan. The assessment of scenario forecasting for regional development, presented in the article, substantiates the preference for adaptive strategies. Following the analysis of model runs, we determined areas of focus to promote regional socio-economic development. Such economic and mathematical models can be used in forecasting the socio-economic development of territorial systems and evaluating the impact of various government policies. The proposed approach allows for simulation experiments if they regard for matching resource capabilities and interests of not only individual economic agents but also the control subsystem of a regional socio-economic system within a single methodology, procedural, and computational framework.

Russian NEET Youth: Analysis of Regional Differentiation

1National Research University Higher School of Economics, Myasnitskaya st., 20, Moscow, 101000, Russia
2F.M. Dostoevsky Omsk State University, Litskevich sq., 1, Omsk, 644053, Russia
Keywords: NEET-молодежь, регионы России, региональная дифференциация, молодежная безработица, экономическая неактивность молодежи, NEET youth, Russian regions, regional differences, youth unemployment, youth economic inactivity

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The paper analyzes regional differences in the NEET youth (acronym from «Not in Employment, Education or Training))) marking indicators. It shows that this group has a high-risk for socio-economic marginalization and exclusion. The empirical research base is constituted by the Labor Force Survey and regional statistical data for 2014. To investigate spatial effects, we have used the Moran's I coefficient and spatial econometric models. The research results indicate that the NEET rate vividly differs depending on a region, with cross-regional NEET rate variations in unemployment prove to be more obvious as compared to the NEET economic inactivity indicator differentiations. The results obtained illustrate the positive spatial correlation between the regional NEET unemployment rates, which testifies to territorial interconnections and regional clusterization. We assess factors having an impact on the regional differentiation in the NEET unemployment and NEET economic inactivity rates. The cross-regional variations are determined by the GRP per capita, urban population share, industry employment structure, youth education level, and birth and death rates. The NEET rate for young men and young women varies being affected by different factors, where with the former it is more often linked to individual behavioral characteristics, while with the latter one it is, to a greater extent, influenced by socio-economic indicators for the regions. Thus, we confirm the significance of a regionally differentiated approach to working out and exercising a youth employment policy aimed at maximizing their labor potential.

Factors of Spatial Mobility for Russians

1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogov st., 1, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: пространственная мобильность, туризм, уровень мобильности, возвратная мобильность, экономические ресурсы, транспортная инфраструктура, spatial mobility, tourism, level of mobility, backward mobility, economic resources, transport infrastructure

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Based on the Integrated Living Conditions Monitoring in Russia, the article determines the levels of population mobility in different Russian regions. The subject of research is Russian tourism mobility. A series of binary logistic regression equations shows that individual factors (economic status and health) have the greatest impact on tourism probability; the effect of transport infrastructure attributes on the leasure-time spatial mobility is «absorbed» by the characteristics of individual income, i.e. regional discrepancies in the standard of living correlate with the density of transport infrastructure. Spatial mobility for tourism is increasingly associated with land transport infrastructure rather than air transportation. In fact, the differentiation of Russian citizens by their actual tourist mobility parameters replicates economic inequality, and the density of transport infrastructure differentiated by regions does not mitigate the impact that economic resources exert on travel.

Shadow Economy in Russian Regions: an Estimation with the MIMIC Model

1Baikal State University of Economics and Law, Lenin st., 11, 664003, Irkutsk, Russia
2Research Center of Industrial Problems of Development, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Inzhenernyy la., 1-A, 61166, Kharkov, Ukraine
Keywords: теневая экономика, качество жизни, методы измерения теневой экономики, масштабы теневой экономики, регионы, MIMIC-модель, shadow economy, quality of life, methods of measuring the shadow economy, size of the shadow economy, regions, MIMIC model

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The paper hypothesizes the possibility of estimating the shadow economy in Russian regions based on the population's standard of living and quality of life. The research method involves factor analysis and MIMIC models. For the basis of the study we chose a statistics factor analysis by region for the period between 2002 and 2013, broken down by 17 indicators. We highlight the factors that quantify the quality of life and experience the impact of the shadow economy. We design a MIMIC model and assess regional differences in the scale of the shadow economy. The model allows estimating the scale and dynamics of the shadow economy, as well as the local authorities' contribution to the region's development by evaluating the dynamics of shadow activities within the economy.

Key Development Problems of the Power of Siberia Project

1Presidium of the Kemerovo Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Koptyug av., 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Koptyug av., 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogov st., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
4Federal Research Centre of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Cciences, Sovetskiy av., 18, Kemerovo, 650000, Russia
Keywords: Восточная Сибирь, «Сила Сибири», конденсатный газ, запасы газа, добыча газа, переработка газа, комплексное освоение недр, государственное регулирование, государственно-частное партнерство, Eastern Siberia, Power of Siberia, gas condensate, gas reserves, gas production, gas processing, integrated development of natural resources, government regulation, public-private partnership

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The paper examines the problems linked to the implementation the Power of Siberia project as it pertains to the possibilities of integrated development of mineral resources, including the organization of gas production, petrochemical, oil-and-gas transportation, and helium industries in the eastern regions of Russia. Within the project, we accomplish the following tasks: analyze the natural gas resource base and production in Eastern Siberia and the Sakha Republic (Yakutia); substantiate the development trends for transport infrastructure; point out the key problems associated with the project implementation; consider the feasibility of a public-private partnership. The Power of Siberia project is faced with a few pressing issues. For instance, neither in Russia nor the world, there are extra-long-distance pipelines transporting multicomponent gas. A deliberate reduction in helium concentration will lead to a sharp rise in its release cost, which challenges the entire helium part of the program. Moreover, the modern concept of exploiting gas potential in Eastern Siberia does not involve the Irkutsk processing cluster that already has prominent infrastructure to process hydrocarbon raw materials, human resources, and production capacity, as opposed to an anticipated gas processing plant in Amur Oblast.

Application Features of Inclusive Development Concept in Resource Regions

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: регион, сырьевая структура экономики, инклюзивный рост, устойчивое развитие, индикаторы инклюзивного развития, социальные проблемы развития, region, resource structure of the economy, inclusive growth, sustainable development, indicators of inclusive development, social problems of development

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The paper explores a possibility of inclusive development in resource regions. We evaluate the degree of inclusiveness of Russian regions' socio-economic development for the period between 2008 and 2014. The article defines a set of indicators that reflect the state of the system under study and its components with regards to development inclusiveness. It substantiates the calculations algorithm and resultant index principles. Our findings show a mixed picture whose analysis helps to identify the factors specific for resource regions and affecting the degree of inclusiveness of economic development. The results aimed at both improving the methodology for the research of regional socio-economic issues and obtaining a practical impact expressed as a contribution to management practices.

Problems of Environmental Pollution in Russian Regions

1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogov st., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: экологическая ситуация, загрязнение окружающей природной среды, динамическая межотраслевая модель с экологическим блоком, экологический прогноз, государственная природоохранная политика, ecological situation, environmental pollution, dynamic input-output model with an ecological module, ecological forecast, government environmental protection policy

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The paper analyzes the contemporary ecological situation in Russia, characterized as steadily negative. It presents a forecast of the environmental load for the period 2016-2020 obtained using the dynamic input-output model with an ecological module. We consider two Russian economic development scenarios: one was designed at the Institute of Economic Forecasting, RAS, the other at the Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, SB RAS. According to the forecast for both scenarios, the environmental load will further increase. We estimate the necessary size of ecological taxes for negative impacts on the environment and provide a rationale for some ways of improving the government environmental policy.

Transregional Cooperation as a Factor to Strengthen Interstate Relations in the Union State

1Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Stremyanny la., 36, Moscow, 117997, Russia
2Parliamentary Assembly of the Union of Belarus and Russia, Myasnitskaya st., 47, Moscow, 101000, Russia
3Moscow State-Financed Institution В«Analytical Center», New Arbat st., 15, Moscow, 119019, Russia
Keywords: пространственные связи, региональная экономика, социальная сфера, дифференциация регионов, Союзное государство, spatial contacts, regional economy, social sphere, regions' development gap, the Union State

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The article deals with the development of transregional interaction between the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Basing on the analysis of Russian andBelarusian regions' experience, we reveal the main problems of such a cooperation. It is shown that, within the context of the Union State, the major obstacle to making contacts between regions and creating transregional connections in economy, culture, science, and education is the complications resulting from of the countries' federative and unitary structures. We discover that current contacts are geographically diversified. We give our recommendations for the development of foundations for cooperation in innovative sectors of the economy.

Reforming the System of Local Government: Estimates and Problems

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: система местного самоуправления, муниципальное образование, модели организации, реформирование, мониторинг, экспертный опрос, system of local government, municipality, organization models, reformation, monitoring, expert survey

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The article analyzes modern problems of local government, their dynamics, and guidelines for their solution. Based on annual surveys conducted among heads of municipalities in Russia, we reveal trends implying a changing role of local government in the economic crisis. The existing regulatory framework is shown as imperfect as it is limiting the opportunities of local government. We also discuss the results of the latest stage of municipal reform. By analyzing the change trends for organizational forms of local government, we discover a reorientation from direct elections of heads of municipalities to competitive job substitution procedures. We study the benefits and drawbacks to various models of local government organization envisioned by the newest stage of municipal construction. The article demonstrates divergences between legislatively established and the most expedient (from the standpoint of heads of municipalities) models. The conclusion is that there is a need to monitor the effectiveness of the changes to the legislation and consider the opinions of heads of municipalities when designing a research-based development concept for the system of local government.